The renal clearance test was carried out on 11 normal and nephrectomized rabbits for the purpose of the investigation of the renal insufficiency, and the results were as followed. 1. On the unilateral nephrectomy, acute renal insufficiency could be found generally, but mostly it recovered quickly to the normal level in a week. 2. On the partial nephrectomy with single kidney, sever renal insufficiency occurred immediately for these three days after the operation, and it recovered nearly to the normal level after 4 weeks. 3. Increasing of the amount of the resection, more severer renal insufficiency could be found, and particulary, glomerular filtration rate was obstructed and moreover, the recovery of the renal function has been put off and the chronic renal insufficiency could be found for a long time. 4. The amount of the renal parenchyma indispensable for livin was 1/4 of the total kidney. Every resection which has been carried out within this limit showed a temporary acute renal insufficiency. 5. The renal blood flow recovered, in general, quickly and, on the contrary, the glomrular filtration rate returned slowly to the normal level after the resection.
For the pathological studies with single kidney, already partialy nephrectomised, were searched, and the following conclusions were obtained. 1. Healing of wound is about from 35 to 42 days after the operation. Scarline is a few milimeters brest and crealy different from the distant part. 2. Glomerular or tubular degenerations of the distant part are sever in three days after the operation, and two weeks after are not found. 3. Cortical anaemia and medullary hyperemia are most severe in the third day, and the later was searched even in the 8th week. 4. Any time the changes of glomeruls are more slightly than the changes of tubulus, and the regeneration was eminent in the later. 5. The changes in the renal clearance test were certainly parallel to the changes in the pathological study. 6. The degree of glomerular or tubular degenerations was not influenced on account of the volume which had been removed, but on accout of renal ischaemia.
Blood chemical studies-estimation of non protein nitrogen, urea, urea nitrogen, creatine and creatinine-on rabbits were carried out after the ligation of ureter. 1) Urea nitrogen and performed creatinine increased and paralleled to nonprotein nitrogen. Urea nitrogen, performed creatinine and nonprotein nitrogen showed 291.9mg/dl, 18mg/dl and 398mg/dl respectively at the maximum value. 2) Total creatinine, performed creatinine and creatine showed more stable than these of nonprotein nitrogen, urea nitrogen and urea. Much differences could not be found between every rabbits after the operation. 3) Remarkable increase of urea nitrogen was observed at the beginning of the ligation and more increase of urea nitrogen and decrease of performed creatinine was observed at the end. 4) The term of existence of rabbits existed between 54 hours and 40 minutes to 102 hours and 40 minutes. Performed creatinine-total creatinine ratio was 50% and performed creatinine showed 100mg/dl at one or two days before the death. Nonprotein nitrogen showed 100-300mg/dl at the same time.
Using Sal 57 S as test organism, the author studied biological effect of x-ray radiation by observing the lethal effect under various conditions, in which the state of the organism at irradiation, the properties of the material that gives secondary ray and the dosis of radiation were studied in different combinations. The lethal effect mentioned above was measured by enumeration of surviving cells and the following results were obtained. 1) The surviving curve obtained by the irradiation on cell suspension of the microorganisms could be represented in an exponential curve. In this study, several kinds of solutions were examined using as the liquid media of the bacterial suspension, i. e. normal saline, phosphate buffer, Fe++ added normal saline and Mg++ added normal saline. The survival rates obtained on each suspension were not different to a significant degree. However, the survival rate was somewhat decreased at the examination on the suspension into which platine wire was submerged. 2) The survival rates obtained by the x-ray irradiation on cell suspensions in different concentrations were quite the same on either suspensions. However, in comparative study between the irradiation on a homogeneous cell suspension, and that on unhomogeneous cell suspension, the later showed a higher survival rate. 3) The surviving curve obtained by the irradiation on a spreaded growth on the entire surface of nutrient agar was also repesentable by exponential curve. An application of lead plate as the material which gives secondary ray showed prominient reinforcement of lethal effect. The surviving curve vas deviated from the original curve to a downward concaved curve on semi-log co-ordinates. 4) The lethal effect to dry cells was inferior than that to wet cells and also the effect was reinforced by an application of lead plate as material which gives secondary ray. 5) The reinforcement of lethal effect by secondary ray was studied using several materials as the emitter for secondary ray. In this study the effect was determined by means of the growth observed on nutrient agar plate. As the result of this study, the effect of reinforcement came in following order Pb, Cu, Al then wooden plate; this order was the same as atomic numbers. The scondary ray could be easily intercepted even by a sheet of paper, acordingly, the lethal effect by the secondary ray was markedly decreased as an increase of the distance between the emitter and the surface of madia.
In order to elucidate the effects of x-ray radiation on enzyme system of bacteria, the author studied the effect of x-ray radiation on enzyme system of Sal 57 S which were irradiated such large dosis as 8, 000r in comparison with the enzyme activity of untreated cells. And the following results were obtained. 1) The oxidation of glucose and pyruvate was inhibited to a large extent on the enzyme systm of the x-ray irradiated organisms. And from the findings of the studies on RQ., stoichiometry and action of inhibitors, it could not find any difference on the oxidation pathway from glucose to pyruvate, but on the further oxidation pathway of pyruvate. The inhibition on the further oxidation pathway of pyruvate brought about marked accumulation of acetate in the cells of Sal 57 S irradiated to x-ray. 2) As concerns to the oxidation of member of TCA cycle, an inhibition was found at the oxidation of α-ketoglutalate and also of succinate to a slight extent. 3) The inhibition on the oxidation of glucose, pyruvate and α-ketoglutalate could be removed by addition of cysteine. From the view of this fact, the inhibition was supposed to be occured in the enzyme system relating to -SH group. 4) The effect of x-ray irradiation on oxydative phosphorylation was studied by measuring P:O ratio and P32 incorporation into Δ-7-p. The decrease of P:O ratio and P32 incorporation was observed. This fact possibly implied that the irradiation of x-ray acted as an uncoupler on oxydative phosphorylation 5) There was not observed any changes on the nucleic acids system of bacteria just after the x-ray irradiation. However, amount of DNA showed a decrease by a succeeding incubation of the organism after x-ray irradiation. An inhibition to the incorporation of phosphorus into DNA fraction was also proved on the cells by isotopic study using P32.
