Cow sera were given into ear veins of rabbits and marmots by 2 cc per kg three times in every other days. Three weeks after sensitization cow sera were given by 2 cc in similar way, while their carotic blood pressure was measuring simultaneously. Ravonal and Anergen restrained remarkbaly not only descending of blood pressure, but inhibited other ill effects too. Active and passive anaphylaxis were examined in marmots. In contrast group they died by 100% and in those used Ravonal by 45.8% and in those used Anergen by 25%. The pathologic and histologic figures of Ravonal and Anergen groups were also silightly im comparing with that of contrast group.
Rabbits were sensitized in similar way mentioned in part 1. The rabbits, whose blood corpucles did not to be agglutinated by those of receptors, were used as donor. The cow sera were injected into their ear vein by 5cc per kg. They were used after 5 hours for experiments of blood transfusion. The blood was examined previously after 3 weeks from sensitization by Ogata's diluted precipitation reaction, and its alergen content was corresponded to amount of complement body. Thus rabbits blood was given into the ear vein. On that occasion both of Ravonal and Anergen restrained not only the descending of blood pressure, as mentioned in part 1, but inhibited also the ill effects.
The whole human blood was given to rabbits by 4 cc and 10 cc per kg. In the former every case showed no descending of blood pressure, and the serum haemolysis and tissue changes did not change. In the contrary, in the case of 10 cc they showed strong descending of blood pressure and 9-10 of cases died. In the groups used Ravonal and Anergen the descending of blood pressure was strikely restrained and only one case of Anergen-group died. The serum haemolysis in these 3 groups stayed 30 minutes after the transfusion similar, but after 3 hours it strikely decreased in Ravonal and Anergen groups. Tissue changes in Ravonal and Anergen group decreased silightly more in comparing with those of contrast group and at third week it was almost completely recovered.
In the cases of inadequate heterotransfusion by 5 cc and 15 cc per kg the results were almost similar as mentioned in part 3, namely Ravonal and Anergen restrained strongly the ill effects. From the above mentioned facts it is to be consicered that, the inhibition of Ravonal and Anergen to ill effects of inspecific and inadequate heterotransfusion is primarily owed to not haemolysis itself, but to inhibition to the shock of haemolytic toxin.
Specimens of 47 cases of gastric cancer were investigated. In the types of Borrmann III and IV, diffuse infiltration was always seen to the side of the lesser curvature, while it was never observed in the side of the greater curvature. According to the Imai's C. P. L. classification, much more malignant features were seen in the side of the lesser curvature than in that of the greater. On the other hand, the rate of growth of the stroma, being considered a vital defensive reaction, was higher in the side of the greater curvature.
In general, the size of nuclei of cancer cells was bigger in the side of the greater curvature than of the lesser, by measurement with micrometer. This fact was quite clearly observed in the types of Borrmann III and IV, while it was not so evident in that of Borrmann II.
The 0.1% solution of pilonin methyl green and the 0.5% solution of tionin solution were used for staining. The ribose nucleic acid content was more in the cancer cells on the lesser curvature than in those on the greater, but this fact was not evident in the cells of the stroma.
With the use of intact cell suspensions of virulent and avirulent strains of 2 and 6 weeks old cultures in the Sauton media, comparative studies on the dehydrogenating reaction of each substrate, sugars, sugar alcoholes, organic acids, were carried out by Thunberg method. The results were as follows. 1) In the case of the 2 weeks old cells of avirulent strain without addition of substrate, the rate of methylene blue reduction is faster than that in the case of the virulent strain; and the 6 weeks old cells of virulent strain without substrate do not cause decoloration of methylene blue. 2) When sugar or sugar alcohole is used as a substrare, no significant difference in the reduction time can be seen between the virulent and avirulent strains, nor any marked difference among each of the substrates. The rate of reduction by the 2 weeks old cells of avirulent strain, however, is more accelerated than that by the virulent strain by the addition of such substrate as glucose or other hexose. 3) Regardless of the virulence of bacteria, of all the substrates used, pyruvate and lactate accelerate the reduction most markedly. 4) When pyruvate or lactate is used as a substrate, the rate of reduction by the 6 weeks old cells of virulent strain is markedly decreased compared with that by the 2 weeks old cells, but with avirulent strain the decrease in the rate of reduction is not or hardly noticeable. 5) When succinate is used as a substrate, in the case of 2 weeks old cells, the avirulent strain seems to have somewhat stronger methylene blue reducing activity than the virulent strain. 6) The rate of reduction by the 2 weeks old cells of virulent strain is accelerated when alanine is used as a substrate, but this does not occur in the avirulent strain.
