The mice infected with Japanese B Encephalitis were determined to the nucleic acid contents of their brain in connexion with the effects of P32-administration. The brains were fractionated into two fractions, DNA- and RNA-fractions by Schmidt-Thannhauser's method. On these two fractions phosphorus contents were determined by Fiske-Subbarow's method. In this experiment the virus was inoculated intracerebrally. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The brains were picked out at intervals after the inoculation of virus and phosphorus contents of their DNA- and RNA-fractions were determined. At the latent period, no definite differences were evidenced in the DNA-P- as well as in the RNA-P-contents as compared with those obtained from the normal mouse. However, a slight increase in the RNA-P-content at the endstadium of the latent period and also increase in the DNA-P-contents at the manifestation period were observed. 2. When 10 μc. of P32 was administered to each one of the infected mice, the DNA-P-content of the brain at the manifestaion period showed a slight decrease, as compared with that obtained from the brains of infected mice with no P32-administration. 3. Administration of the same doses of P32 to normal mice induced no appreciable change in the RNA-P-contents as compared with those of the normal ones. This was also the case in their DNA-P-contents determined 6 as well as 24 hours after the administration of P32. From all these observations it is assumed that the β-ray irradiated from P32 is as effective as to inhibit the virus multiplication in the brain to some extent.
The mice infected with Japanese B Encephalitis were determined to the nucleic acid contents of their liver, lung, kidney and spleen in connecxion to the effects of P32-administration. The fractionation of these organs into DNA-and RNA-fractions was carried out by Schmidt-Thannhauser's method, where the phosphorous contents of these two fractions were determined by Fiske-Subbarow's method. In this experiment the virus was inoculated intracerebrally. The results are summarized as follows: 1. These organs were fractionated and determined to their DNA-P-and RNA-P-contents at intervals after the inoculation of virus. Slight increases in RNA-P-contents were observed in all these orgnas at the latent period. At this period DNA-P-contents in these organs were almost the same as were obtained from those organs of normal mouse, while some increases in the DNA-P-contents were observed in lung, kidney and spleen at the endstadium of latent period and at the manifestation period the same was observed in liver. This seems to imply that some variations in the nucleic acid contents take place in these organs just at the visceral phase. 2. When 10 μc. of P32 was administered to each one of the infected mice, DNA-P-contents of lung, kidney and spleen showed slight decreases 24 hours after the administration at the latent period as compared with those obtained from the organs of the infected mice with no P32-adminisration at the endstadium of the latent period. The administration of P32 further induced a slight decrease in DNA-P-content of liver at the manifestation period. 3. Administration of the same doses of P32 to normal mice induced no appreciable changes in both DNA-P-and RNA-P-contents of lung and kidney 6 as well as 24 hours after the administration as compared with those of normal ones. But the DNA-P-contents of liver and spleen differed from those of the above two organs in that they showed slight decreases 6 hours after the P32-administration when compared with those of the normal one. All these results above described are thought to show that that the β-ray irradiated from P32 is as effective as to inhibit the virus multiplication to some extent both at latent period and at manifestation period.
In order to record the uterine movement of a rabbit over a long period of time, under as physiological a condition as possible and by a simple procedure and to observe the mode of propagation of uterine contraction from such a record, a method of detaining double balloons in the uterus was devised. The balloons were made of raw rubber, the centers of two balloons being apart at a distance of 3 cm and were withheld inside the uterine cavity, near the Fallopian tube. Changes in the water pressure inside the balloons produced by the myometrial activity were recorded kymographically under conscious state on desired occations. Of the 57 rabbits submitted to this operation, 24 remained unharmed and were able to be used for the experiments over 6 weeks. Majority of the casualties could have been prevented by taking a little more precaution. The uterine movement curve was recorded best when the water pressure inside the balloon was 25 cm. The shape of the curves was variable, and could be classified by wave height, frequency of the waves, wave form, and rhythm. Comparatively rhythmical curves would enable prediction of the direction of peristatic movement from the time deviation of contraction waves transmitted by the two balloons. The height of uterine movement curves of rabbits varied from day to day but its maximum was found to come in intervals of 13-26 days in five rabbits. In the does known to be in heat from copulating tendencies, the wave height was generally great or there were some grouping of contraction waves. On the contrary, the waye height was small in those not in heat. It may be considered, therefore, that the periodicity in wave height described above indicates the oestrus cycle. The wave height lessened somewhat three hours after the copulation, became extremely slight 48 hours later, and the uterine movement practically stopped for over 14 days until the start of the next movement. However, frequency of uterine contraction rather increased during 12 hours following the copulation. The mode of propagation of uterine contraction as judged by the time deviation in the contraction of the two balloons was generally complicated and the march of the movement in only one direction over a long period was a rare occurrence. It may be said, however, that the direction of the wave march is generally definite when the wave height was great and in the majority of such cases this is from the tubal side to the vaginal.
