This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of aspartate and glutamate as N source and cysteine and methionine as S source for the growth of some strains belonging to Sh. flexneri, and the ability of amino acids syntheses by the resting cells of each strain. Thus the following results were obtained. 1. These organisms generally need aspartate or glutamate as N source and cysteine or methionine as S source, and many of them require nicotinamide. It is interesting that in each strain belonging to Sh. flexneri la, 3a, when growth medium is glutamate-cysteine system the organisms require nicotinamide, but when glutamate-methionine system, they do not require it. 2. If each of amino acids, such as aspartate, glutamate, alanine, is added to resting cells suspension independently, the formation of the other kinds of amino acids is little, but if each of them is added with glucose, the formation is great. At this time formed amino acids are mostly aspartate, glutamate and alanine, but to form valine from glutamate. and glucose with a strain in Sh. flex. 2b is peculiar. The above mentioned synthetic reaction of amino acids is remarkably accelerated by the addition of cysteine and methionine.
This experiment continued from Report I was conducted to examine the breakdown of cysteine and methionine by the resting cells of some strains of Sh. flexneri, and the following results were obtained. 1. When cysteine or methionine is added independently to the suspension of these resting cells, the breakdown of these amino acids does not occur, but when added with glucose it is analyzed: in the case of cysteine desulfydration occurs, H2S is formed and deamination can be observed, and in the case of methionine dethiomethylation occurs, CH3S-SCH3 or relating compound is formed and deamination can be also observed. 2. Such breakdown of cysteine and methionine is accelerated by VB6. 3. Compared with the ability of analysis of these S-containing amino acids of each strain, cysteine is more analyzed than methionine by the suitable cells as S source and methionine is more analyzed by the suitable cells as S source.
By determining at first the appearance of Heinz's body in man and male domestic rabbits, both normal, with the Yoshida-Kawamura method, and next by investigating the rate of the appearance of Heinz's body in Bikini hydrogen-bomb patients and in the domestic rabbits injected with radio-isotope P32 as well as in the rabbits exposed to X-ray, the author obtained the following results: 1. Two separate groups of male and female, each consisting of 25 persons, were selected and the rate of the Heinz-body appearance was determined; and as the result, the average rates of the appearance of each were found to be 63.88‰ (male) and 66.52‰ (female) respectively; thus the average value of females was slightly higher. On the other hand, in the 62 normal male rabbits similarly measured, the average value of the appearance of Heinz's body was found to be 22.19‰. 2. In the case of the 7 fishermen passing through the Bikini area and having shown no apparent clinical disorders, the rate of Heinz-body appearance was found to be still high, yet within 3 to 4 weeks after the examination, it returned to normal, paralleling more or less with the change of blood-iron contents, Sideroblastogram, and the results of Bone marrow tissue culture. In view of this, in establishing a criterion of the recovery of these hydrogenbomb cases, it seems that scrupulous daily examinations such as mentioned previously are of urgent necessity. 3. In the domestic rabbits receiving the injection of 100 μc. P32/kg, Heinz's body increased 6 hours after the injection but it returned to normal after 20 to 42 days; even then they maintained a high value of blood-iron contents and showed an unmistakable evidence of radio-active substance in the bone as well. Whereas those rabbits receiving the dose of 850 μc. P32/kg showed the increase of Heinz's body either 30 minutes or 3 hours after the injection, and after 48 hours and 28 days respectively their values reached close to 1, 000‰ and continuously showing an intermediately progressive trend, they all died. The blood counts of capillary leucocytes in the case of the rabbit No.58 returned to normal 28 days after the injection, but the percentage of capillary leucocytes, the blood counts of erythrocytes, and the bone picture were still abnormal and radio-active substance could be recognized in the bone. Heinz's body, however, did not appear in the control injected with primary potassium phosphate. 4. Among the 6 rabbits suffering from acute X-ray radiation, and the five from chronic, three of the latter and all the acute cases revealed a progressive proclivity to the formation of Heinz's body before their death.
