The changes of various organ tissues were hirtologically observed per day on the intraperitoneal inoculation of ectromelia virus to mouse. And the results were as follows. 1. The changes of various organ tissures found at first was the findings accompanied by the functional and organic changes of blood vessel, the changes of lymph vessel system, reticuloendothelial cell system and connective tissue system, and was the remarkable appearance of perilobular tissue reaction including the wandering cells, and then the change extended to the parenchymal tissue and the various organ tissues became showing the special pathologic picture respectively. 2. The living period of animal was contracted with the increase of inoculated virus dosis. And there was quantitative difference, but no qualitative difference on the histological change at that time, and the convalescent process was not found at all and the infiltration of round cell was also very few in the cases with the exceedingly short living period. 3. The histological change was especially remarkable in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, and it was hemorrhagic alveolitis in the lung and the pathologic picture of nephronephritis in the kiduey. 4. The changes at the maximum stadium of the cases inoculatied the extremely high dosis of ectromelia virus were similar to those of the histological pictures of various organs in fulminant hepatitis of human and the changes at the maximum stadium of the cases inoculated the relatively high dosis of ectromelia virus were similar to those of the histological pictures of various organs at the maximum stadium of acute hepatitis in human. And the histological pictures of liver at the period from the inoculation to the maximum stadium and those of the animals being relieved of death were also similar to those, examined by the liver biopsy, at the period from the beginning to the maximum stadium and at the convalescent stndium in human hepatitis. 5. The pathologic pictures of mice with the inoculation of ectromelia virus were very similar to those of epidemic hepatitis in human and it was thought that both of them were based on the interlobular reaction.
The pathohistological changes of mice organ tissues were observed on the inoculation of ectromelia virus in the various changes of inoculated method and region. And the results were as follows. 1. The acute course was observed on the intraperitoneal inoculation, but it was subacute on the peroral and pernasal inoculation or the inoculation into the foot-sole. 2. The pathological changes of liver and spleen were diffuse on the intraperitoneal and peroral inoculation and it was local on the pernasal and subcutaneous inoculation or the in oculation into the foot-sole. 3. The change of intestine was the most remarkable on the peroral inoculation and the change of lung was the most remarkable on the pernasal inoculation. 4. The changes of organ tissues, other than those organs, were common to both of the occasions. 5. The presence of diffuse change in the organ was related to the density of invaded virus into organ and it was thought that the ectromelia virus was diluted by the systemic circulation. 6. The changes of liver and spleen were diffuse like epidemic hepatitis in human on the peroral administration and it was thought that bone of them showed a common infectious course.
The hemogram was daily observed on the mouse with the inoculation of liver emulsion of ectromelia virus in the change of inoculated dosis and region, and the comparative studies with the hemogram of epidemic hepatitis in human was studied. And the results were as follows. 1. Leukocytosis was remarkable at the maximum stadium in both of inoculated dosis and region, but the abnormality of leudocyte count was not observed in the cases with the scanty inoculated dosis or the inoculated regions except the intraperitoneal cavity. 2. On the classification of leukocyte, no special picture of neutrocyte and lymphocyte was observed on all the cases with normal leukocyte count, but the tendency of neutrocytosis and it's left shift was observed on the cases with leukocytosis and young neutrocyte was observed on the cases with remarkable leukocytosis, besides, leukemoid reaction including the appearance of erythroblast was sometimes observed on the same cases. 3. Monocytosis, plasma cells and plasmoid cells in most of cases, and reticulocyte in a few case was found since the early stadium, even though some difference was observed on each of inoculated cases. 4. The sign of monocytosis and the apperence of plasma cells was observed on the stadium without the anatomical change of liver and spleen and it was noticed that the blood reaction as a reaction of whole body preceded to the pathologic change of liver and spleen. 5. These changes were very similar to the hemogram of epidemic hepatitis in human and it was thought that was the strong results of animal experiment for presuming the pathologic change of epidemic hepatitis.
The cellular morphological description was attempted by the investigation of myelogram in 20 of normal mice and the hemogram and myelogram were also observed on the mice with the intraperitoneal inoculation of liver emulsion of ectromelia virus 109 LD50 in the dilution of 102 and 107 under the control of myelogram in normal mice, and then the mode of bone marrow in the infection of hepatitis virus was observed. comparing the above results with the myelogram of epidemic hepatitis in human and analysing the origin of the significant changes shown on the hemogram. And the results wene as follows. 1. Signifcant change was not observed on the erythroblast system. 2. The myelogram showed a parallel change to the peripheral hemogram in severe cases with remarkable leukocytosis and neutrocytosis on the peripheral blood picture. 3. The monocytosis and the appearance of plasma cells and plasmoid cells in mild cases had no direct relation to the bone marrow and it was thought that the origin of this reaction should be searched on other system, except bone marrow. 4. The myelogram in this experiment was relatively agreed with that of epidemic hepatitis in human, and it was thought that the main change was on the neutrocyte system.
With the purpose to study the combinations of bilirubin with albumin and with globulin using a veromal buffer solution (pH 8.5) as the elctrolyte the author estimated the absorption curve by means of paper electrophoresis and by paper chromatography at the first dimesnion using 2% cane sugar solution as the developer and with D-K type Beckman's autospectro-photometer; and obtained the following results. 1. Sodium bilirubinate that is a direct bilirubin and dibasic acid bilirubin which is an indirect bilirubin both combine with albumin. 2. The mode how bilirubin combines with albumin can not be the controlling factor of the direct or the indirect bilirubin reaction. 3. When desalting is done on the combined solution of sodium bilirubinate and albumin, a mixed solution of bilirubin and albumin is obtained, but no bilirubin can be isolated. 4. It is quite difficult to combine blirubin with globulin.