Using Sal 57 S as test organism, the author studied the effect of x-ray radiation on the morphology of bacteria by means of electron microscope. The dosis given to the microorganism was 2, 000r or 8, 000r. The following results were obtained. 1) The morphology of the cells was kept almost normal as just after the irradiation. 2) Prominiently elongated bacteria were found on succeeding cultures of 2, 3 and 5 hrs after the irradiation. 3) There were found some regions that had a low electron density on elongated cell. The distances between the regions were almost normal cell size or somewhat exceeded on its size. With the lapse of cultivation time the region became more distinctive and wider. 4) The bacterial cells cultured following after the irradiation were lost its homogeneousness in part and revealed granule-like structure in its interior and in the sever case the body of cell turned to be a exuviae form. 5) As was found on the cultured cells mentioned above, the identical facts was observed by the bacterial cells stocked in refrigerator for 2 days following after the irradiation.
Following results were obtained with yeasts cultivated in malt-juice. (1) By examining the multiplication of yeasts by use of micetocrite method, and their fermentation action by Lane's method, it is stated that both processes are prohibited by high pressure, but after release from the compression they become equal to the control gradually, (2) Morphological changes of yeasts are not observed. (3) The vitality of yeasts is not influenced by hydrostatic pressure up to 1600 kg/cm2.
With B. pyocyaneus following results were obtained. (1) When bacteria are exposed to moderate high pressure (800kg/cm2, 30 min.), the lag phase of their reproduction is prolonged and their respiration inhibited. (2) At higher pressure up to 1600kg/cm2, the respiration of bacteria stops and their other functions decline.
Following results were obtained with fertilized frog eggs. (1) The cleavage delays at 500 kg/cm2 and stops at higher pressure than 1000 atm. (2) The cleavage furrow becomes irregular and deep at 300500 kg/cm2. (3) Abnormal tadpole often developes from compressed fertilized eggs. (4) It is supposed that jelly layer of frog eggs is also affected by high pressure.
To frog sperms high hydrostatic pressure up to 1500kg/cm2 was applied, and following changes were observed. (1) The motility of sperms does not change at under 1000 kg/cm2 pressure, but at higher pressure they become inactive or immotile. (2) At certain high pressure some sperms have their motility but lose fertility. (3) Frog eggs are affected by high pressure more sensitively than sperms.
As a disulfide form B1, namely, thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryldisulfide (TTFD) possessing tetrahydrofurfuryl group, has been synthesized on the heel of alkyldisulfide form B1 derivatives such as thiamine propyldisulfide (TPD) and thiamine oxyethyldisulfide (TOED), etc, the author with purpose to compare B1-effects not only of TTFD, but also of TPD and TOED, carried out a series of experiments on the prevention of B1 deficiency in lovebirds. For the test animals 28 lovebirds weighing about 12g each and fed on the routine feed for one week were divided into 5 groups, and they were then fed on B1 deficient standard feed. One group was taken as the control, and each of four other groups was daily fed orally on 0.006μM of B1, TPD, TOED and TTFD respectively at a given time for 16-17 days. Next, the daily dose of each was cut down to 0.003μM, and the daily body weight and the length of survival time were recorded. The dose of 0.006μM is equivalent to about 2γ B1. The experiments were repeated twice, and in the second series tow birds selected from each group on the eleventh day, namely, on the day just before the vitamin B1-deficient group died of cramps, were sacrificed, and the total B1 contents in the liver, heart and brain were estimated. The quantitative analysis of B1 was carried out by the thiochrome method and estimated by Coleman's fluorescent spectroscope. The duration of survival in the B1-deficient group was on the average of 8.8 days, while that given B1, TPD, and TTFD was on the average of 16.4, 202, and 17.0 days respectively. The total B1-contents in the organs were 59.0γ, 119.0μ, and 79.6γ in the liver, heart and brain respectively. In the groups administered B1, TPD, and TTFD, the contents in the liver of each were 259.1γ, 251.1γ, and 206.2γ; in the heart, 289. 2γ, 242.3γ, and 228.5γ; and in the brain, 135.2γ, 145.6γ and 121.9γ respectively. Among the groups given B1-derivative there is no significant difference, but the groups given B1, the B1-content of the heart is somewhat greater while the B1-contents of the liver, heart and brain in TTFD group were slightly lower than in other groups. 1. From these it has been confirmed that TPD, TOED, and TTFD like B1 all prolong the span of life and show the effect preventing B1 deficiency. 2. Among them the preventive effect of TPD is most marked, while the other B1-derivatives show the effect not greatly different from that of B1. 3. On estimating values of B1-contents in the organs of the each gruop on the eleventh day, the tissue B1-contents of the liver, heart and brain in TTFD group were somewhat less than these in B1-group or in TPD group.