1. Of 110 anemic patients observed in the determination of Heinz's body, the patients suffering from aplastic anemia gave the highest value and then those of leukemia, anchylostomiasis, Banti's syndrome, hemorrhagic anemia, essential chlorosis, aglanulocytosis, endocarditis lenta, and Welhoff's disease, in the order mentioned. 2. In the case of the domestic rabbits inoculated with sera of various anemics at the dose of 2cc/kg each, continuously for one week, the order of anemias, if arranged according to the rates of the Heinz-body appearance, will be aplastic anemia, leukemia, anchylostomiasis, Banti's syndrome, essential chlorosis, hemorrhagic anemia, and Welhoff's disease. From this result, practically no substance accelerating the formation of Heinz's body appears to be in the sera of hemorrhagic anemia and Welhoff's disease, while such substances may be thought to exist in the rest of anemic sera (although in the case of essential chlorosis, it is not definitely certain). 3. When the erythrocytes of normal person were left suspended in the sera of various anemics for 3 hours and these erythrocytes measured separately for Heinz's body, the order of diseases arranged according to the rates of the appearance of Heinz's body was more or less like as follows: aplastic anemia, leukemia, anchylostomiasis, Banti's syndrome, essential chlorosis, hemorrhagic anemia, and Welhoff's disease. 4. From these results, it is clear that whether the determination for Heinz's body be made with the blood directly tapped from the patient, or with the domestic rabbits receiving the anemic serum continuously for one week, or with the blood of normal person treated with an anemic serum, in vitro, any one of the three methods proves to be an invaluable aid in differentiation of the anemic patients and in determination of seriousness of the disease itself. Furthermore, it may be assumed that in the sera of the anemics, there exist some subclinic, intrinsic toxins which accelerate the formation of Heinz's body, and that the quantity of such toxins has an important bearing on the estimated values obtained from the blood directly drawn from the patients. Hence in the case of hemorrhagic anemia, the penetrability of Heinz's corpuscles through the wall of erythrocytes should be given an especial consideration. The serum of anemic patient has been found to accelerate the formation of Heinz's body even when made to act directly upon the erythrocytes of the normal persons, in vitro.
1. In the case of acute, depleted domestic rabbits, Heinz's body appeared in an intermediate degree 12 hours after the depletion, while in the case of chromic, depleted rabbits a slight or an intermediate acceleration of the Heinz-body formation was noticed 24 hours after the depletion and there on. From this the penetrability through the wall of erythrocytes seems to have an important relationship with the formation of Heinz's body. 2. The formation of Heinz's body is quite high in the case of the rabbits inoculated with phenylhydrazin, thus the penetrability in this case also, raises a question. 3. In the rabbits injected with benzol, the formation of Heinz's body has been of a high degree, and their recovery necessitates an extremely long period of time. 4. In the case of those receiving saponin injection, a mild degree of the formation of Heinz's body started 8 days after the initial injection, but after the cessation of the injection the formation decreased rapidly along with the improvement of hematic picture; and four days after the cessation all returned to normal. 5. In the kollargol injection cases, an intermediate degree of the formation was noticed 8 to 12 days afterwards, and it was found that the reticulo-endothelial system has something to do with the elimination of Heinz's body. 6. With the use of a phase-contrast microscope, Heinz's body in the form of unstained specimens had been possible of observation in each contrast but reticulated erythrocytes could not be observed. This seems to be due to the fact that there is no difference at all in the phase-contrast between the reticulated substances of reticulated erythrocytes and the cytoplasmas of erythrocytes.
For the study of variability of the action of hydrolase in animal organs under intoxication with hypnotics, the author has undertaken an experiment in determining the activity of various kinds of hydrolase, i.e., cathepsin, phosphatase, amylase, arginase, asparaginase and urease found in the brain, liver and kidney of guinea. pig which were died of intoxication, under deep hypnosis and awakened from hypnosis by administering with Diethylbarbituric acid (Veronal); Ethylhexabital calcium (Adorm) and Ethylcarbamate (Urethane), injected intra-peritoneally; and the values compared with the normal guinea pig.