In order to study the combination of bilirubin with globin and also the combination of bilirubin with globin+albumin, the author estimated the absorption curves by means of paper electrophoresis using veronal buffer solution at pH 8.5 as the electrolyte and by paper chromatography at the first dimension using a 2% cane sugar solution as a developer, as well as by D-K type Beckman's autospectrophotometer; and obtained the follo wing results. 1. Sodium bilirubinate that is a direct bilirubin and dibasic acid bilirubin, an indirect bilirubin, both haye the capacity to combine with with globin. 2. Such combinations of bilirubins and globin do not control the mode of bilirubin to the diazo reaction. 3. When sodium bilirubinate is dissolved in the mixed solution of globin and albumin, it will combine with either one, namely, with globin and with albumin. Moreover, in this instance the mode of the proteins just as in the mode of sodium bilirubinate, shows a direct response to the diazo reaction but never an indirec response.
By selecting the solvent that dissolves interface activating reagents and bilirubin relatively well and after dissolving each the author prepared an interface activ bilirubin aqueous solution. This solution was evaporated at 80°C under a low pressure and the solubility in water and the chemical properties of the vapor were studied; and the following ressults were obtained. 1. Each interface activation reagent possesses its own specific capacity to dissolve bilirubin in water, and there is almost a direct-proportion relation between the quantity of bilirubin dissolved in water and the quantity of activating reagent required for such a dissolution. 2. The absorption curve of the bilirubin aqueous solution shows its maximum at 450 mμ, and with the increase in the quantity of the loaded activating reagent the absorption maximum moves 5-10 mμ towards the long side of the short wave; but in the case using non-ionic reagent the absorption maximum remains almost unchanged. 3. The bilirubin aqueous solution is positive to the direct diazo reaction, and its sensitivity to the diazo reaction is proportional to the quantity of the activating reagent added, making the maximum sensitvity to the diazo reaction stable beyond a given quantity. Therefore, the dissolution of bilirubin in water by the aid of the interface activating reagent and the positivity to the diazo reaction are two different phenomena. Thus it is impossible to say that the dissolution of bilirubin in water make it positive to the direct diazo reaction. 4. The bilirubin aqueous solution by the aid of interface activating reagent required 40 to 60 minutes for the completion of diazo reaction and the production of azo dye is about directly proportional to the time required for its production. 5. The absorption maximum of azo dye produced the diazo reaction always at 530 mμ even when pH of the solvent is changed, and the optical density increases proportionately to the strength of acidity. At the same pH the optical density at 530 mμ of azo dye produced by ionic activating reagent is higher than that of the azo dye produced by non-ionic activating reagent; whereas the optical density of 470 mμ on the long side of short wave, on the contrary, of the azo dye produced by non-ionic activating reagent is higher.
Selecting solvent that dissolves interface activating reagents and bilirubin dimethylester relatively well and dissolving each of them the author prepared an interface active bilirubin-dimethylester aqueous solution. Then evaqorating this solution at 80°C under a lolw pressure, the auther studied the chemical proqerties of the vaqor dissolved in water and compare with the proqerties of bilirubin. The following are the results of this comparative study. 1. Each interface activating reagent possesses the specific capacity to dissolve bilirubin-dimethlyester in water, and there is a direct-proportion relationship between the quantity of bilirubin dimethylester dissolved in water and quantiy of activating reagent required for the dissolution. The bilirubindimethylester dissolving capacity of each reagent is 1.5 to 4.0 times the bilirubin dissolving capacity. 2. The absorption curve of the bilirubin-dimethylester aquoeus solution has its maximum at 420 mμ, and with the increase in the quantity of the activation reagent added, the maximum absorption curve moves 5-10 mμ towards the long side of short wave. However, in the case of non-ionic activating reagent hardly any such change occurs. 3. The bilirubin-dimethylester aqueous solution is always positive to the direct diazo reaction, and its sensitivity to diazo is not affected by the quantity of activating reagent but is fixed. 4. About 50-75 per cent diazo reaction of the bilirubidimethylester aqueous solution is completed within 5 minutes, but it requires about 40 minutes for its completion. 5. Spectroscopically there is no great difference between bilirubin-dimethylester azo and bilirubin azo, but the optical desnity at 490 mμ on the long side of short wave is higher in the former.
1. When dihyrobilirubin is prepared from crystalline bilirubin by direct contact reduction with the use of collagenous palladium, at least over 100 mg crystalline bilirubin is required and it is necessary to saturate callagenoes palladium sufficiently with hydrogen before the use. 2. Crystal of dihydrobilirubin isolated from pyridine solution or isolateid by column chromatography, when dissolved in chloform solution, shows the absorpton peak at 437 mμ on the absorption curve. 3. In the primary elevation paper chromtography of dihydrobilirubin conducted at 20°C using Schleicher and Schüll-No.2043 filter paper when the developing agent is acetone-water-ammonia in the proportion of 80: 15.5, Rf equals 0.02; while when the combination is in the ratio of 40:50:10, Rf equals 0.10. 4. When dihydrobilirubin previously added with iodine is made to undergo Schlesinger reaction, it turns bluish green, emanating red fluorescent light, and shows the absorption peak at 630 mμ and 585 mμ on its absorption curve. 5. Oxide of dihydrobilirubin is greenish blue, and when it is dissolved in a 5% methanol hydrochloride, the absorption curve shows the peak at 675 mμ and 365 mμ. 6. When a dihydobilirubin serum solution is put to filter paper electrophoresis, it acts in combination with serum albumin.