With the purpose to study the therapeutic effects of the derivatives of alkyldisulfide form-B1 on the fall in the pulse beats, the author performed experiments with albino rats by administering TTFD and pursued the recovery of the fall in the pulse beats and compared these results with the effects of B1 and TPD. Forty albino rats weighing about 60g each were fed on the regular diet for two weeks and they were given a vitamin-B1 deficient food. Then selecting those showing B1-deficiency and having the pulse beats of about 300/min, these were divided into three gruops of each given a subcutaneous injection of B1, TPD, or TTFD in the dose equivalent to 5γ B1, and the changes in their pulse beat were estimaed along with the lapse of time by electrocardiogram. As the results all the three groups showed the favorable effect on the low pulse beats. Namely, the rate of rise in the pulse beat was more rapid in TPD and TTFD groups rather in that of B1 group. The maximum increase in the pulse beat in the B1-group was superior to TPD group, whill the maximum in TTFD group was inferior to the other two groups. The duration of therapeutic effect was longest with TPD followed by B1 and shortest with TTFD.
The author studied whether or not TTFD can be readily reduced to vitamin B1 as are TAD, TPD and TOED, and also investigated whether there is any correlation between the rate of such a reduction and the preventive effect of TTFD on B1-dificiency in the lovebirds reported in the previous paper. Selecting albino rats weighing about 50g and fed on a fixed amount of regular food and then sacrificing them, 1g of the liver is removed immediately and homogenized with calcium chloride solution. The liver homogenate solution is diluted 5-fold and 50-fold, and to these diluted solutions a fixed quantity of TOED, TPD, TTFD at the dilutions of 50-fold and 500-fold is added keeping temperature at 0°C, 10°C, 20°C or 37°C. Then the quantity of free B1 is measured, immediately, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after the addition, and the rate of reduction is estimated. As the results the rate of the reduction is greatest in TPD, followed by that in TTFD and TOED in the order mentioned. It has been clarified from these that both TTFD and TOED are far more difficult to be reduced as compared with TPD.
By loading various vitamins to the bone-marrow tissue culture of normal rabbits the author observed systematically the influences of these vitamins on the cell growth and on the cell function of the leucocyte series, especially on the motility of pseudoeosinophils, and obtained the following results. 1. In vitamin B1, cocarboxylase, vitamin B2, and vitamin K there can be found no direct action as to increase the number of cells in the bone marrow leucocyte series. 2. Vitamin B12 and folic acid have been found to possess a power markedly to increase the number of the leucocyte series in bone marrow. 3. Vitamin C has a moderate power, while FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), vitamin B6, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide in an adequate concentration only have the power directly increasing the number of the leucocyte series. 4. Vitamins B1, B6, and C as well as folic acid have been found to act as to accelerate the wandering velocity of pseudoeosinophils.
By performing a series of bone-marrow tissue culture of normal rabbits the author studied the effects of various vitamins on carbon-particle phagocytosis and neutral red vital staining of pseudoeosinophils, and obtained the following results. 1. Cocarboxylase, vitamins B2 and K have no accelerating effect on carbon-particle phagocytosis of pseudoeosinophils nor any effect on the vital staining, suggesting that these substances have no effect directly accelerating the functions of pseudoeosinophils. 2. Vitamins B1, B6 and nicotinic acid in a certain adequate concentration only accelerate the carbon-particale phagocytosis of pseudoeosinophils slightly but no neutral red vital staining effect. 3. With vitamin B12 and folic acid a marked acceleration of the carbon-particle phagocy tosis and a slight acceleration with FAD and vitamin C can be recognized. Likewise from the standpoint of the neutral red vital staining these seem to possess the accelerating action on the functions of pseudoeosinophils.
The author studied the effects of various vitamins on the cells of the erythrocyte series by performing the bone-marrow tissue culture of normal rabbits, and obtained the following results. 1. It has been found that vitamin B1, cocarboxylase, vitamins B2 and C, nicotinic acid, and vitamin K possess no power directly increasing the number of the erythrocyte series in the bone marrow. 2. Vitamin B2 seems to be activated in vivo and transformed to FMN (flavin mononucleotide) or FAD while nicotinic acid in the form of DPN (diphosphophopyridine nucleotide) or TPN (triphosphopyrine nucleotide) can only play a role in the hematopoiesis, and it is believed that these vitamins at least in their original forms can not act directly on the bone marrow as to accelerate erythropoiesis. 3. Folic acid is first activated in vivo and trasformed to citovorum factor, and it is this latter factor that acts on the bone marrow as to accelerate the maturation of erythrocytes, but it does not have any effect on the erythropoiesis of the bone marrow in its original form. 4. FAD and vitamin B6 have been found to have the power to accelerate erythropoiesis of the bone marrow though only slightly. 5. It has been recognized that vitamin B12 acts directly on the bone marrow and markedly accelerates erythropoiesis of the bone marrow. 6. All these vitamins tested have no accelerating offect on the hemoglobin synthesis.
The author observed the development of infected hydronephrosis on rabbits infusing colibacillus or staphylococcus flavus into their vein or calix after the ligation of their ureter (left side). The author also obsesved the effects of antibiotics on hydronephrosis using the injection of Penicillin, Achromycin, Chloromycetin and Streptomycin into these rabbits, and the results were as followed. 1. Hydronephrosis occurred in highly percentage about 10-12 days after the infusion in vein and about 21 days after the infusion in calix in the cases of the ligation of ureter. Infusing staphylococcus in vein and colibacillus in calix, the development of hydronephrosis was accelerated. 2. The antibiotics prevented the enlargement of kidney considerably, and the preliminary application of antibiotics before the infusion was most effective.
Clinical observation of hydronephrosis on 97 cases was carried out and 31 exstirpated cases were studied histopathologically and histochemically. On hydronephrosis, the author recognized the reactive inflammation in early and intermediate stages histopathologically. These observations indicate the considerable influences of the infection upon the ureter and kidney, when the passage of urine was obstructed.