The determination of the concentration of inflammable anesthetic gases is the most important for the precaution against ignition. A simple method using an interferometer and detector has been found by author for the determination of the concentration of ether gas and cyclopropane. 1) The concentration of ether gas in the air was measured by using Haber-Löwe's interferometer. One percent of ether gas in the air corresponded to the graduation of 77.0 in this interferometer and its lowest limit of measurement was 0.013%. 2) For the determination of the concentration of cyclopropane in the air, the HaberLöwe's interferometer was also used. One percent of cyclopropane in the air corresponded to the graduation of 42.7 and its lowest limit of measurement was 0.025%. 3) As coloring of Hoolamite detector and NBS indicator was caused by cyclopropane and the coloring time was also influenced by its concentration, the relation between the coloring time and the concentration was studied, thus the concentration of cyclopropane was able to be measured. The extent of the concentration measurable by this method was between 0.01% and 5.0%.
The influences of temperature and humidity in the operating room on the lower explosive limit were studied and the relation of the indoor air conditioning to the precaution against ignition was clarified. 1) By raising the temparature of the mixed gases of ether or cyclopropane with the air from 8°C to 30°C. the lower explosive limits went straightly from 2.27% to 1.84% in case of ether gas and from 2.6% to 2.38% in case of cyclopropane. Thus the danger of ignition increased. 2) In the highest humidity of the mixed gases of ether or cyclopropane with the air, the extent of the explosive limits increased about 0.11% in case of ether gas and about 0.07% in case of cyclopropane than in the lowest humidity. Thus the tendency of explosion increased, but the difference was not so marked.
The influences of humidity and temperature, which were considered to be the operating room condition, upon the explosiveness of ether gas and cyclopropane were studied concerning the minimum ignition energy. The results were as follows: 1) The curve of minimum ignition energy of the mixed gases of ether or cyclopropane with the air was estimated by the intensity of primary electric current of an induction coil, which was used for spark discharge. 2) When the temperature of the mixed gases of ether or cyclopropane with the air raised, the minimum ignition energy became less, and more explosive. On this result, the most optimum temperature of the operating room, for the precaution against ignition and also for clinical necessity, was quantatively considered to be from 18°C to 24°C. 3) The minimum ignition energy was less in case of higher humidity of the mixed gases of ether or cyclopropane with the air than in case of lower humidity, namely it became more explosive. To keep the humidity for the purpose of preventing against the generation of the static electricity is more important than the problem of the minimum ignition energy, so that the relative humidity of 60% is to be the most optimum humidity of the operating room for precaution against explosion.
Guinea pigs anesthesized with ether or cyclopropane were confined in a closed box and the concentration of anesthetic gas in the box was measured by interferometer with the lapse of time. 1) The gases in the closed box showed the highest concentration from 40 to 60 minutes later and the maximum concentration was about 0.16% in case of ether gas, but in case of cyclopropane the former was after 40 minutes and the latter was 0.21%. These concentrations were about one-twelfth of the lower explosive limits. 2) This condition corresponded to the case, that a human adult was confined in a room with a size of 7m3. Therefore, it is concluded that, the only anesthetic gases from expiration of patients cannot reach an inflammable concentration.
The concentration of ether gas or cyclopropane in the air of the operating room was analyzed. 1) The concentration of ether gas or cyclopropane in the air of the operating room was mostly below 0.1%. 2) The maximum concentration of ether gas or cyclopropane was 1/20 to 1/30 of the lower explosive limit and was much less than expected. 3) The distribution of the concentration of anesthetic gases in the operating room showed no remarkable difference up to the height of 1 meter from the floor. But it was markedly influenced by the distance from the anesthetic apparatus and diluted substaintially in the inverse proportion of it. 4) In case of leaking of gases from the pressure limiting valve or the mask of the anesthetic apparatus, the concentration of gases was enough to explode in the neibourhood of valve and mask. Therefore, the closed method must be used for the anesthesia with ether and cyclopropane.