Plasma and thoracic lymph were collected at definite intervals from dogs anesthetized with chloralose-urethane, their histaminase activities were measured by the Kapeller-Adler method modified by the present author, and the effects of histamine and histamine liberators, sinomenine and peptone, on such activities were examined. The effects so obtained were studied in relation to the changes in the histamine equivalent (Code's method) and in the protein concentration (refractometry) of the plasma and lymph. The histaminase activity of the thoracic lymph of normal anesthetized dog was 1.5-2.5 P. U. and this was slightly higher than that of the plasma. Intravenous injection of histamine (0.5mg/kg) effected a slight but, distinct increase of histaminase activities of the plasma and thoracic lymph, and such changes were accompanied with the elevation of histamine equivalent. Sinomenine injection (3mg/kg) also caused increases in the histaminase activities of both fluids with an attendant rise in histamine equivalent. In the case of peptone-Witte (150mg/kg), the effect was different from the foregoing two and, in spite of a marked increase in the histamine equivalent of the plasma and lymph, histaminase activity increased markedly only in the lymph and increase in the plasma histaminase was extremely slight. Intravenous injection of Benadryl (10mg/kg) caused a transitory increase of histamine equivalent in the plasma and slight elevations of histaminase activities were noticed in the plasma and lymph. Benadryl suppressed the lymph acceleration and the increase in plasma histaminase activity elicited by histamine injection. Changes in the histaminase activity were not essentially correlated to changes in the protein concentration. Consideration on the mechanism of extracellular liberation of the histaminase by these drugs leads to an assumption that a certain pharmacological action of histamine was partly responsible for the mechanism.
Intravenous injection of a definite amount of adrenaline caused a distinct increase in the histamine equivalent of the blood plasma and thoracic lymph, especially in the former, and a slight increase in the histaminase activities of both fluids. Intravenous injection of acetylcholine, nicotine, and atropine also tended to increase the lymph histaminase activity but no increase was observed in the histamine equivalents of the plasma and lymph. Dibenamine itself failed to effect any change in these values in the plasma and lymph, but suppressed the foregoing effects and lymphagogic action of adrenaline. Intravenous injection of the corbicula (Corbicula japonica Prime) extract did not effect increase of the histamine equivalent, either in the plasma or lymph, but markedly elevated the lymph histaminase activity, while no such increase was observed in the plasma histaminase activity. ATP exhibited a lymphagogic action but did not affect the the histaminase activities of the plasma and lymph. It may therefore be that the action of the corbicula extract on lymph histaminase cannot be due to adenine nucleotides liberation, which was suggested to occur by Takaoka (1956) in our laboratory. During serum anaphylactic shock a marked increase of histamine equivalent was observed in the plasma and lymph. In this case the increase of histaminase activity was very marked in the lymph but was slight in the plasma. These changes are almost identical with those already reported for peptone. In in vitro experiments, all the drugs tested during the present series of experiments, as well as histamine, sinomenine, and peptone failed to cause any changes in the activities of the histaminase with the concentrations even higher than expected to reach in the plasma and lymph. According to the foregoing observations, the mechanism whereby an increase occurs in histaminase activities of the body fluids may be at least of two kinds; the one that mediated by a certain pharmacological action of histamine and the other that seen in the case of peptone, corbicula extract, and anaphylactic shock.