The effects of adrenalin on phosphate metabolism in the seminal vesicles were reported. Adrenalin was administrated into rabbit's seminal vesicles comparing to the intramuscular injection. Experiments were performed in two ways, one was only single administration and the other was continuous for 10 days and the results were as followed. 1. By the administration of adrenalin into the seminal vesicles and intramuscular, RNA was increased, whereas DNA showed mostly the same level as in normal condition. 2. RNA was gradually decreased as well as in DNA after the castration. 3. On the effects of adrenalectomy, no significant effects could be seen in RNA and DNA by adrenalin administration in seminal vesicles with cortisone therapy, whereas with no cortisone therapy, valuable changes could be seen in RNA and DNA levels. 4. Comparing the effects of adrenalin on phosphate metabolism in seminal vesicles with muscle, the effects were essentially the same on both tissues, although much stronger reactions could be found in muscle than the seminal vesicles.
The effects of cortisone on phosphate metabolism in the seminal vesicles were reported. The experiments were carried out as well stated as in report 1. and the results were as followed. 1. With continuous administration of cortisone, RNA was increased within one hour and then gradually decreased, whereas DNA showed the highest level at three hours after the administration of cortisone. 2. On the effects of castration, the decrease of RNA could be seen in both tissue obviously, whereas DNA showed much less changes than RNA. 3. On the effects of adrenalectomy, no significant effects could be seen in RNA and DNA by cortisone administration in seminal vesicles with cortisone therapy. Much differences could be found in DNA with no cortisone therapy comparing with cortisone therapy.
The effects of ACTH on phoshhate metabolism in the seminal vesicles were reported. The experiments were carried out as well stated as in report 1 and the results were as followed. 1. With continuous administration of ACTH, RNA and DNA showed the highest levels at three hours after the administration of ACTH in both tissues. 2. On the effects of castration, RNA levels showed the highest at 3-5 hours after the administration of ACTH in both tissues and the results showed much differences between intramuscular and seminal vesicles administrations. 3. On the effects of adrenalectomy, RNA levels showed the highest at 3 hours with cortisone therapy, whereas the highest levels at one hour with no cortisone therapy. On DNA levels, much differences could be found between cortisone therapy and no cortisone therapy.
By administering a given amount of trichloroethylene subcutaneously to rabbits the author estimated the quantity of trichloro-acetic acid excreted in the urine; and obtained the following results: 1. Trichloro-acetic acid begins to appear in the urine on the first day of the trichloroethylene administration, and its content reaches the maximum on the second or the third day. Thereafter gradually decreasing in the amount, by the seventh or by the twelfth day after the administration the amount excreted in the urine becomes trivial. 2. The total trichloro-acetic acid excreted in the urine amounts to 0.26-0.43 per cent of the quantity of trichloroethylene administered, showing a parallel realtionship between the two. 3. An increase in the urobilinogen after the trichloroethylene adminstration can be observed only in one case, and acetone bodies in the urine can not be detected in any.
After the subcutaneous injection of a given amount of trichloroethylen to rabbits, the author estimated colorimetrically the quantity of trichloroethylene exhaled from the lung by Jacobs' method with the use of an electrospectrometer; and obtained the following results. 1. The quantity of trichloroethylene exhaled increases rapidly one hour after the trichloroethylene administration, and it reaches the maximum three hours afterwards. The increase during this period draws a straight line, and thereafter decreasing gradually in a curve, the exhalation ceases by 24 or 28 hours later. 2. The total trichloroethylene exhaled amounts to 39.4 to 58.7 per cent of the quantity injected, showing an approximately parallel relationship between the two.
After the subcutaneous administration of tetrachloroethylene to rabbits by means of Fujiwara's reaction the author studied Fujiwara-reaction positive substance, the in vivo metabolite excreted in the urine of these animals; and obtained the following resultt. 1. Fujiwara-reaction positive substance in the urine is soluble in water, and in the presence of acid it is soluble in ethylether. The color tones and colorimetric findings of this substance are exactly identical with those of trichloro-aceticacid and likewise Rf in the paper chromatography rather coincides with the latter. 2. A considerable amount of the Fujiwara-reaction positive substance is excreted in the urine on the first day of tetrachloroethylene administration, and reaching its maximum on the second day but decreasing thereafter, the excretion lasts for 7-14 days. 3. In calculating this Fujiwara-reaction positive substance in term of the quantity equivalent to trichloro-acetic acid, its excretion percentage is 1.43-3.08 per cent, showing a parallel relationship between the total Fujiwara-reaction positive substance excreted in the urine and quatity of tetrachloroethylene administered.
In the investigations on the mode of outbreak, general symptoms and causative bacteria concerning a food poisoning incident that broke out on August 14, 1958 in a factory in Hiroshima prefecture, the author has been able to clarify the following points. 1. Of 269 persons partaking the same meals, 88 persons were attacked by food poisoning, namely, 32.7 per cent of the total; and of them 38.6 per cent developed the symptoms making them unable to work. A higher percentage was in female, but relatively severer cases were among males. As for the age range in the age ranging 20-30 years and in those above 50 years the percentage was low, but the symptoms in those above 50 years were relatively severe. 2. The latent period appeared to be 12-24 hours in most of them. 3. As for the symptoms the patients showed an acute gastroenteritic picture such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, accompanied by fever and headache. 4. The majority of them recovered on the second or on the third day afterwards. 5. The food in question was assumed to be the ones served on August 13th, the day before the outbreak of poisoning. From the findings of excreta culture in 5 patients Salmonella were detected, and by the antigen analysis it was determined as Salmonella dublin.