1, By adding table salt to the mesobilinogen solution containing IXαamalgan reduction, and making its osmotic pressure apporximately epual to that of the body fluid, when this solution is made to act both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the liver slice specimens obtained from normal rabbit, the concentration of mesobilirubinogen is reduced, especially its reduetion is marked under aerobic conditions. However, during this reaction bilirubin, mesobilirubin, porphyrin, and propentdyopent are not produced. Moreover, the concentration of IXα-urobilin after the reaction remains the same as before the reaction. 2. In the paper chromatograph and column chromatograph of the mesobilirubinogen solution containing IXα-urobilin as mentioned above and the solution after the reaction that were left standing at room temperature for 23 days, there can be detected the production of mesobiliviolin and mesobilirhodin. This fact suggests that the decomposition of mesobilirubinogen in the liver does not occur by oxidation alone. 3. Using the solution after the reaction mentioned in paragraph 1, column chromatography has been performed with active alumina as adsorbent agent and the layer containing mesobilifuscin is isolated; and then by making Schlesinger's reaction take place, lead acetate is prepared; and in the paper chromatograph of the last substance the existence of mesobilifuscin has been confirmed. 4. Although it is not puite certain but since the quantity of mesobilifuscin is much less than the quantity of mesobilirubinogen decreased in the reaction, there seems to be other decomposition products.
The photometric observation was mainly done on the decomposition process of bilirubin to propentdyopent under various conditions. And the results were as follows. 1. The propentdyopent (soluble in ether) prepared from bilirubin by the method of v. Dobeneck displayed the absorption maximum at 283 mμ. 2. On the action of Ascorbic acid and H2O2 to bilirubin. the formation of propentdyopent was increased with the dosis of H2O2 under both of aerobic and anaerobic condition, but the absorption maximum as the intermediate product of the reaction was not identified at that time. 3. The progress of reaction was not observed on the action of only ascorbic acid to bilirubin. 4. Standing bilirubin-soda-salt in the buffer of pH 8.04, it resolved into propentdyopent under only aerobic condition. 5. The decomposition of bilirubin to propentdyopent is expected by the oxidation as it is.
The author observed on the demonstrative method of propentdyopent as the differential method between stercobilin and urobilin IX, α by W. Stich and put forward the use of photometric observation with the propentdyopent reaction for the identification of propentdyopent. And the results of it's use were as follows. 1. Standing for one hour at 37°C. after the addition of 3% H2O2 in 1/5 dosis of material, then standing for two hours at 37°C. after the addition of Mn O2, the formation of propentdyopent was observed, and it displayed the absorption maximum at 315 mμ and the absorption maximum of the coloured solution by the pentdyopent reaction displayed at 518 mμ. 2. It was recognized that the value of log T 580/T 520 showed the formation of propentdyopent, i.e. the contained dosis of mesobilirubinogen, on the occasion of positive Ehrlich's aldehydo reaction, employing the above method to human urine.
In the observations carried on the skin capillary blood vessels at the root of finger nail in 1934 cases of advanced age it has been found that the branches of both skin arterial and venous capillaries at the root of finger nail have gradually shrunk, and loops are distended and crooked, showing somewhat a lesser number of the loops. he blood circulation has become slower, and there tends to be a greater number of nodules what appear to be arterial capillary nodular changes of the vessel wall. It has been clarified, however, that such changes, that can be construed as the changes of old age, have a correlation with not only the advance in age but also with arterial sclerosis as well as with hypertension.
Histological observations were carried on the skin at the root of the left third finger in 25 cases mainly composed of advanced age. Also the investigations were conducted on the relationship between the biopsy picture of the spleen in 7 cases of advanced age accompanied by hypertension as well as the renal function on one hand and the capillary blood vessel picture at the root of finger nail; and the following results were obtained. 1. It seems that factor such as thick keratincus layer, deep melanin pigment, the paucity of capillary vessels and changes in the adjacent connective tissue are responsible for making it impossible to reveal the capillary blood vessel picture at the root of finger nail. 2. The tissue picture and the capillary blood vessel picture show mo phologically a rather parallel relationship but the blood circulation, being quite a complex problem, does not reveal any distinct relationship with these pictures. 3. From the standpoint of age, the keratinous layer grows thicker, the melanin pigment deeper, changes of connective tissue greater, and the number of capillary blood vessels lesser with advance in age. Likewise the wall of capillary arteries grows sclerotic and the partition ing of lumen is less marked along with advance in age. 4. In those showing sclerosis of the arteries in the radius n y reveal the changes mentioned above. 5. As for the relationship with the blood pressure, although arterial sclerotic changes can be recognized in hypertension, no marked changes can be observed in the cases of hypertension due to renal diseases. 6. The degree of arterial sclerosis and the disturbances of renal function in the biopsy of the kidney have about a parallel relation, and in those showing a more marked disturbance also more marked changes can be observed in their capillary blood vessel picture.