The following results were obtained by surveying the circulating plasma and blood volumes together with the extracellular fluid volumes by both Evans blue and sodium rhodanate methods, and further in part sodium and chlorine in blood and urine. 1. The circulating plasma and blood volumes and the extracellular fluid volume in an acute stadium of epidemic hepatitis were increased respectively, and these volumes grew the normal ones in parallel with recovery. Slight increase of the circulating plasma and blood volumes as well as the extracelluar fluid volume appeared in a chronic stadium. 2. Remarkable decreases of sodium and chlorine excretions in urine were appeared in anacute stadium of epidemic hepatits contrarily to an increase in a recovering stadium. The concentration of sodium and chlorine in sera, on the other hand, had no apparent tendency. 3. Values of the above three increased in liver cirrhosis, which was most apparent in ascitic cases. 4. The circulating plasma and blood volumes increased slightly in cholecystopathy, but no definite value was obtained on the extracellular fluid volume. 5. Values of the above three increased in Weil's disease, hemolytic and mechanical jaundice.
By experimental liver impairment on dogs with allyl formate or carbon tetrachloride, the circulating plasma and blood volumes and the extracelluar fluid volume were calculated by Evans blue and potassium rhodanate methods, and the results were as follows: 1. In 6 hours after an injection of allyl formate at 0.03cc/kg or at 0.05cc/kg the circulating plasma volume decreased remarkably but gradually, the circulating blood volme did not so change and the extracellular fluid volnme increased slightly. 2. In 6 hours after an injection of carbon tetrachloride at 2.0cc/kg, an influence was remarkably appeared on the extracellular fluid volume in a remarkable increase, while no apparent change was obtained on the circulating plasma and blood volumes. 3. To survey the change during several days after a subcutaneous injection of allyl formate at 0.03cc/kg or of carbon tetrachloride at 0.05cc/kg, there appeared no definite tendency on the circulating plasma and blood volumes contrarily to a tendency to increase on the extracellular fluid volume. 4. The changes in several days after a continuous injection of allyl formate at 0.01cc/kg or of carbon tetrachloride at 0.1cc/kg for 5 days declined to an increase in each volume of the above three.
The purpose of this report exists to clarify the influences of DOCA, cortisone, ACTH and glucuronic acid on the circulating plasma and blood volumes or the extracellular fluid volume in an experimental liver impairment by administering allyl formate to dogs, and the following results were obtained. 1. A subcutaneous injection of 2mg/kg of DOCA, 20mg/kg of cortisone or 2 International Units (I. U.)/kg. of ACTH at hour after a subcutaneous injection of allyl formate at 0.03cc/kg, made the tendency of the decrease of the circulating plasma volume be inhibited to be genrally constant, the one of the increase of the extracellular fluid be also similarly inhibited to be finally decreased. 2. A similar injection of glucuronic acid did not influence on the circulating plasma volume or the extracellular fluid volume. 3. An intramuscular injection of 1 mg/kg of DOCA after a continuous subcutaneous injection of allyl formate at 0.01cc/kg for 5 days, introduced a tendency to accelerate the increase of the circulating plasma volume and the extracellular fluid volume. 4. A similar intramuscular injection of cortisone at 10mg/kg or of ACTH at 1 I. U./kg did not influence on the circulating plasma volume and the extracellular fluid volume. 5. A similar intramuscular injection of glucuronic acid at 50mg/kg did not influence on the circculating plasma volume, while it would more or less inhibit in some cases the decrease of the extracellular fluid volume.
1. Regarding the function of kidney under the clearance method in an acute instance of epidemic hepatitis, urine volume per minute and glomerular filtration rate decrease at the early stage of disease, and especially effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow decrease remarkably. Therefore, filtration fraction stands a high degree, while reabsorption rate undertakes no greate change and tubular excretory mass decreases remarkably. At the stage of jaundice, both urine volume and glolmerular filtration rate return to the normal state, while effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow are still somewhat lower and filtration fraction is a little higher, and reabsorption rate is normal, and tubular excretory mass still stands a low degree. At the stage of recovery, urine volume increases remarkably, glomerular filtration rate a little, effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow considerably; therefore, filtration fraction turns low, reabsorption rate rises a little, and in many cases tubular excretory mass increases. 2. The function of kidney under the clearance method in chronic hepatitis corresponds, at the time of taking a serious turn, to the one at the early stage of disease in case of acute hepatitis, and, at the time of taking a favorable turn, to the one at the stage of recovery. 3. The function of kidney under the clearance method in case of form II by H. Eppinger corresponds to the one at the early stage of acute hepatitis or at the aggravation stage of chronic hepatitis, but in case of the former, glomerular filtration rate decreases and effective renal plasma, flow and effective renal blood flow falls more remarkably than either of the latter. Regarding form III, it looks similar to the one at the recovering atage of acute hepatitis, but urine volume effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow increase more, filtration fraction grows lower, and tubular excretory mass is observed to increase slightly more than in case of the latter. 4. At the early stage of hepatitis, more often than any other stage the quantity of bilirubin in urine in a minute is larger than that of bilirubin in serum. It is considered due to the fact that some bilirubin leaks out the glomerulus at the early stage of the disease. At the stage of jaundice it is difficult to find some mutual relation between those two bilirubin and the function of the kidney under the clearance method.