Statistical studies were carried out on seventy eight in-patients with chorioepithelioma at the Gynecological Dept. of Okayama University Medical School during the period from 1945 to 1955. The following results were obtained. The frequency of chorioepithelioma cases was 0.5 per cent, of gynecological in-patients during the said period, and average ages of these in-patients were thirty five years. Cases caused by hydatidiform moles were 57, 69 per cent and by artificial abortions, which have been remarkably prevailing after the end of the last World War, formed 10.25 per cent, of these in-patients. As for the latency period, it was less than six months on 90.75 per cent of these in-patients. Further, the followings were observed that most of these in-patients presented the symptoms of anemia, and 92.75 per cent of them had abnormally big uterus and on 42.62 per cent of these in-patients, cystic swells in the ovaries were seen. Besides, 44.87 per cent of them were subjected to metastasis, particularly on their vaginas and lungs, and on the external genitals, cerebrum, abdomen and bladder in frequent order. Methods of treatment, applied on these in-patients, were as follows. Operation (total hysterectomy has been adopted in principle at this Dept): 39.74 per cent Combined method of operation and radiotherapy: 46.15 per cent Radiotherapy method: 11.53 per cent Chemotheraphy method: 2.56 per cent The prognosis of these in-patients, after the foresaid treatment, were as follows. Primary death during treatment: 15.28 per cent In-patients, concluded to be incurable at the time of leaving of this Dept: 7.67 per cent In-patients, favourably recovered: 26.92 per cent In-patients, recovered temporarily: 50.00 per cent
Effects of general hypothermia on E. C. G. were studied on dogs. Thirteen dogs were cooled with ice bags following intravenous pentothal anesthesia supplemented with drop infusion of Cocktail lytique. Rectal temperature of dogs were kept at the range from 30°C to 27°C during the experiment and E. C. G. was recorded in several stages of cooing. In two of them E. C. G. were taken during a period of rewarming, too. The following alterations in E. C. G. were noticed. (1) R-R: R-R interval was gradually prolonged with progress of cooling. It prolonged in lineal fashion with the decrease in rectal temperature. On rewarming R-R interval returned to normal value. (2) P-Q: P-Q interval was slightly prolonged on cooling in most cases (84.6%) and returned to normal on rewarming. This change was not marked compared with prolongation of Q-T. (3) Q-T: Q-T interval markedly prolonged with the decrease in rectal temperature. This change disappered on rewarming. (4) QRS: Widening of QRS was seen on cooling in most cases. This change was marked when rectal temperature was decreased below 30°C, hewever, returned to normal on rewarming. Occasionally R' wave appeaerd during cooling in about one third of the series. It was anticipated that widening of QRS is due to occurrence of R' wave. (5) P. Q. S.: No marked changes were noticed in P. Q. and S. waves. (6) R: R wave increased its amplitude on cooling. (7) T: Inversion or diphasion of T wave appeared when rectal temperature decreased to around 30°C in about one half of the series and coronary T was observed about one third in leads II and III. (8) ST: ST depression occurred in 38.5% when the rectal temperature decreased below 30°C in leads II and III. (9) One dog died of ventricular fibrillation which occurred abruptly when rectal temperature was reduced to 26.3°C. Temporary ventricular premature beats appeared in another dog during rewarming.
The effects of selective brain cooling on E. C. G. were studied on dogs. The method applied was entirely the same as Kimoto described. Rectal temperature of dogs were kept at 31°C and brain temperature at around 19°C. In two dogs inflow tracts of heart were occluded and in another three further intracardiac manipulation were performed. E. C. G. were taken continuously during cooling, cardiac inflow occlusion and after release of occlusion. The following alterations in E. C. G. were noticed. (1) Changes during cooling Prolongation of R-R, P-Q, and Q-T intervals were marked compared to in the case of general hypothermia. QRS widened markedly and R wave appeared in earlier stage than in the latter. R wave was rather depressed instead of increase of amplitude which was seen in the case of general hypothermia. There were found no marked changes in R, Q and S waves as in the latter. Invertion of T occurred but no depression of ST segments were observed. (2) Changes during inflow tract occlusion Within ten to fifteen minutes following the occlusion R-R was markedly prolonged, R wave markedly depressed, QRS widened and T wave elevated. After release of occlusion these changes returned to normal. No marked prolongation of P-Q was seen though PEQA was markedly depressed and concomitant depression of P wave occurred in leads II and III. Q-T was rather shortened compared to before occlusion. No marked alterations of ST segments were seen. Temporary ventricular premature beats appeared after release of occlusion in one dog. (3) Changes during intracardiac manipulation Two of three dogs on which intracardiac manipulation were attempted died of ventricular fibrillation at the end of manipulation. One survived the experiment though he developed complete atrio-ventricular dissociation at the end of intracardiac manipulation.