In the observations of the skin capillary blood vessels at the root of finger nail the author pursued the characteristics in various diseases and also made an attemp to observe changes in the capillary blood vessel picture caused by the use of depressants and obtained the following results. 1. Those showing mostly the normal pattern of the blood vessel picture were pulmonary tuberculosis, gastro-intestinal inflammations, habitual constipation, the adhesion of intestines and chronic hepatitis. 2. Those showing mostly the shrunkendilatated form were bronchitis, bronchial asthma, heart disesses, hypertension, arterial sclerosis, acute and chronic nephritis, nephrosclerosis, hyper-acidism, gastro-duodenal ulcers, gastro-rectal cancer, liver cirrhosis, hepatopathey, diabetes, Basedow's disease and neurosis. 3. Those characterized by the dilatated form were such diseases as influenza, gastroptosis, gastro-atony, acute hepatitis, dyskinesy of gall-bladder, beriberi, and autnonomic imbalance. 4. In hypertension capillary blood vessels are dilated and the pressure fals with the use of depressants, but in nonhypertensive cases no marked changes can be recongized in the capillary vessel picture nor in the blood pressure. 5. In the cases positive to the cold pressor test the majority show the shrunken form of the capillary blood vessel picture, but no special realtionship between the age and blood pressure can be recognized. 6. In those not showing any marked changes of the capillary blood vessel picture even at advanced age the blood pressure adjustment function seems to be maintained relatively well.
1. The absorption maxima at 593, 590 and 588 mμ were observed on the coloration by the N/100 caustic soda solution at the pH 7.5 after the addition of bromsuplhalein into human serum albumin, blood plasma and serum. 2. The combined rate of bromsulphalein with albumin was conversely increased with the decrease of bromsulphalein density on the combination of human serum protein and bromsulphalein by the utilization of paper electrophoresis and the rate of wondering pigment was gradually decreased, but the rate of residual scanty bromsulphalein combined with globulin or attached in the filter paper was almost fixed. 3. Observing the influence to the combination of serum albumin and bromsulphasein on the change of various buffer used for the paper electrophoresis, the combination was obstructed in order of veronal soda, hydrochloric acid, primary potassium phosphate, secondary natrium phosphate, borax, boric acid and veronal soda buffer. 4. Observing the influence to the combination of serum albumin and bromsulphalein on the change of pH after the addtion of buffer into normal human and dilutied serum with distilled water, the combination of them were rapidly dcreased around the pH 8-9 and it became almost zero around the pH 12. 5. In the previous experiment, the combination was more decreased with the addition of urea, lactic acid or uric acid in each than without their addition, but it showed the fixed combination by the kind of buffer on the addition of urea. the extremely scanty decline of combination on the addition of lactic acid and the considerably remarkable decline of combination. 6. Sodium chloride gave no influence of the combination of albumin and bromsulphalein in the serum of same pH, potassium chloride acted to increase the combination, and calcium chloride acted to bromsulphalein itself and acted to control the coloration by caustic soda.
1. The higher the pH of serum was, the more was the serum bromsulphalein value and the bromsulphalein value excreted into bile was decreased. 2. There was no special correlation between the serum pH and colloidal reaction. 3. The remarkable changes of bromsulphalein dosis excreting into bile and of serum bromsulphalein value were not observed on the increase of urea dosis in blood, in the canine with the fistula of gallbladder. 4. The serum bromsulphalein value became a little high on the increase of lactic acid dosis in blood, in the same canine, and the bromsulphalein dosis excreted into bile was considerably decreased. 5. The serum bromsulphalein value became a little high on the increase of uric acid dosis in blood, in the same canine, and the bromsulphalein dosis excreted into bile was considerably decreased. 6. The special changes of serum bromsulphalein value and bromsulphalein dosis excreating into bile were not observed on the increase of sodium in blood, in the same canine. 7. The serum bromsulphalein value became decreased on the increase of potassium in blood, in the same canine, and the bromsulphalein dosis excreted into bile was increased. 8. The serum bromsulphalein value became a little high on the increase of calcium in blood, in the same canine, but the remarkable change of bromsulphalein excreted into bile was not observed.
The estimation of total nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, urea, creatinine in sera on 27 patients of prostatic hypertrophy was carried out. The patients stated above were divided into two groups, the one has been received the hormone therapy and the other has not been received it. 1. Total nitrogen, generally, decreased after the prostatectomy, but in hormone therapy group, it was increased until one week after the operation. 2. Nonprotein nitrogen over 40 mg/dl at preoperation could be found in 44.4% (12 in 27 patients). In hormone therapy group, N. P. N. increased until one week after the operation and many cases showed high levels and unrest values. 3. Urea, in general, paralleled to N. P. N. and creatinine showed normal value in most cases. 4. In the cases of renal insufficiency, the nitrogen component in sera showed much differences at the operation and the effects of hormone should be considered generally.
In order to explain the physiological conditions in skin diseases by searching the tendency of metabolism of electrolytes, the contents of sodium, potassium, calcium and chlor in serum were measured in 122 cases of various skin diseases. (1) Comparatively many cases of the numerous skin diseases showed the variation of the contents of electrolytes, but it was not always remarkable and constantly regular. (2) In bullous diseases, acquired pigmentary disturbances, diffuse scleroderma and erythroderma, varied the most remarkably, and especially in the 2 former cases was pointed out the evident tendency. (3) In eczema, dermatitis, inflammatory keratosis, erythematodes and cutaneous tuberculosis were often found abnormal values, but very irregular and complicated. (4) In urticaria, drug eruption and erythema exsudativum multiforme showed slight changes. (5) The auther conceived that the metabolism of electrolytes in vivo was so influenced by the several organs, especially endocrine organs, and by the autonomous nervous system, that such irregularity of this variation was showed.