By using H37 Rv and H3 7R astrains of human tubercle bacillus, a series of comparative studies have been made on the dehydrogenase reactions by the intact cells possessing the acid-fast natures and by the cell-free extracts without that nature. The results are as follows: 1) In both strains, in the case of cell-free extracts without the addition of substrate, dehydrogenase activity decreases to about 1/2 of that of the intact cells. 2) With the use of hexose as substrates, the dehydrogenase activities of the cell-free extract of H37Rv strain are somewhat higher than those of intact cells, while in the case of H37Ra strain the activities of the cell-free extract are lower than those of intact cells. 3) The activities of the cell-free extracts to pyruvate and lactate are, in both strains, markedly lower than those of intact cells, whereas in the case of H37 Rv strain the malate dehydrogenating activity is greater in the from of cell-free extract than in intact cells. 4) To histidine, the activity of the cell-free extracts of both strains is far greater than that of intact cells.
With the use of intact cells aerated 10 hours and cell-free extracts of virulent and avirulent strains of both human and bovine tubercle bacilli, the oxygen consumption has been examined comparatively, adding each of the following substrates; sugars, organic acids and amino acids. The results are as follows: 1) Even after 10 hours aeration, in both of the human and bovine tubercle bacilli (including BCG), high endogenous oxygen consumption is observed, but when made into the cell-free extracts the rate of oxygen consumption of these bacteria decreases to 1/10 to 1/20 of that of the intact cells, thus making it quite easy to study the enzymic activities of bacteria to various substrates. 2) Sugars have very little influence on the oxygen consumption. 3) As for the influence of pyruvate on the oxygen consumption, it is makedly greater in H37Rv strain than H37Ra strain; but no significant difference can be seen between bovine 263 strain and BCG. 4) In the virulent strain, lactate increases the oxygen consumption markedly greater than in avirulent strain. 5) Although citrate increases the oxygen consnmption of BCG, it has no effect on that of other strains. 6) Amino acids have little accelerating effect on the oxygen consumption of bacteria except alnine which shows some effect in the case of H37Ra strain.
A large quantity of avian tubercle bacillus, avian A strain which could not multiply on the plain broth agar media, was trans-inoculated on the plain broth agar media and was successively cultivated on them. By this procedure a variant strain was obtained which could multiply on the plain broth agar media. The author tried the comparative studies on the various natures of the original and varient strains, and obtained the following results: 1) The multiplying rate of the variant strain on the plain broth agar media is worse than that of the original strain on the glycerine media. 2) The shape of the variant is full of diversity, and coccoid ones were particularly observed in large numbers. 3) The acid-fastness of the variant strain is remarkably diminished. 4) The variant strain showed a marked fall of resistance to phenol and caustic soda. 5) In the absence of any subatrate, the reduction rate of methylene blue is consistently speedier in the variant strain, while, as for the oxygen consumption, the endogenous respiration of the variant strain is remarkably lower than that of the original strain.
The author studied the general natures, immune reactions, quantitative cultivations and pathogenicity of the original avian A strain cultured on the glycerine media and of the variant strain cultured on the plain broth agar media. The cells cultured for 10 days were used, and fowls and rabbits were used as the test animals. The results were as follows: 1) When a small quantity of the cells was inoculated into fowls, no remarkable difference was observed between the original and variant strains except the pathological appearances of the liver and spleen. 2) When a large quantity was inoculated, the positive reaction rate and grade of tuberculine test were high in the original strain-inoculated group, and, in quantitative cultivation test in lung, far more multiplying cells were observed in the original strain-inoculated group than in the variant strain-inoculated group. 3) From the inoculated rabbit blood, the variant strain disappears earlier than the original strain. No remarkable difference was, however, observed in the pathological appearances of the inoculated rabbits. 4) In both groups inoculated with each of the original and variant strains, the chief site of the pathological change was the liver. In case of a large quantity-inoculation, the chief site of the pathological change and the result of the quantitative cultivation did not always accord with each other. 5) The used original standard strain is of very weak virulence, and, accordingly, the determination of the difference of virulence between the original and variant strains is possible only by the general observation of all results of the animal experiments.