Examinations in the function of kidney have been carried out upon healthy rabits, subjected to a laparotomy or to a ligature of common bile duct, rabbits given chloroform, CCl4, or allyl formate, and blockade the reticulo-endotherial-system. The above examinations have brought the following results, after being compared with the rise-and-fall of bilirubins in serum and urine. I. The function of kidney of male rabbits weighting 2 kilograms or so under the clearance method was on the average: urine volume in a minut-6.91cc./min., effective renal plasma flow-20.32cc./min., effective renal blood flow-36.06cc./min., filtration fraction-0.34, reabsorption rate-97.37%, and tubular excretory mass-7.62mg./min.. 2. After a mere laparotomy, filtration fraction and reabsorption rate rose a little, while the others fell to some slight extent. 3. After ligating the common bile duct, urine volume in a minute, effective renal plasma flow, effective renal blood flow, and tubular excretory mass increased remarkably at first, and then, decreasing as the time passed, fell down far below the normal graduation, filtration fraction alone decreased at first, and then increasing, finally rose far above the normal graduation. 4. After chloroform was given, filtration fraction alone rose high, and all the others fell down. 5. When a minor quantity of CCl4 was given, effective renal plasma flow and reabsorption rate rose to some degree; when a medium quautity was given, filtration fraction rose, alone while the others decreased, and fell down far below the normal state, excepting for reabsorption rate. 6. When allyl formate was given, every part of the function fell down more remarkably than even before. 7. After blocking the reticulo-endotherial-system was performed, glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow increased to a little degree in parallel with one another. 8. According to the results of the examinations, it has been considered that the excretion of bilirubin in urine is carried out through the tubulus.
Sound rabbits and those subjected to a ligature of common bile duct were cut off either vagic or splanchinic nerve, or given either sulfric atropine, acetylcholine, hexamethonium bromide, or hydrochloric adrenalin, and the function of kidney in each case tested by clearance method, with the result as follows. 1. When sound rabbits are cut off vagic nerve or sulfuric atropine, urine volume increases, glomerular filtration rate decreases, effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow increases, and filtration fraction decreases; and reabsorption rate decreases, and tubular excretory mass increases. Acetylcholine being given, the result will be contrary to the above. 2. When sound rabbits are cut off splanchinic nerve, urine volume increases remarkably, glomerular filtration rate decreases, effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow increase remarkably, and filtration fraction decreases remarkably; and reabsorption rate decreases fairly and tubular excretory mass increases considerably. 3. When sound rabbits are given hexamethonium bromide, urine volume decreases, glomerular filtration rate decreases, effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow increases. and filtration fraction decreases, reabsorption rate increses and tubular excretory mass decreases. 4. When sound rabbits are given sulfuric adrenalin at the proportion of 0.1 mg per kilogram of body weight, it is only filtration fraction that decreases, and the others increases to some respective extents. When given the same at the proportion of 0.5mg., the result will be quite contrary. 5. When the rabbits subjectd to a ligature of common bile duct are cut off vagic nerve, urine volume decreases, glomerular filtration rate decreases, effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow increase, and filtration fraction decreases; reabsorption rate and tubular excretory mass increase. When sulfuric atropine is given the result will be similar to the above, excepting only that reabsorption rate decreases. 6. When the rabbits subjected to a ligaure of common bile duct are given acetylcholine, the result will be quite the same as the case of sulfuric atropine, only with the exception that urine volume decreases. 7. When the rabbits subjected to a ligature of common bile duct are given hexamethonium bromide, every part of the function will decrease; and when given hydrochloric adrenalin at the proportion of 0.5 mg. per kilogram of body weight, the result will be similar to the above, excepting that filtration fraction and reabsorption rate increase. 8. The total and direct bilirubin contained in serum in case of a ligature of common duct hardly undertakes any influence, even when vagic nerve is cut off or medicine is given. However, the bilirubin in urine increases when vagic nerve is cut off, and decrease when medicine is given. The ration of the bilirubin in urine in a minute and direct bilirubin in serum increases when vagic nerve is cut off, increases fairly when sulfuric atropine or acetylcholine is given, and decreases to a considerable degree when hexamethonium bromide or hydrochloric adrenalin is given.