The influences of GABOB (γ-amino-β-hydroxybutric acid) upon free amino acid content and ChE activity in cerebral cortex of normal rabbits and those of rabbits after metrazol convulsin were studied. 1) After the injection of 100 mg GABOB, free amino acid nitrogen decreases temporary. Also after that of 10 mg GABOB, it shows a slight decrease. 2) During metrazol convulsion, free amino acid nitrogen content decreases markedly. 3) The intravenous injection of 100 mg GABOB before metrazol convulsion does not influence the variation of free amino acid nitrogen content during convulsion. Positively after that of 10 mg, the decrease of free amino acid nitrogen content by cardiazol convulsion is restrained slightly. 4) By intravenous injection of 100 mg GABOB., ChE activity is accelerated but by that of 10 mg, it is rather restrained. 5) During convulsion, the ChE activity in cerebral cortex decreases markedly. 6) In this case, if 100 mg GABOB is given intravenously before the intravenous injection of metrazol, in the maximum stadium of convulsion antagonistic function is fairly found, but in the latter stadium of convultion it is scarcely influenced. In case of 10 mg GABOB intravenous injection, ChE activity decreases by metrazol convulsion while it shows no sign of being influenced in the maximum stadium of convulsion.
The influence of GABOB and metrazol convulsion upon Na and K content in cerebral cortex of rabbits was studied, and then the influence of GABOB upon metrazol convulsion was investigated. Results were as follows: 1) The intravenous injection of 100 mg GABOB causes decrease of Na content in cerebral cortex of rabbits. The intravenous injection of 10 mg GABOB effects stronger than that of 100 mg in spite of its small dosis. 2) Na content in cerebral cortex of rabbits is increased by metrazol convulsion markedly in its first stadium and decreases from the medium of convulsion. But it does not recover completely even after 30 minutes from the end of the convulsion. 3) If 100 mg GABOB is given intravenously before metrazol convulsion, GABOB restraines the Na content, which had increased temporary by convulsion but which decreases with lapse of time. This level still continues 30 minutes after the end of convulsion. 4) The intravenous injection of 100 mg GABOB decreases markedly the K content in cerebral cortex of rabbits. In case of 10 mg intravenous injection the decrease is also found but it is weaker than that in the case of 100 mg. 5) K content in cerbral cortex of rabbits decreases markedly by metrazol convulsion and it does not recover completely still after 30 minutes from the end of convulsion. 6) The influnence of intravenous injection of 100 mg GABOB upon K content in cerebral cortex of rabbits during metrazol convulsion is seen neither in the first stadium nor the maximum stadium of convulsion but it accelerates the recover after the end of convulsion and let it recover to the normal level 30 minutes after the end of convulsion.
With the purpose to study on the pathologic physiology of kidney in aged people, the weight and histological findings of kidney were observed on the autopsy cases without the cause of death of renal disease in each age over 60 years old for 3 years in 1955-58, besides, the relation between the histological findings and renal function was observed on the 25 cases of aged people over 58 years old by the kidney autopsy under the classification of normal blood pressure, arterial hypertension and essential hypertension, and the renal function was observed on them with the classification of blood pressure in each age. And the results were as follows. 1. The weight of kidney in aged people decreased with the decline on renal function and it was remarkable in higher aged people. 2. The decline of renal function and the degree of damage in each tissue became remarkable with their years and with the fixation of their blood pressure as arterial hypertension or essential hypertension in comparison with the people with normal blood pressure. 3. As for the correlation between the blood pressure and the degree of damage in each tissue, it was insignificant in the cases with normal blood pressure, but the correlation between the rise of blood pressure and the sclerosis of minor artery was observed on the cases with essential hypertension in the cases with hypertension. 4. No definite correlation between the findings of eyeground and the degree of damage in each tissue was not observed on the cases with normal blood pressure or hypertension, but considerable correlation between the sclerosis of minor artery and the findings of eyeground was found in the cases with essential hypertension. 5. No close relation between the decline of PSP value below 25% in 15 minutes and the degree of damage in each tissue was not observed, but the PSP value in 15 minutes declined with the increase of ages and blood pressure and there was considerable correlation between PSP and RRF. 6. The good results of GFR was numerous and the degree of damage in each tissue was slight in the cases with normal blood pressure, but there was considerable correlation between the degree of damage in various tissues and the GFR value declined with the increased of ages and blood pressure as same as the decline of PSP. 7. The degree of damage in each tissue and RPF was slight in the cases with normal blood pressure. And there was considerable correlation between the degree of damage in various tissue and RPF in the cases with hypertension and their correlation was more remarkable in the cases with essential hypertension than that in the cases with arterial hypertension. 8. As for the correlation to FF, there were many people showing high value of FF over the average value of 0.22 and FF incresed with the rise of blood pressure and the severe damage of tissue in many cases. 9. As for the correlation to RR, RR decreased, with the rise of blood pressure and the severe damage of tissue. 10. No fixed correlation was not observed on NPN in the cases with normal blood pressure and hypertension. 11. The degree of damage in each tissue and albuminuria were slight in the cases with normal blood pressure, but there was correlation betetween the degree of damage in each tissue and albuminuria in the cases with hypertension. 12. As for the correlation between the sclerosis of renal blood vessels and RBF, the fixed correlation was not always observed on the cases with normal blood presure or arteriosclerotic hypertension, but both of arterio-and arteriolar sclerosis had close relation to RBF in the cases with essential hypertension. 13. As for the arterial sclerosis of renal blood vessels in aged peolpe, the degree of sclerosis was various, but itwas observed on the middle and small arteries and it was rare or slight in the cases with normal blood pressure.