1. When H2S35O4 is administered to normal rabbits, 64.1 per cent of the radioactive sulfuric acid is excreted in the urine within 12 hours, 71.7 per cent within 36 hours, and the greater majority of it (73.1%) is excreted within 84 hours. Even in the case administered concomitantly with phenol, similarly 60.2 per cent of H2S35O4 is excreted within 12 hours, 69.2 per cent within 36 hours, and 71.9 per cent within 84 hours. 2. In the case where phenol is administered concomitantly with H2S35O4, there can be seen no great difference in the total radioactivity of sulfuric acid excreted as compared with that in the case given no phenol, showing an increase in the radioactivity of organic sulfuric acid and a decrease in the same of inorganic sulfuric acid. In other words, organic radioactive sulfuric acid is synthesized from the inorganic radioactive sulfuric acid administered. 3. The rate of flow (Rf) shown by the spot where the radioactivity is located on the paper chromatography in developing the urine obtained from the guinea-pigs administered phenol and H2S35O4 concurrently coincides with the spot developed with Diazo reagent on the paper chromatography of the normal guinea-pig urine admixed with phenol-sulfuric acid. Namely, the organic sulfuric acid excreted in the urine after the concomitant administration of phenol and H2S35O4 is phenol sulfuric acid.
334 students of the School for the Deaf-Mute in Taipei, Taiwan have been dealt with in the present study. 201 out of 334 or 60.2% were males, while 133 or 39.8% were females. 81 out of 334 or 22.7% were congenitally deaf, while acquired deafness was found in 220 or 67.4%. The ratio of congenital deafness to acquired deafness was not significantly different between 2 sexes. Attempts were made to determine the cause of deafness by studying questionnaires answered by the parents. Heredity was the cause in 35 or 43.2% of 81 congenitally deaf cases. Prenatal quinine intoxication and birth injuries were the causes in small number of cases. Causes were unknown in 41 or 18.6%. Febrile diseases, meningitis and measles were most prominent as the cause of acquired deafness, each accounting for 19.09%, 18.64% and 13.18% of the entire acquired deafness cases. Otitis media was the fourth in ranking. It is a remarkable fact that T. B. Meningitis together with Streptomycin intoxication caused deafness in approximately 10% of the acquired deafness cases. More than half of the acquired deafness cases had lost hearing before or at the age of 3. Of the total ears numbering 668 on which pure tone audiometry was done, 40% were totally deaf, while the ears with residual hearing were 60%. Of the total cases, 50% had residual hearing binaurally, 20% had residual hearing monaurally and the remaining 30% showed binaural total deafness. The incidence of binaural residual hearing was about equal in congenital and acquired deafness group, but binaural total deafness was more frequent in the latter group. A study on the incidence of residual hearing for each test frequency revealed the highest incidence for 500 cps., decreasing in order of 250-, 1, 000-, 125-, 3, 000-, 2, 000-, 4, 000- and 8, 000 cps. in total ears as well as in acquired deafness group. The incidence of residual hearing is higher in congenital than in acquired deafness group throughout the entire frequency range, the difference being most marked over the middle tone range. The order of incidence of residual hearing for each test frequency is almost similar in both groups except that the incidence is very slightly higher at 2, 000cps. than at 3, 000cps. in congenital group. Test of vestibular function was done by observing nystagmus elicited by caloric stimulation on 263 cases, i. e. 526 ears. There was no response whatsever in 40% of the total ears thus tested, 23% of congenital group and 50% of the acquired deafness group. The incidence of positive response was higher in the ears with residual hearing than in totally deaf ears. In the present series of cases, there were comparatively more students skilled in lipreading in the group of cases whose deafness started during 6 to 9 years of age than in the group of cases born deaf or whose deafness began at or before the age of 5. The difference, however, has no definite statistical significance. There were more good lip-readers in the group of cases with residual hearing for 2 or 3 speech frequencies than in the group of cases with residual hearing limited to 1 speech frequency and the cases without any hearing for all speech frequencies. In order to clarify the indications for the use of hearing aid by the present series of cases, 2 factors were considered; firstly the average value of the hearing loss at 3 and at times 2 speech frequencies, and secondly the shape of audiogram. Of the total 334 cases use of hearing aid was not indicated in 113 cases who were totally deaf at 3 speech frequencies and 70 cases with residual hearing only at 1 speech frequency; both together constituting 54.8% of total cases. The remaining 221 cases were considered to be candidates for the use of hearing aid. They were divided into the following 3 classes according to the degree of hearing loss. 1. Ideal cases regarding the use of hearing aid. Hearing loss of less than 60 db.
A case report was done on a 28 years old soldier with a glomus jugulare tumor of the right middle ear, which recurred about 4 years after the first removal elsewhere. The recurrence was accompanied with facial nerve paralysis. patient underwent radical mastoi dectomy for the removal of the recurrent growth. Clinical and pathological features of the growth, points in diagnosis and methods of treatment were discussed. The tumor is a fascinating subject to otologists because of its relative rarity and many questions to be answered regarding its nature, as only 14 years has elapsed after the first case report by Rosenwasser.
The Terwen's reduction method and the methods reported by Heilmeyer, Krebs and Watson were fully observed. And the results were as follows. 1. Urobilin was completely reduced to urobilinogen within 2 hours by the Terwen's method, and the highest uroblinogen value was observed on the mixed rate of the materials and the reducing agents in 40:5:5. The materials should be stored, under the isolation of air and light, at the low temperature as possible and there was a limitation for the preserved time. 2. The optimal range of pH for the extraction of urobilinogen into the solvont. 3. It was demonstrated that petroleum ether was the best solvent for the extraction of urobilinogen since the comparative studies on the various solvent, especially between ether and petroleum ether. 4. The composition of regent needed the concentration of 0.3% P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde on the use of 60% hydrochloric acid and of 1% P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde on the use of 50% hydrochloric acid. 5. The shaking process for one minute was needed till the addition of sodium acetate after the addition of regents, urobilinogen in the solvent was extracted into hydrochloric acid in the regent and the reaction was performed in the water layer by the above treatment. The progress of aldehyde reaction on this occasion was considerably quantitative. 6. The significance of adding sodium acetate was to shift to nearly the pH 4 after the terminal reaction and was to remove the coloration by indole body, with bringing the coloration of urobilinogen up to the highest and keeping the stability of it. 7. The influence of indole, indican, P.A.S. and sulfonamid derivatives shown the similar reaction in the qualitative test could be eliminated on the quantitive method.