Study of electrolytic balances in experimental pancreatic necrosis were done on dogs. Acute pancreatic necrosis was produced by injecting olive-oil or bile obtained from the experimental animal into the pancreatic duct. Experimental animals were divided into the two groups, one, in which severe pancreatic necrosis was produced and most of which died shortly after experiment, and the other one, in which mild pancreatic necrosis was produced and all of which survived the experiment. Serum calcium was periodically measured by the phosphate method and serum potassium by the cobalt nitrate method. It was found that serum calcium generally decreased after the onset of pancreatic necrosis. However, it was not always found in the most severe cases, which all died shortly after the experiment, but maximum decrease developed on the third day of the experiment in mild cases and there was found no tendency to return to the level before the experiment. Serum potassium decreased temporarily at the beginning of experimental pancreatic necrosis and then it again increased between 6 and 12 hours later. In the severe group, this increase of serum potassium was marked and animals died at that time. On the other hand, serum potassium returned to the level before the experiment between 12 and 48 hours in the mild group and then it again decreased. The maximum decrease occurred on the third day of experiment and then returned to normal level.
Entirely the same method was used in this series. Serum chloride was measured by the bilver-iodate method and serum sodium by the uranyl zinc acetate method. It was found that serum chloride decreased in experimental pancreatic necrosis. Progressive decrease was observed in the severe group. Following early immediate decrease after the onset of pancreatic necrosis and subsequent return to the preexperimental level, serum chloride decreased once again. The lowest value occurred on the 3rd day and then gradually returned to the normal level. It was observed that serum sodium decreased in experimental pancreatic necrosis. There was found no marked change in serum sodium in the severe group. No definite change occurred in the early stage of experimental disease in the mild group, but it decreased 12 and 24 hours later. The lowest value on the average occurred on the 2nd day of disease and then it gradually returned to the preexperimental value.
Several methods for tissue culture of bone marrow were comparatively examined in order to study the mechanisms of phagocytosis of carbon particles in detail. From the results obtained here, a consideration was made on the mechanisms of phagocytosis as follow: 1) Culture method with coverslips hitherto described, when applied with the Indian ink mixed with the culture medium as well as with the ink added after the coagulation of plasma, proved insufficient for the observation with oil immersion system and for the quantitative investigation. 2) A modified procedure with Unno's slide-glass proved more successful in that quantitative study could easily be made and more datailed observation of phagocytosis with phasecontrast microscope could be accomplished. 3) Phagocytosis of carbon micro particles from the culture medium by the neutrophilic leukocytes was observed very clearly, but in case of monocytes it is quite different in that the submicroscopic microgranules of carbon were chiefly adsorbed on the surface of their secretion granules. In addition, in the vacuoles of neutrophilic leukocytes Brownian movement of carbon particles was observed. This was not so in case of monocytes. 4) The continuous observation of the process of phagocytosis described here afforded a better understanding on the mechanism of phagocytosis which would not be obtained by the usual methods hitherto described such as supravital observation or the fragmental observations after the intravenous administration of Indian ink.