With the purpose to study on the pathologic physiology of liver in aged people, the weight and histological findings of liver were observed on the autopsy cases without the cause of death of liver disease in each age over 60 years old for 3 years in 1955-58, besides, the correlation between the histological findings and liver function was observed on the aged people over 57 years old by the liver autopsy under the classification of normal blood pressure, arterial hypertension and essential hypertension, and the liver function was observed on them in each age. 1. The liver weight in aged people decreased and its degree was remarkable with their years. 2. The main region of liver cells' anisocytoiss and liver atrophy was at the central zone. The main region of nucleolar anisocytosis and concentration was diffuse, but it was rather strong at the marginal zone. 3. The sclerosis of liver artery in aged people was rarely observed on the cases with normal blood presure, but it was observed on 2/3 of the cases with arterial hypertension and it was slightly observed on most of the cases with essential hypertension. And it was known that there was considerably close correlation between the sclerosis of liver artery and the sclerosis of minor artery in the kidney. 4. The dilatation of central vein in the liver was observed on most of the cases in aged people and it was supposed that the passive hyperemia of liver was numerous in old people. 5. The brown pigmentation increased with the increase of decade. 6. The thickening and multiplication of cross fiber or the dilatation of capillary vessel were observed on the central and middle zones. 7. The multiplication of stroma was slightly observed and no difference by the blood pressure or ages was observed. 8. As for the liver function in aged people, the antidotal function was mainly disturbed, but the disturbance of other liver functions i.e. excreting function and serum colloidal reaction etc. were slight, even though those disturbances. The disturbance of liver function was more worse on 7th decade than that on 6th decade, but it was more mild on 8th decade than that on 6th or 7th decade. And the disturbance of liver function was more remarkable in the cases with hypertension than that on the cases with normal blood pressure. 9. The parallel relation between the findings of liver tissue and liver function was not always observed.
The clinical findings, course and laboratory findings were fully studied on the 10 cases of primary lung moniliasis. And the results were as follows. 1. The 5 moderate and severe cases agreed with the primary lung moniliasis being reported hitherto. 2. The 5 mild cases agreed with severe cases on the clinical findings and various laboratory findings, and difference was only observed on it's grade and general symptom. 3. Therefore, the existence of mild case being never reported should be recognized in primary lung moniliasis. 4. The cause of misdiagnosis and diagnostic foundation in this disease was clarified. 5. This disease was numerous in the person over 40 years old and in female. It was relatively severe in youth.
The 4 cases with the diagnosis of secondary lung and bronchial moniliasis were fully investigated and the difference between primary and secondary lung moniliasis was studied: And the results were as follows. 1. Secondary lung and bronchial moniliasis was apt to be concealed under the main disease, but it showed as same as the symptom of primary lung moniliasis. 2. The loss of individual resistence was naturally considered for the pathogenesis of secondary lung and bronchial moniliasis and the effect of antibiotics was also considered. 3. The fixed dosis of sarkomycin restrained the growth of candida albicans in vitro and vivo.
The threshold value of taste was measured in 144 cases on the admission and the convalescent period with treatment. And the result were as follows. 1. On the attac of disease, the rate showing the threshold value over normal was high in ordor of the sweet, bitter, sour and salty taste. 2. As for the rising degree of threshold value over normal limit, many cases showed the slight rise of sweet, salty and sour taste and there were considerably many cases with the high rise of bitter taste. 3. As for the change of the threshold value of taste before and after the treatment, the salty and sour taste changesd within normal limit in many cases, the sweet and bitter teste showed abnormal threshold value before the treatment in pretty many cases. But the cases showing abnormal threshold value of the above 4 tastes before the treatment showed the returning tendency to normal threshold value after the treatment. 4. The resing degree of the threshold value of taste was different with eaoh disase, the sweet saste showed the high rise in dncdenal ulcer and hapatitis and it showed the slight rise in chronic gastritis and anemia. The cases with the rise of salt taste were few and the degree of rise was also slight, but there were many cases with the rise of salt taste in nephritis and heart failure. And there were few cases with the rise of salt taste in fever disease, out there were many cases with the high rise in the above cases. The rising degree of sour taste was slight in many cases, but there were many cases with the rise of the threshold value in livercirrhosis and high fever. The bitter teste showed considerably high rise, especially it was remarkable in stomach ulcer, liver disease, heart failure, and high fever. But it died not show in most of chronic gastritis and diabetes. 5. There were many cases showing the high threshold value in the cases with thick fur and it was thought that the multiplication of tongue papilla influenced upon the sweet taste. The remarkable change of threshold value was not observed on the cases with papillar atrophy and tongue fissure. 6. No fixed correlation between the colloidal reaction of liver function in liver disease and the threshold value of taste was observed. 7. The rise of the threshold value of bitter taste was observed on many cases with the decline of glomerular filtrating dosis in kidney disease, but the relation to the salt taste and other taste was not observed.