1. The comparative studies were photometrically observed on the reacting solution after the aldehyde reaction of each proportion separated from urine by the Weiss's method at the room temperature or in heating and it was clarified, that the pigment occupied the important region of increasing the red tone was the II proportion of histidin and the origin of it's pigment was indican, by the paperchromatography. The substance of indole system was contained in the urochrom proportion and histidinel L proportion and it increased the red tone in heating, but the rate of increasing the color was low as compared with indican. 2. The combined substance of indoxyl-aldehyde i. e. Goessner's pigment became red in the polar solvent and yellowish brown in the unpolar solvent, and it changed to red over the pH 4 and yellowish brown below the pH 4. Therefore, it was yellowish brown with the absorption maximum at 474 mμ under the condition in the aldehyde reaction of urine, but it became having a red tone on the density of indican over 3mg dl. 3. The relation of urobilinogen was often observed on the red tone appeared at the first period, in heating after the addition of aldehyde reagent into urine.
In his estimation and comparative studies of Heinz bodies contained in the circulating peripheral blood of various diseases and Heinz bodies in the blood mixed with accelerating agent in vitro, the author arrived at the following conclusions. 1. In the circulating blood of normal persons no Heinz body can be found. However, in the blood mixed with accelerating agent in vitro on the averag 58.2 per cent of erythrocytes contain Heinz bodies, and there is no significant difference by sex. 2. Although no Heinz body can be recognized in the circulating blood of pregnant woman, the blood loaded with acclerating agent a slight increase of Heinz bodies can be seen. 3. No Heinz body can be found in the circulating blood of lung tuberculosis. In the blood loaded with accelerating agent in vitro the number of Heinz bodies increases along with the acceleration of blood precipitation value or with the extension of pathologic changes. 4. When SA or PAS is loaded along with the accleorating agent in vitro, such additon neither accelerates nor inhibits Heinz body formation. When these drugs are administered to patients, the circulating blood of the patients in either case shows no Heinz body. 5. In the circulating blood of leukemia sometimes Hinz bodies can be recognized, but this fact in in no way associated with the fluctuations in Heinz bodies in vitro accelerating method. 6. The blood of hookworm disease shows an increase in the number of Heinz bodies by the in vitro accelerating method, but no Heinz body can be found in the circulating blood of the patient. On the Heinz body formation by in vitro method hookworms themselves exert a greater influence than the secondary anemia. 7. In liver diseases Heinz bodies can sometimetimes be found in the circulating blood. The formation of Heinz bodies by the in vitro accelerating method approximately parallels with the value of serum bilirubin and with the extent of the liver disturbance. 8. In the cases with splenectomy Heinz bodies appearing in the circulating blood, though the amount differs by the time elapsed after the operation, namely, showing the maximum immediately after the operation and Heinz bodies decrease in number gradually thereafter. On the contrary, by the in vitro accelerating method fluctuations according to lapse of the time after the operation is slight and also no great increase can be seen. Therfore, the increase of Heinz bodies in the circulating blood immediately after splenectomy and the behavior of Heinz bodies in vitro accelerating method are different phenomena. 9. In other diseases those showing Heinz bodies in the circulating blood are patients who took rat poison, ergpyrine, sulfadiazine or ergaphenin. However, in the blood of these patients Heinz bodies are not always increased by the in vitro accelerating method. Summarizing the above, those who show an increase in Heinz bodies by the in vitro method so not necessarily revela Heinz bodies in their circulating blood, and likewise those whose circultaing blood reveals Heinz bodies do not necessarily show an in crease in Heinz bodies by the in vitro method. Namely, Heinz bodies produced in the circulating blood and Heinz bodies formed by the in vitro accelerating method have different characteristic traits.
After giving blood depletion, phenylhydrazine, hydrochloric acid hydroxylamine, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon black to rabbits the author estimated the number of Heinz bodies in the circulating blood of each animal and the number of Heinz bodies appearing in the in vitro accelerating test, and studied the relationship between the two appearances. 1. In the circulating blood of normal rabbits no Heinz body can be recognized. By the in vitro accelerating method erythrocytes containing Heinz bodies amount ot 66.7 per cent. 2. In the circulating blood of the rabbits depleted of blood once in a small or a large amount, or successively depleted of blood in an intermediate amount no Heinz body can be found. the circulating blood of the rabbits depleted of its blood once in a large amount a few Heinz bodies can be detected. By the in vitro method Heinz bodies appear in an inverse proportion to the number of erythrocytes, but there seems to be no relation with the number of Heinz bodies in the circulating blood. 3. When phenylhydrazine is injected, Heinz bodies appear in the circulating blood in various forms according to the dose of the injection. However, by the in vitro method the greater majority of Heinz bodies appeared in the circulating blood are destroyed, and many Heinz bodies observable in this instance are the ones produced anew in vitro. 4. In the case injected with hydrochloric acid hydrocylamine, Heinz bodies appearing in the circulating blood are more distinct and erythrocytes themselves are more brilliant than those in the case injected with phenylhydrazine. Even by the in vitro accelerating method Heinz bodies appeared in the circulating biood are destroyed in a lesser number than in the case of the phenylhydrazine injection. 5. In the rabbits administered with carbon tetrachloride Heinz bodies can be recognized in the circualting blood soon after the injection but they are a few in number and small in size. By the in vitro method the blood taken from 10 to 12 days after the injection an intermediate number of Heinz bodies are formed. 6. In the case injected repeatedly with carbon black Heinz bodies appear in the circulating blood 2 to 4 days after the initiation of the injection, and by the in vitro accelerating method Heinz bodies increase as long as the injection is kept up, but they decrease in number at the cessation of the injection. It seems that the function of the reticuloendothelial system is responsible for the formation of Heinz bodies in the circulating blood while the carbon black injection itself is greatly responsible for the appearance of Heinz bodies by the in vitro method. From these, the Heinz body in the circulating blood has the characteristic traits that are different from those of the Heinz body appearing in the in vitro accelerating method. Therefore even the latter is present in vivo in a preparatory state, it is believed that the latter will not immediately be transformed into the in vivo Heinz body.