The bone marrow tissues were cultured from normal adult and rabbit. The processes of phagocytosis were scrutinized in the cultured tissues of bone marrow. The results are as follow: 1) The majority of neutrophilic leukocytes such as myeloblast and promyelocyte but a few exceptions of myelocyte exhibited no phagocytosis. Active phagocytosis was displayed by the matured neutrophilic leukocytes more than by metamyelocytes. The pseudo-eosinophilic leukocyte of rabbit bone marrow was much weaker in its phagocytic activity than the neutrophilic leukocyte. 2) Usually no phagocytic behaviors were recognized in eosinophilic, basophilic-leukocytes, lymphocytes or erythroblasts. 3) Remarkable adsorption and phagocytosis of carbon particles were exhibited by throm-bocyte but the matured type of megakaryocyte had no phagocytic activity. 4) The phagocytic activity of monocyte was at first lower than that of neutrophilic leukocyte but gradually grew high until it surpassed the latter. This great phagocytic activity of monocyte was kept long until the end of observation. 5) The so-called “Makrophagen” showed the greatest phagocytic activiy of all the bone marrow cells. 6) In regard to the average degree of phagocytosis of matured neutrophilic leukocyte, different values were obtained from one growth zone to another. When the average degrees of phagocytosis in whole growth zones were examined along the radial direction from marrow fragment, they exhibited the highest value after 3 hours' cultivation. Thereafter the phagocytic activity of neutrophilic leucocyte again fell down. Pseudo-eosinophilic leukocyte showed its highest value of the average degree of phagocytosis after 6 hours' cultivation. 7) Lowerings of phagocytic activity were observed when Nitromin or P32 were added to the medium and these lowerings of activity were nearly proportional to the concentrations of these substances. This seems to point out some part of considerable importance which underlies the functions of bone marrow.
The phagocytic behaviors of the neutrophilic leukocytes in the tissue cultures of sternal marrows of patients, especially of those suffering from blood diseases were investigated. Moreover, additional investigtion was made on the sera of these patients in regards to their influences upon the phagocytosis of pseudo-eosinophilic leukocyte in the tissue culture of rabbit bone marrow. The results are summarized as follow: 1) Such diseases with characteristic leukopenia were examined in the first place. Hypoplastic anemia caused a remarkable decrease in the phagocytic activity of neutrophilic leukocyte. The serum obtained from the patient of this disease, when added to the tissue culture of rabbit bone marrow, also reduced the phagocytic activity of pseudo-eosinophilic leukocyte. In case of Banti's Syndrome a considerable loss of the phagocytic activity of neutrophilic leukocyte resulted and no appreciable influences of the serum on that of pseudo-eosinophilic leukocyte of rabbit bone marrow were observed. Kala-azar and agranulocytosis induced a suppression of the phagocytic behavior of neutrophilic leukocyte, respectively. 2) In the second test dealing with leukemia, the neutrophilic leukocytes, both the myeloic as well as the monocytic ones, of bone marrow suffered from some decreases, a slight decrease in the chronic form of this disease and a heavy one in the acute form, in their phagocytic activities. Addition of the serum also caused a lowering in the phagocytic activity of pseudo-eosinophilic leukocyte of rabbit bone marrow. 3) In the third place several diseases accompanying no remarkable changes in leukocyte number were tested. Essential hypochromic anemia was found to suppress the phagocytic behavior of neutrophilic leukocyte of bone marrow. The serum also proved unfavorable for phagocytosis of pseudo-eosinophilic leukocyte. Lowering of phagocytic activity fo neutrophilic leukoeyte was seen also in hook-worm anemia and post-hemorrhagic anemia in a parallel manner to the conditions of anemia. In these two diseases the sera had no effects on the phagocytic behavior of the pseudo-eosinophilic leukocyte of rabbit bone marrow. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura proved to have no appreciable effects on the phagocytic activity of neutrophilic leukocyte and this was also the case with regard to the addition of the serum. 4) Other diseases than the blood diseases seemed to have little to do with the activities of phagocytic behaviors of the leukocytes.
Parathion is distributed equally in the poisoned human bodies, as it has been in the case of experimental animals, and disappeared after 24-48 hours. This may be attributed to the splitting of parathion both p-nitrophenol and diethyl (thio) phosphate. The most part of p-nitrophenol is excreted in the urin within 1-2 days and only a part of it prolonged into a week accompaniing no sign of poisoning. It is said that diethyl (thio) phosphate is excreted similary, but poisonus (1/4-1/5 of parathion) for the human bodies and animals. The splitting above mentioned is based on the enzym action, including cholinesterase which is found in the animal sera and organ extracts. The parathion splitting action of serum is inhibited in the case of various kinds of disease.