The corrlation among the cotained substance in blood, the acidity of fastric fluid the pH of saliva and the taste was observe on the attacked paiod and convalescen pariod of disease. And the resulte were as follows. 1. Observing on the correlation between the dosis of serum sodium and the throshold value of taste, the threshold value of sweed taste showed the high value in many cases with the low value of serum sodium at the attacked period of disease and it showed the declining tendency with the increase of serum sodium by the recovery of disease. No fixed correlation between the dosis of serum sodium a d the salt, sour or bitter taste was observed. 2. The correlation between the dosis of serum chloride and the threshold value of saste was similar to that on the occasion of serum sodium. 3. As for the correlation between the dosis of serum potassium and the threshold value of taste, many cases with the high value of serum potassium at the attacked period of disease showed the high value of serum potassium at the attacked period of disease showed the high threshold value of sweet and bitter taste and they showed the returning tendency to normal value at the convalescent perio with normal value of serum potassioum. No fixed correlation between the dosis of serum potassium and the threshold value of salt or sour taste was observed. 4. As for the correlation bet ween the dosis of serum iron and the threshold value of taste, the threshold value of bitter taste showed the tendency taking the high value on the low value of serum iron. The tendency was especially remerkable in the patients with anemia. No fixed relation between the dosis of serum iron and the threshold value of sweet, salt or sour taste was not observed. 5. As for the correlation between the dosis of serum copper and the threshold value of taste, the theshold value of sweet and sour taste showed the tendency to declins, as the dosis of serum copper became decreased at the attaked period of disease in many cases. And they showed the tendency to decline with the decrease of serum copper at the convalescent period, but no fixed correlation between the desis of rerum copper and the threshold value of salt or bitter taste. 6. The correlation between the increase or decrease of blood sugar at the hunger time and the rise of decline of the threshold value of sweet or sour taste was observed on various diseases, other than diabetes, In diabetes, the threshold value of sweet taste at the hunger time showeed the high valun, but no fixed correlation between the blood sugar at the hunger time and the threshold value of salt or bitter taste was observed. 7. No fixed correlation among the dosis of serum protein, the acidity of gastric fluid, the pH of saliva the threshold value of taste was observed.
One case showing a special chest X ray finding with remarkable calcification, differing from miliary tuberculosis or hematogenous diffuse form of moniliasis, was accidentally observed on the study of various diseases with chief complaint of cough and the cases was reported, as the first cases of histoplasmosis in Japan, in marking various observation.
Aseptic cultivation of various tissues from the patient's corpse with the diagnosis of histoplasmosis since the findings of chest X-ray and the results of clinical tests while in life was attempted and histoplasma capsulatum never identified in Japan was isolated, mycologically identified and it's pathogenicity was confirmed. Furthermore, the author put forward a life cycle of histoplasma capsulatum since the observation of various conditions in relation to the two phases and the electron microscopic observation on the use of the fungus isolated from the reported case.
Histoplasmin test and calcification herd of lung field were studied on the people in Okayama prefecture. And the results were as follows. 1. The positive rate was 3.9% in 2, 970 people on the observation of histoplasmin skin test in each district and it showed such a high rate of 8.4% in Mitsuishi district. 2. The positive rate was high in the miners and workers in the brickyard on the observation of professional distinction, and it showed close relation to the profession handling the ground and to the handled ground. 3. No correlation was recognized between histoplasmin and the size of induration or redness of skin reaction. and also between the induration's size of histoplasmin test and the reddend size of tuberculin skin test. 4. On the observation of lung calcification herd in each group of histoplasmin and tuberculin skin test, it showed the most high rate in the group with the positive histoplasminand negative tuberculin skin test, and the distribution of calcification herd in the lung field showed difference between the cases with the positive histoplasmin skin test and the cases with the positive tuberculin skin test and the calcification herd in the former showed a spread tendency to the lung fields. 5. The adoption of the standard being used hitherto, i. e. the size of skin induration between 5 mm and 7 mm was appropraite for the decision of positive histoplasmin skin test. According to this standard, the positive rate of histoplasmin skin test was 0.37% in Okayama prefecture.
The stucture of the human lympl vessel wall was studied with a special reference to the muscular architecture, and also to the regional and individual differences. Twenty-eight preserved cadavers of Japanese adults and one fresh corpse were used. The specimens were prepared from them within the range macroscopically possible of obtaining necessary materials. Therefore, the smallest vessels were not involved in the present study. Besides ordinary histological procedures, film specimen method and graphical reconstruction were also applied. 1. The muscle bundles of the lymph vessel wall, ever changing their course, branching out, and anastomosing with one another, form a flat network (muscle bundle group or muscle plate). At the thicker portion, the muscular coat consists of multiple muscle plates. Their bundles intersect with one another obliquely and form diamond meshes, but there never interlace with one another like textile fabrics. Often a group of muscle bundles branches out from one muscle plate and form new musucle plate, the bundles of which are directed in another direction. Such communications of msucle bundles can be observed commonly in between each layer of the muscular coats (see below). 2. Elastica interna of the lymph vessel is poorly developed. It spreads out around the bundels of the inner longitudinal muscle, forming the elastic sheathes. Therefore, it is not necessarily of a single layer, but is often made up of a rather wide zone including longitudinal muscle bundles. 3. The muscles of the intima and the adventitia are thin, generally consisting of a single or double muscle plates running approximately longitudinally. The muscular coat of the media is thick. The muscle bundles rung enerally longitudinally in the inner layer and circularly in the outher layer with ones in transitional state in between. However, some of the vessels show all the muscle bundles of the media running longitudinally, while in others all circularly. The longitudinal muscle bundles of the intima and inner layer of the media, connecting with each other, constitute the inner longitudinal muscle of the lymph vessel. The course and obiqueness of the muscle bundles of the media are extremely irregular so that the coat offers variable patterns. 4. The regional differences in the structure of the lymph vessel are most markedly exhibited in the amount of the longitudinal and circular muscles. Furthermore, systematic differences are involved to a great extent in them, and local ones seem to be less significant. 5. Systematic differences. a) In the most peripheral lymph vessels the wall is thin, and contains only a small quantity of longitudinal muscle, suggesting the transformation to muscleless vessels. However, more proximally the wall becomes fairly thicker, the vessel showing considerable contraction. In this type the muscular coat is composed mostly of longitudinal bundles and only a few circular bundles can be recognized. Still nearer to the center the vessels are now made up of three muscular coats, namely, the inner logitudinal, the middle ciruclar and the outer longitudinal. As compared with the lumen the wall in rather thin, and contains less muscles, the contraction of the vessels growing weaker. According to these differences in the muscular architecture, author divided lymph vessels into five types. Of them the vessels consisted of three muscle coats seem to be designated as conducting lymph ducts. The thoracic duct and other lymph trunks as weel as vessels in the upper and lower limbs (excepting those in the periphery) and the chain of vessels ascending from the deep subinguinal nodes to the lumbar trunks belong to this category. Most of other medium-sized vessels belong to the vessels consisted only of longitudinal muscle.