Acute pancreatic necrosis was artificially induced on dogs which were used as test animals by injecting bile of the same dog or olive oil through the pancreatic duct. Those which developed edematous changes were classified as mild cases and others which developed necrotic changes as severe cases. The pancreas was removed as quickly as possible, cut into small pieces, dipped in ether in a refrigerator for a week, and extracted. Further extraction of the sediment was conducted by keeping it in a buffer of Borax-KH2PO4 for one week. Separation percentage by paper electrophoresis was performed by Kobayashi apparatus. The pancreas of dogs removed immediately after death was used as control cases. The results were as follows: In the normal cases (control) a clear separation pattern of albumin, α, β, φ and γ globulin, and f separation was observed. In the mild cases, the separation pattern of β globulin was either not clear or had disappeared, the separation pattern of γ globulin decreased and that of albumin not clear. In the severe cases the separation pattem of β globulin had disappeared completely, and that of albumin had disappeared with the increase in γ globulin.
The method of experiment of acute pancreatic necrosis in dogs was same as the described in Chapter I. The measurement was performed by the following method and the following results were obtained. Filtrate reaction was conducted on water soluble extract of the pancreatic tissue by Müller's method. Where C signifies the wave pattern of protein not denatured by KOH, and D the wave pattern of denatured protein, C>D is observed in general. However, the tendency of C=D is noted when tests are conducted on the mild cases to the severe. As for the relationship between concentration and wave pattern, there is a tendency of the wave pattern to increase as tests are conducted on the mild cases to the severe. On the filtrate reaction on serum, there is a slight increase in the severe cases, but there is a remarkable increase between 24 hours and 48 hours in the mild cases. This is comparatively parallel to the blood sedimentation rate of these cases.
The method of experiment of acute pancreatic necrosis in dogs was same as the described in Chapter I. The measurement was performed by the following method. Free amino acid in the pancreatic tissue was extracted by Dent's method. Chromatography was performed by a two-dimensional method using phenol and lutidincollidine solution, and phenol and butanol-acetic acid solution. The following results were obtained. In the normal pancreatic tissue the follwing 8 free amino acids were found: cystine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, lysine, arginine and threonine. In the diseased pancreatic tissues, leucine, valine and tyrosine were found besides the above eight.
We, by frequent injection of a cow's serum antigen into a rabbit, and examining such as the coefficient of congored, total protein density of anti-serum, changes in precipitin as well as changes that occurred to the fraction of serum protein, electrophoretically and at a certain lapse of time; and having taken an observation on their correlations, succeeded to arrive at the following results; 1. Both γ-Globulin as well as precipitin changes proved as parallel. The same tendency has been detected in β-Globulin, but not so marked as in the case of γ-Globulin. 2. A overfunction of reticuloendotherial action has been occurred, caused by immunology; in general, that sort of hyperbole can be seen from 10-30 days after the 1st injection of antigen. 3. The total protein density of serum-antigen has increased or decreased side by side with changes of precipitin, but changes in Albumin and Globulin have proved no such steadfast trend. 4. A markedly low case in precipitin formation has been discovered in a rabbit which possessed a very slight amount of γ-Globulin within normal serum, previous to antigeninjection. 5. From the above results, it was found that a close connection exists between those Globulins and and antibody, esp., between γ-Globulin and antibody; moreover, the fact that the function of reticuloendotherial system as springhead of antibody. Further, as a cause of individual difference in antibody formation, the amount of retained (possessed) normal γ-Globulin was considered significant.
I have here described two cases of so-called Dipsomanie found by Gaupp, as well as one case of so-called pseudo-Dipsomanie mentioned by Wernicke, that were experienced during the period ranging from January 1951 until August 1954, and to which, I took liberty to try to add certain considerations of my own.
We have here described one case, it is often happened incidental death caused by anesthesia due to T-cain, developing with operation of pulmonary tuberculosis; and to which, we took liberty to try to add certain considerations of our own.
The paper is the report on the results obtained from the experimental studies to find out what extent does the influence of X-Ray affect the enzymic action of organ, the basic metabolic process of living organism. Summary of the results: 1. In healthy mature rabbits, with three organs, namely, the brain, liver and kidney, the amount found of Kateptase, Amylase and Urease were highest in the kidneys and the livers came the next, while the brains contained the least. With Arginase, it was found to be highest in the livers, and kidneys were the next, but the brains had the least. 2. Healthy mature rabbits were submitted with daily X Ray radiaton of 300 r for a period of 10 days and the animals were killled when the total dosage had reached 3000 r, and respective action of Kateptase, Amylase, Arginase and Urease in brain, liver and kidney were compared with the nonirradiated rabbits. It was found that the action of Kateptase, Arginase and Urease of these three organs have been markedly increased by the X Ray radiation and degree of influence was the highest in the brains: with Amylase action in respective organ, it was decreased and its effect was most noticeable in the brain.