The toxicity of Diazinon, Chlorthion and Sumicide are studied in comparison with parathion The approximate LD50 for rabbit are (mg per kg of weight) By the application of these compound, the changes are as follows; 1) Blood cholinesterase of rabbit, both serum and blood corpuscle, are similarly inhibited as the case of Parathion. 2) Symptom of poisoning with rabbit is the same as Parathion. 3) By the rabbit, there occur leucocytosis, mainly due to pseudoeosinophils, and the Arneth count is deflected to the left. Lymphocyte shows relative decrease. 4) Frog heart is examined by Staub-Fühner method. Heart block that can be made by over 10-8 concentration of Parathion, also occurs by 10-7 Diazinon and 10-6 Chlorthion. 5) The blood vessels of rabbit ear are dilated by the application of 0.1mg Diazinon. 6) Diazinon and Chlorthion make the lowering of arterial blood pressure in the experiment with dog. 7) By the subcutaneous application of these compound the rabbit serum protein and albumin increase, and gamma-globulin decreases.
E. Weinig, O. Mezger, H. Rall, and W. Heess, utilizing the diffusing nature of chloride contained in ink, judged the degree of papers. They also applied their above method to the judgment of the degree of oldness of bloodstain that sticks to paper and cloth. The writer not only examined the above result of theirs but also improved it a little and then applied his improved method to the revealing of latent fingerprint that sticks to paper and wood. The result is conclude as follows: 1. The chloride contained in the bloodstain, spermstain, and spittlestain, that stick to paper and wood, regularly widen from the circumference of the stains as time elapses, when it is left alone in a room except in so far as humanity is extremely high there, and therefore you can judge the degree of oldness of the stain by measuring the width of the diffusion after revealing it by means of chloridereaction in which the stain is submerged in silvernitrate solution and then reduced with formalin to silver. It is considered that this method is a far better one than the old one of judging the degree of oldness of the bloodstain by the color and the liquescent degree of the stain. 2 The writer obtained a good result by applying the above chloridereaction to the latent fingerprint that sticks to paper and wood. That is, all the materials thet can be used in the old silver-nitrate method can be utilized in our method and the fingerprint that has once been revealed will not change, and so it need not be photographed or transforred into gelatin-paper, but can be conveniently sent in as a piece of evidence at court. Besides, the method can be applied both at day and night. It can be performed in as short a time as from 4 to 5 minutes. But the method is as efficacious only within two or three days of the sticking of the fingerprint as the other silvernitrate method is. If yuo manage to keep a finger-printed thing in a desiccator within two or three days of the sticking of fingerprint, you can always apply this method for the revaling of fingerprint.
1. By using Nessler's reagent, it is possible to detect NH3 into which the urea contained in the urinestain has been resolved, and to demonstrate the urinestain. 2. As the above method is high in the degree of sharpness, and is applicable to decomposed urne, heated one, and one left alone, it is considered the best one for the legal-medical demonstration of urinestain. 3. As the chloride contained in the urinestain is comparatively regularly diffused with the lapse of time away from the circumference of the urinestain, it is possible to judge the degree of oldness of the urinestain by measuring the width of the diffusion of the chloriderevealed by means of chloridereaction.
The author measured the degrees of the fatigue of the employs each and all at a cottonspinning factory in winter and summer by the method of Donaggio reaction, and made a study of the relation between Donaggio method and Ogata's urinary protein measuring method, and then measured the weekly fluctuation of the fatigue in winter and summer, especially about the spinners. It turned out experimentally that the value of Donaggio reaction in summer was higher than that in winter, and speaking about the weekly fluctuation, the fatigue was severest on the third day of a week. And the author found that pH of urine and the value of Donaggio reaction were reverse each other, and the latter and Ogata's method were generally parallel each other.
The urinary protein in case of various kinds of fatigue and hypertension is almost the same as the blood plasma and has all components of the plasma protein. There were no qualitative differences between the urinary protein and the blood plasma protein. This fact can be proved by the experiments of anaphylaxis and that of the filter-paper-electrophoresis. Now according to the filter-paper-experiment, the author can state that the urinary protein of fatigue has comparatively small amount of albumin and large amount of γ-globulin, and the urinary protein of hypertension has the contrary.