Hypotension was induced on 15 dogs by intravenous injection of hexamethonium bromide (C6) following intravenous pentothal anesthesia. The following alterations in E. C. G. were noticed. (1) R-R: R-R interval showed shortening or prolongation or no change. These changes occurred in frequency of 3:1:1 as in order. Tachycardia developed in all cases, even in dogs where no changes in blood pressure were produced with C6. (2) Impairment of conduction: No marked changes were seen in P-Q and Q-T intervals. (3) QRS: R wave was depressed at the level of 80 mm HG of systolic blood pressure and returned to normal with recovery of blood pressure. Neither low voltage nor widening of QRS were observed in the case where systolic blood pressure remained over 60 mm HG. (4) P: Slight elevation of P waves were noticed in leads II and III. (5) T: Prolongation of T wave was seen in two, low and diphasic T in six, inverted T in three and there was seen no change in T wave in four dogs. These alterations returned to normal with recovery of blood pressure. (6) ST: Depression of ST segments was noticed in six of 15 dogs where systolic blood pressure was lowered than 70 mm HG. (7) Abnormal stimulus formation. One of 15 dogs died of ventricular fibrillation followed marked hypotension which developed after posture change. One another dog developed temporary ventricular fibrillation.
In this report, the author reports about the effect of the combinative administrations of each two of the following antibiotics, penicillin, streptomycin, aureomycin, terramycin, and chloromycetin; the tested combinations were 10 as a whole. As a test organism, Staphylococcus aureus (Terashima) was taken. The results are as follows: 1) The antibacterial actions are co-operative to each other in each of the following combinations, penicillin and streptomycin, aureomycin and terramycin, aureomycin and chloromycetin, and chloromycetin and terramycin. 2) Though very slight, the antibacterial actions are co-operative in each of the following combinations, streptomycin and terramycin, streptomycin and aureomycin, and streptomycin and chloromycetin. 3) In each of the combinations of penicillin with chloromycetin, terramycin, and aureomycin, the antibacterial action of penicillin is inhibited by the other, while each action of chloromycetin, terramycin, and aureomycin is enhanced by penicillin. 4) Among the groups of tested organism, the individual difference of resistance to antibiotics is observed.
The author studied about the effect of the combinative administrations of each two of the following antibiotics, streptomycin, aureomycin, terramycin and chloromycetin; the tested combinations were 6 as a whole. Salmonella typhi (S57S) was used as a test organism. The results are as follows: 1) The antibacterial actions are co-operative to each other in each of the following combinations; streptomycin and aureomycin, streptomycin and terramycin, aureomycin and chloromycetin, chloromycetin and terramycin, and terramycin and aureomycin. 2) In the combination of chloromycetin and streptomycin, the action of chloromycetin is inhibited by streptomycin, while the action of streptomycin is enhanced by chloromycetin. 3) Among the group of the tested organism, the individual difference of resistance to antibiotics is observed.