The author has studies gross and histological changes in the anorectal region of rabbit, in which Antihemorrhoid was injected, after ligature of the V. rectalis cranialis and resulting congestion. 1) In 5% solution produced exudative inflammation not accompanying with necrosis and showed atrophy on the 7th. day, after subsiding of reactive inflammation. 2) In 15% solution produced partial necrosis and a granulation tissue was replaced after its falling off, disappeared inflammation on the 12th to 15th day. 3) In 25% solution produced extensive necrosis which was followed by organization and cicatrization after 15 to 21 days. 4) Thrombophlebitis was not observed in the caudal part of V. rectalis cranialis ligated. The experimental results will allow to say that this drug is effective and safe to use.
The author has observed the influences of Antihemorrhoid on the clotting time under its direct action in rabbit's blood, and on the process of thrombosis pathologically, after injecting the drug into V. jugularis externa ligated doubly. 1) In the small dosis resulted a slight reduction of clotting time but it was prolonged with the increase in amount. 2) Thrombosis was observed 24 hours after the injection. In 5 and 15% solutions chemical inflammations were slight and completely organized on the 15th day after subsidence of the inflammations. However, in 25% solution produced necrosis not following by organiztion. 3) In the control group thrombosis was observed on the 5th day but inflammatory process was slight, following by minimal organization on the 15th day. The author concludes that this drug plays more important role on the thrombosis than on the blood clotting.
The author has carried out clinical experiment by injecting Antihemorrhoid into hemorrhoidal node. 1) In 5% solution the hemorrhoidal node became atrophied and disappeared in short period without after-treatment. 2) In 15% solution some of the cases showed atrophies but most of them necroses. Ointment application as after-treatment was needed because of the ulceration after its falling off. 3) In 25% solution extensive necrosis was observed and needed a long termed after-treatment for the ulcer followed by its falling off. 4) There were no noticeable complications by the injection. By the results obtained above, the author concludes that this medical treatment for hemorrhoid is as effective as the radical operation, if one would select cases for this treatment with caution, and that Antihemorrhoid is an ideal medicament; 5% solution for the sclerosing, and 15% or 25% for the corrosion therapy.
Several surgical attacks have recently been carried out for Parkinsonism. In 1954, J. Browder reported improvement in Parkinsonism by occulusion of the anterior chorioidal artery, but it was not obvious what was the effective mechanism of the therapy. Therfore, the auther tried to solve the problem and the following results habe been obtained. Cat was used for experimental study. After the injection of gelatin India-ink into the anterior chorioidal artery, the area of its distribution was determined by microscopy of the specimens of serial section. The most common area was as follows: 1. A part of Tractus optics. 2. Capsula interna (posterior to Nucleus praethl. ant.) 3. About the half of Globus pallidus (posterior to Nucleus praethl. ant.) 4. Nucleus amygdalae (about the medial two-thirds). 5. Cornus ammonis. 6. Lobus piriformis. 7. Plexus chorioidea. 8. A part of Ganglion geniculatum laterale, a part of Radiatio optica, and a part of thalamus. Thus, there is almost no difference between the blood supply of the anterior chorioidal artery of man and that of cats.
The anterior chorioidal artery was dissected with electro-cautery in 34 cases of cats, which were classified into 5 groups by the postoperative periods (2, 5, 8, 12, 17 days), the disturbance of the blood supply was investigated. Encephalomalacia did nod occur in all of the supplying area of this vessel, but the most common areas of encephalomalacia were Capsula-interna, Pallidum and Tractus opticus and Lobus piriformis, as stated in the followings. 1. Capsula interna 97.1% 2. Pallidum 44% 3. Anonymous part 70.6% 4. A part of lobus piriformis 76.5% 5. A part of tractus opticus 58.8% 6. A part of cornus ammonis 2.9% 7. A part of thalamus 8.8% 8. A part of radiatio optica 2.9% 9. A part of Nucleus amygdalae 5.9% From this experiment, it would appear that the effective mechanism of occlusion of the anterior chorioidal artery is the lesion of the pyramidal tract at the internal capsule and the destructon of a part of Globus pallidus.