The serum complement titer was messured on the admitted patients of liver disease and other several diseases at the first medical department of Okayama University, Medical School, employing the method used at the American anmy medical school. And the results were as follows. 1. The complete disappearance of complement titer was found in fulminant hepatitis. 2. The average decline of complement titer was found in acute hepatitis. 3. The complement titer showed remarkable decline in chronic hepatitis with a prolonged course and scanty healing tendency. 4. The complement titer was normal in the cases with posthepatic damage. 5. The complement titer showed normal limit or rarely ascent in cholecystopathy. 6. Thecomplement titer showed remarkable decline in livercirrhosis and hepatospleno-disease. 7. The complement titer showed a ascent tendency in hemolytic jaudice. 8. In other diseases, the complement titer showed remarkable decline in erythema and infectious mononucleosis and it showed also decline in nephrit's, Basedow's disease and subacute bacterial endocarditis. 9. The comparative correlation was observed betweem the decline of complement titer and urinary urobilinogen, urinary bilirubin, serum bilirubin, serum protein, serum colloidal reaction or the damage of excreting function. 10. The relative marked decline of complement titer was observed on the cases with the severe damage of liver parenchymal cells and the marked multiplication of intracellular tissue by the liver biopsy. 11. The decline of complement titer was observed on the most of cases with the identification of auto-livr antibody.
1. With the production of corresponding organ antibody, the complement titer generally showed slight decline on the immunization of normal rabit by heterologous oragan antiserum, i. e. the various organs of normal canine, liver, Kidney, spleen, stomach, duodenum, gallbladder and colon. The rise of the antibody titer matching to various organs, corresponding with the period of decline of decline of complement titer, was found since the observation of relation between the complement titer and corresponding organ antibody on the administration of antiserum obtained by the immunization to normal canine. 2, The decline of complement titer was observed on the cases with the administration of antiserum of the organ which was recognized to have no direct connection with the production of complement, since observing the Vicissitude of complement titer on the cases with the administration of various heterologous organ antiserum in the same manner. 3. The decline of complement titer was observed on the intraperitoneal administration of organ antigen and organ antiserum to guinea pig at the same time, and the action of complement combinative antigen antibody reaction was confirmed in vivo. 4. The decline of complement titer was observed on the normal rabit with the liver exclusion. 5. The decline of complement titer and the change of hemogram were observed on the administration of homologus anti-liver-rabit's serum previously produced to normal rabit, like their change on the administration of heterologous organ antiserum.
Various methods were used for the messurement of complement titer and the 50% hemolytic method surely showed a fine change more than the 100% hemolytic method, as the results of comparative studies between the American army medical school's method employed for my studies in the first and second article and the 50% hemolytic method, but it was thought that even the traditional method was sufficient for the clinical application.
The mesobiliviolin reaction and the intermediate products of bilirubin were observed on the B-bile, with the positive Ehrlich's aldehyde reaction, odtained from 20 cases of cholecystopathy, and the results were as follows. 1. After mesobiliviolin reaction on 19 cases the chloroform extract was separated into each pigment by column chromatography, and the absorption curves of each pigment and their changes on the addition of a saturated alcoholic solution of zine acetate were observed. 2. The question whether or not stercoblinogen occupies the position superior to mesobilinogen can be explained by the intensity of bile duct infection, especially the infection by B. coli, or by the intensity of the inflammation findings of bile duct. 3. From the 4 cases treated with antibiotics stercobilinogen could not be detected but only mesobilinogen, suggesting that antibiotics reduce the chemical activity of bacteria. 4. In 4 cases bilirubin and mesobilirubin could be detected and also a pigment that apears to be dihydromesobilirubin. From these results it bas been clarified that the in vivo reduction of bilirubin to urobilinogen is not conducted by liver enzymes but by bacterial enzymes. 5. On 2 cases the detection of d-urobilin was attempted by means of polarimeter and dioxan-HCl boiling method, but the existence of this pigment could not be observed.
The reduction of biliverdin was attempted by dissolving biliverdin in various media with the cultivation of either E. coli communis and the filtered bacterium solution. And the results were as follows. 1. In the non-proteinous media or in the pepton aqueous solution as the medium provided in the presence of 0.1% glucose biliverdin is reduced to bilirubin. However, in this instance the reduction takes place only at the central methin group but not at the vinyl group of side chain. 2. Even in the presence of pentose or hexose besides glucose similar result can be obtained, though the reduction power is less. In this instance sugar alone can not produce bilirubin. 3. Even under the condition unfavorable to the growth of bacterium, in the presence of glucose a small quantity of bilirubin is produced. 4. When various amino-acid sulfur compounds, l-ascorbic acid or egg-white exudate solution are added to the medium along with glucose, such addition only affected the velocity of the reduction and gave the same result. 5. In the presence of these substances added to various media a pigment possessing the characteristics of direct birect bilirubin has been isolated simultaneously. 6. Under the aerobic condition no effect other than the slowing-down of the reduction velocity can be recognized. 7. The factor that plays a role in the reduction of biliverdin is also excreted outside the body of E. coli communis during the culture. Furthermore, this factor is heatresistant and its reduction capacity shows itself only in the presence of glucose.