In this report, the effect of combinative administrations of antibiotics on the drugresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (Terashima), and the acquisition of cross-resistance were also studied. The results are as follows: 1) To the 5 γ/ml and 10 γ/ml of penicillin-resistan strain, the following combinations are all co-operative; penicillin and streptomycin, penicillin and aureomycin, penicillin and terramycin, and penicillin and chloromycetin. 2) To the 50 γ/ml and 100 γ/ml of streptomycin-resistant strain, the following combinations are all co-operative; streptomycin and penicillin, streptomycin and chloromycetin, streptomycin and terramycin, and streptomycin and aureomycin. 3) To the 10 γ/ml of aureomycin-resistant strain, the following combinative administrations are all co-operative; aureomycin and penicillin, aureomycin and streptomycin, aureomycin and terramycin, and aureomycin and chloromycetin. 4) To the 5 γ/ml of chloromycetin-resistant strain, the following combinative administrations are all co-operative; chloromycetin and penicillin, chloromycetin and streptomycin, chloromycetin and terramycin, and chloromycetin and aureomycin. 5) The penicillin-resistant strain is not resistant to streptomycin, aureomycin, terramycin and chloromycetin. 6) The streptomycin-resistant strain is not resistant to penicillin, aureomycin, terramycin and chloromycetin. 7) The aureomycin-resistant strain is not resistant to penicillin, streptomycin and chloromycetin, but is resistant to terramycin. 8) The chloromycetin-resistant strain is not resistant to penicillin and streptomycin, but is resistant to aureomycin and terramycin.
In this report, the author reports about the effect of combinative administrations of streptomycin, aureomycin and chloromycetin on the resistant strain of Salmonella typhi (S57S), and also about the relationship of cross-resistance among them: 1) To the 100γ/ml of streptomycin-resistant strain, the following combinative administrations are co-operative; streptomycin and aureomycin, streptomycin and terramycin, and streptomycin and chloromycetin. 2) To the 30γ/ml of aureomycin-resistant strain, the following combinative administrations are all co-operative; aureomycin and terramycin, aureomycin and streptomycin, and aureomycin and chloromycetin. 3) To the 10γ/ml of chloromycetin-resistant strain, the following combinative administrations are all co-operative; chloromycetin and streptomycin, chloromycetin and terramycin, and chloromycetin and aureomycin. 4) The streptomycin-resistant strain is not resistant to terramycin, aureomycin, and chloromycetin. 5) The aureomycin-resistant strain is not resistant to streptomycin, but is resistant to chloromycetin and terramycin. 6) The chloromycetin-resistant strain is not resistant to streptomycin, but is resistant to aureomycin and terramycin.
In this report, the problem of infectious spectrum of hepatitis virus was studied by observing the establishment of infection and passage in various kinds of animals. The virus isolated from the hepatitis patients in Okayama Prefecture was used throughout this work, and the establishment of infection and passage was judged by the pathological appearances, of tissues. particularly of liver as the center, of inoculated animals. The results were as follows: 1) In mouse, embryonated egg and young hamster, the infection and passage of hepatitis virus were established. 2) In rat, guinea-pig, young dog and young cat, the establishment of infection could not be proved with certainty. 3) Among the used strains of virus, some difference was observed, which was probably originated from the difference of conditions at the isolation and passage of them. It was not conceivable, however, that remarkable difference of pathogenicity was present among them. 4) Putting together the aspects of infection, pathological figures and general natures of virus from the results of animal tests, the virus used in the present work is very simillar to the one reported by Havens, Maccallum and Wildführ.
The hydrophilic dye-proteins have been prepared combining oxen serum protein with Congo red (CR) in varied proportion. DPO No.1 (50 mg. of CR per 100 cc. of serum), 2 (100 mg. per 100 cc), 3 (500 mg per 100 cc), 4 (1500 mg. per 100 cc). The binding between protein and dye molecules proved to be fairly strong by the test using several protein-precipitating agents and electrochromatograph. 1) The paraenteral introduction of these dye-proteins proved to produce two sorts of antibodies, the antibodies to the normal serum protein and to the dye-protein. The antibody to the normal serum decreased as the quantity of dye bound to antigen increased, showing the increased production of the antibody specific to the dye-protein. 2) Antibody formation varied according to the varied root of the introduction of antigen. Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection resulted in the higher antigen production comparing to the intravenous injection. The dye-protein introduced were mainly found in the macrophages. 3) The sensitized animals showed a severe shock symptomes by the reinjection of antigen. From the results mentioned above it has been suggested that the responsibility for the antibody formation to the dye-protein will be attributed to the macrophages, in which cytoplasm the injected antigen is found in a mass.
1) Introducing dye protein (Congo red-oxen serum, DPO No.3) into the normal adult guinea pigs from three roots, subcutaneous tissue, intraperitoneal cavity and blood vessel the distribution of dye protein in the tissues and organs has been traced histollogically. 2) The distribution of dye protein in the tissues varied according to the varied roots of introduction. The dye protein were found in the granulocytes and macophages in the early stage of injection but in the later stages only in macrophages, those in the local tissues and in the sinuses of the regional lymphnodos in the case of subutaneous injection, those mainly in the omentum in the case of intraperitoneal injection, and those belonging to the reticuloendotherial system mainly of liver and spleen in the case of intravenous injection. 3) The protein uptake of granulocytes and macrophges occurred independently from each other showing no intimate correlation between them in the sense of Sabin who asserted that the protein uptake of macrophges is caused by the phagocytosis of the protein containing granulocytes. 4) Concerning the period of the reservation of protein in macrophages the water soluble dye protein disappeared from the cells already 40 days after the injection, though the insoluble dye protein which had been prepared treating with alcohol proved to be remained in the cells so long as 90 days after the injection.
1) On the cells in peritoneal cavity of the sensitized guinea pigs the cellular reaction to the antigen, the dye protein (DPO No.3), has been traced hourly after the injection of the antigen. 2) It has been revealed that of various inflammatory cells the macrophages only show a specific morphologic change by contacting with the homologous antigen causing a rapid swelling to a round shape and being stained diffusely by the dye protein. 3) These cells seems to adsorb the antigen on the cell surface resulting in the degeneration of the cytoplasmic membrane. The swelling of cells was followed by the reduction of basophilicity of nucleus and the deformation of cytoplasm showing the partial and irregular “shedding off” of cytoplasm. Further observations revealed that these cells lose their cytoplasm perfectly and disappear by the followed degradation of nucleus. 4) From these observations the author asserted that this should be the cellular reaction of the antibody-containing cells to the antigen supporting the view of the antibody formation in the macrophages.
In this study, Tanizawa, rat IV, rat XXII strains, which were isolated in Kagawa prefecture, and the hitherto isolated Shichito and Karp strains were used. Each fraction was prepared from the brain, spleen, lung and wash of abdominal cavity of infected mouse. The results are as follows: 1) When the brain, spleen, and wash of abdominal cavity are used as the materials, the fresh ones within 5 hours after the preparation cause the remarkable hemagglutination. The same materials, however, when treated with the same volume of ether for 2 hours or heated at 60°C for 30 minutes, lose their hemagglutination activity. The aged materials, left for 7 to 50 days, also lose their hemagglutination activity. 2) The coarse and R fractions prepared from the lung of nasally infected mouse, as far as they are fresh, cause very remarkable hemagglutination, but they lose their activity by treating with ether for 2 hours or by aging. 3) The F and H fractions of the infected lung have no hemagglutination activity. 4) In short, the activity to cause fowl hemagglutination is not present in the rickettsia-infected tissue, but in rickettsia itself. The fact that the aged or ether- or heattreated rickettsia shows no hemagglutination suggests that the hemagglutination activity is attributable to the ether- or heat-labile factor which is not related to the sero-immunological reaction.