By isolating monoeter and diether produced in the preparation of bilirubindimethylester from crystalline bilirubin with the use of diazomethane, the author studied the techniques of such isolation as well as the spectroscopic and chemical properties of these ethers, and obtained the following results. 1. For the isolation of monoether and diether by means of the column chromatography active alumina is most suitable as the adsorbent and chloroform is the best developer. 2. By drawing the infrared absorption curve of bilirubindimethylester and its monoether and diether isolated by the above techniques, our on the chemical structural patterns of these substances has been confirmed to be rational. 3. Bilirubindimethylester in the form of a chloroform solution has the maximum absorption at 400mμ, and both monoether and diether have the maximum at 420mμ, showing hardly any difference among these compounds. 4. With the use of organic solvents such as chloroform, petrolether, ethylacetate, and ethylether, bilirubindimethylester is positive to the direct diazo reaction while monoether and diether prove to be negative. 5. Azo dye in the methanol solution of monoether or diether has the maximum absorption at 550mμ, and acidic azo dye by laoding hydrochloric acid to the solution has the maximum absorption at 570mμ. 6. The azo dye obtained by means of direct diazo reaction with monether and diether of bilirubindimethylester gradually moves towards the long side of short wave with the lapse of time, and the peak of the absorption curve becomes flat. However, the maximum absorption of the acidic azo dye produced by loading hydrochloric acid does not change but remain constant. 7. Monoether and diether of bilirubindimethylesteter are both readily soluble in various organic solvents, but with exception of conc. hydrochloric acid and conc. sulfuric acid, they are soluble neither in acids or alklies. 8. In the observations of changes in the color tone monoether and diether in the form of a chlorform solution, taking Gmelin reaction of bilirubin chloroform solution as the control, each shows some differences in the color tone between the case loaded with cone. ferrous chloride aqueous solution and the case loaded with aldehyde reagent. This seems to be dependent upon the stability of each structural pattern.
With the purpose to study the combination of monomethoxybilirubindimethylester (monoether) and dimethoxy-bilirubindimethylester (diether) with serum proteins the author studied monoether and diether useing veronal buffer solution at pH 8.5 as the electrolyte and bilirubindimethylester with normal human serum solution as the control by means of paper electrophoresis; and obtained the following results. 1. As monoether and diether are both difficult to dissolve in serum, it is difficult to prepare a concentrated serum solution but all albumins combined with these two ethers. 2. When these bilirubinoids are dissolved in serum with the use of Emasol 3130, a nonionic interface activator, these ethers are dissociated from albumins and they spread out to the distance equal to γ-globulin position. In the case of crystalline bilirubin and β-carotine, the results are exactly identical. In other words, the combination of these ethers with albumins seems to be not so persistent but is a relatively mild interactioin between these different molecules. 3. In place of the serum as mentioned above, when the bilirubinoids are dissolved in γ-globulin, likewise they spread out to the same position of γ-globulin. 4. When the bilirubinoinds, with Emasol 3130, are dissolved in a sulfate buffer solution pH 7.4, these are also spread out the distance equal to the position of γ-globulin. Namely, the reason why these bilirubinoids are distributed in the same position as of γ-globulin seems to lie in the fact that the motility of both non-ionic interface activator and γ-globulin is equal. 5. In the speed curve of the diazo reaction in the case where bilirubindimethylester, monoether, diether are dissolved in serum with non-ionic interface activator, Emasol 3130, bilirubindimethylester presents the direct form while monoether and diether the indirect form.
1. The author put forward the improved method of siderocyte staining method with o-phenanthroline. 2. Standing human and canine blood at the room temperature under the aseptic condition after the non-coagulating treatment, siderocyte increased temporarily and the increase delayed, but the measure was a little much. 3. The increase of siderocyte was promoted with the rise of temperature and it was controled with the remarkable fall of temperature. 4. The temporary increase of siderocyte on the addition of equal dosis of physiological saline solution into blood and on the production of erythrocyte-physiological saline floating solution was same to that of the non-coagulating blood. 5. The remarkable increase of siderocyte was not observed on the erythrocyte-dissolving solution in both of canine and human blood. 6. The formation of siderocyte was promoted with phenylhydrazine, but the increase of siderocyte was temporary. 7. The formation of siderocyte was also promoted with l-ascorbic acid. 8. Nitrobenzol had no effect on the formation of siderocyte. 9. The formation of siderocyte was chiefly participated in the decomposition process of hemoglobin in erythrocyte and the acceleration of osmosis of the erythrocyte membrane promoting it.
1. The formation of siderocyte was not observed on the subcutaneous injection of nitrobenzol into healthy canine. 2. No remarkable influence of siderocyte was not shown on the intravenous injection of l-ascorbic acid, isotonic hemoglobin solution, hypotonic hemoglobin solution and aseptic distilled water. 3. The formation of siderocyte was promoted of the subcutaneous injection of phenylhydrazine into healthy canine. 4. Siderocyte was increased on the cases with thrombosis of the reticuloendothelial system or poisoning of carbon tetrachloride. The increae of siderocyte was appeared in a little delay and the measure was high on that cases. It was thought that siderocyte was mainly disposed in the reticuloendothelial system. 5. Observing, on the forming condition of siderocyte after standing the withdrawn blood in various grades, the formation of siderocyte was already promoted at the time thought occuring the mobilization of deposit blood and it was timely and quantitatively promoted after 24 hours of blood extraction at which time the mixture of the incomplete newbone erythrocyte made rapidly. 6. It was thought that the formation of siderocyte and increase of pseudohemoglobin in erythrocyte were the same genesis.