In this study, Tanizawa, rat IV, and rat XXII strains, which were isolated in Kagawa prefecture, and the hitherto isolated Shichito and Karp strains were used. Each fraction was prepared from the eggs successively inoculated with the agents into yolk sacks. The results are as follows: 1) All of the yolk, yolk sack and brain of embryo, prepared from the non-inoculated healthily growing egg, do not cause any hemagglutination. 2) The yolk of the infected egg, regardless of the sorts of inoculated strains, does not cause any hemagglutination. 3) Within 5 hours after the preparation, the emulsion of yolk sack of infected egg causes remarkable hemagglutination. The suspension of purified rickettsiae, however, causes more remarkable hemagglutination, and the rest of yolk sack tissue, from which the rickettsiae were purified, has no hemagglutination activity. 4) Regardless of the sorts of inoculated strains, the yolk sack loses its hemagglutination activity by aging at 4°C for more than 7 days. 5) The emulsion of yolk sack loses its hemagglutination activity by treating it with ether for a long time. 6) In short, the yolk sack emulsion of infected egg has the hemagglutination activity as far as it is fresh, but loses it by aging. This hemagglutination activity is preserved not in the yolk sack tissue, but in rickettsia itself, and is attributable to a ether-labile factor which does not bear on the sero-immunological antigenisity.
The result of the experiment which ethylalcohol affect on the X-rays injury advantageously reported by M. Yamamoto who is our co-worker at the same time ago, and we attempted to this experiment that whether ethylalcohol affect on the restoration of X-rays injury usefully or not, and this experiment carried out on 3 groups as following: 1) A group of mice in wich ethylalcohol was not used, 2) B group of mice in which ethylalcohol was used only for irradiated period with 100r×10, 3) C group of mice in which ethylalcohol was used not only for irradiated period with 100r×10, but for 15 days, 30 days after the irradiated with 100r×10, and we found out following results in this experiment. In this case there were more histological restorating figures of spleen, liver injuries than in the case of mice in which ethylalcohol was not used.
Protein active SH radical of sera and orgaus was examined in rabbits and patients with parathion poisoning. Advanced informations in this experiment were as follows. 1. In parathion poisoning, serum protein active SH radical was markedly inhibited. 2. Inhibition and recovery of serum protein SH radical correlated with that of serum cholineterase activity. 3. The decrease of serum protein active SH radical was relative to the symptoms of poisoning in their degrees, and it took about two weeks to restore in serious cases. 4. In rabbits subcutaneously injected with 5 mg/kg of parathion, protein active SH radical of organs was slightly inhibited only in the initial stage, thereafter reactive increase was observed. In the case of kidney, however, it decreased considerably and its recovery took much longer time in comparison with the others. In the fatal cases with the subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg parathion, the protein active SH radical of rabbit organs tended to increase generally. From the above-mentioned, parathion inhibited not only cholinesterase but also protein active SH radical of SH ferment as the cases of arsenic or heavy metal poisoning.
Mucoprotein of sera and organs was examined in rabbits and patients with parathion poisoning to clarify the mechanism of poisoning and the advanced information was acquired as follows. 1. Serum mucoprotein was considerably inhibited in parathion poisoning and its inhibition correlated with the degrees of parathion poisoning as the cases of serum cholinesterase and protein active SH radical. Moreover, its recovery was quicker than that of serum cholinesterase and protein active SH radical. 2. Mucoprotein was, in the rabbits subcutaneously injected with 5 mg/kg of parathion, inhibited considerably in all organs, especially in the liver and then followed by the kidney, brain, spinal cord, spleen, intestine, stomach, muscle, lung, and heart, in the order mentioned. But in the case of kidney, both the inhibition and recovery of mucoprotein were delayed markedly. In the fatal cases with the subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg parathion, mucoprotein decreased considerably in all organs, especially in the case of the liver where it decreased to 13.8 per cent. From the above-mentioned, parathion absorbed into a living body, combine with SH radical, especially of lower molecule such as mucoprotein mainly fixed in liver, brain, spinal cord etc. These SH radical consumption was supposed to be a cause of the inhibition of cholinesterase activity.
SH medical compounds used in this study were BAL, sodium thiosulfate, cystine, menthionine and sodium mercaptoacetate. 1. In the animal tests on the effectiveness of SH medical compounds, BAL was the most effective and then sodium thiosulfate was next, while scarecely effect was observed in the experiments of cystine, methionine and sodium mercaptoacetate. 2. By the administration of PAM, SH enzyme such as mucoprotein was promptly and certainly reactivated as well as cholinesterase.