The thoracic ducts and other lymph vessels of 19 adult rabbits were investigated. 1. The wall of the rabbit lymph vessel is very thin in comparison with its rather large lumen. Regional differences in its sturcture seem to be rather quantitative. Namely, the wall of thoracic ducts is well developed, but towards the periphery all the constituents grow weaker and weaker. 2. The elastic tissue is generally well developed, and elastica interna is conspicuous in rabbit lymph vessels. 3. In the media the elastic tissue is always found as remarkable longitudinal networks that cover the outer side of the muscle bundles as the sheath and are connected with elastica interna in may points. Therefore, the part of the wall devoid of muscle bundles lacks in the elastic element. 4. The muscles are found exclusively in the media. In the thoracic ducts, large and small band-like muscle bundles in the form of a layer of single muscle fibers run circularlyobliquely, ever branching out in the course and anastomosing each other. However, in parts of a section such bundles are found in double layers, while in others they are comletely missing. In other lymph vessels only a few single muscle fibers are scattered, forming a single layer. Some of them run obliquely-circularly, mixed with others running obliquely-longitudinally. There is no definte pattern in their course but it seems oblique circular fibers are rather predominant. 5. The lumbar trunks possess more muscle than the subclavian and jugular trunks. 6. The connective tissue is most developed in the adventitia and this constitutes the principal part of the wall. This laryer in larger vessels is not of uniform thickness around the circumference, but it has cord-like thickenings running longitudinally. In addition, longitudinal elastic fibers are scattered in the adventitia.
Stipites laminariae was inserted in cranial cavity of dogs and its swelling by water resorption made a mechanical depression on the brain which caused motoric palsy of lower extremities. The occurence and recover of palsy was studied with the lapse of time. Also the change of nerve cells in motor cortex especially of Betz gigantic cells and the edematous change of brain tissue were timely studied. Results: 1) Intensity and duration of motoric palsy ran parallel with intensity and duration of mehanical depession of stipites laminariae. 2) The degeneration of nerve cells varied with intensity and duration of depression, but if the depression continued more than 6 hours the degree of degeneration became constant. 3) The occurence of palsy generally preceeded the degeneration of nerve cells. 4) Short duration of depression caused no severe degeneration to nerve cells. Cases in which brain edema was found intensively and widely, palsy was found. 5) Under rash and big pression the degeneration of nerve cells could be caused even by mere mechanical depsession. It was proved in autopsy. 6) It is considered that in living body the degeneration of nerve cells is caused not only by simple mechanical depression but also by lymph stagination, brain edema and the disturbances of blood supply such as acute break, anemia and congestion.
The available literature on various side-effects occurring at theadministration of Antabuse all deals mainly with the development of severe psychotic symptoms. as for the causes of such side-effect systemic poisoning or the cerebral organic disturbances accompaning it or the activation of dormant factor can be pointed out, but in the present investigation the auther studied mild side-effects that usually appear transiently; namely drowsiness, malaise loss of appetite, sweating, headache, fever, and oppressive feeling by means of electroencephalogram. In 37 cases given Antabuse severe psychotic symptoms appear in one case, and mild sideeffect in 15 cases. Of them abnormal encephalographic waves appeared in 12 cases. One case indicated the existence of organic damages, and two cases the organic damages reactivating dormant epileptic factor or inducing epilepsy. The electroencepharogram of epilepsy in the case not revealing severe clinical symptoms was also reactivated; and in 4 cases the electroencephalogram of epilepsy or abnormal wave close to it appeared. The electroencephalogram was not reactivated in two cases with organic damages. In the other two cases the so-called transitional wave appeared. From these, the fact that 7 out of 12 cases had organic damages or revealed abnormal waves suggesting the existence of such damages indicates that the toxicity of Antabuse is virulent and that during the intoxication it will generally inflict damages to the brain.
In the report 1 the auther discussed about the side effects appearing in the patients being treated with antabuse and pointed out these abnormal findings are far severer as compared with their clinical symptoms by comparative study of electroencephalogram; and deduced that Antabuse has an extremely strong toxic action on the brain. In order to substantiate these findings still further the author injected a large amount of this drug (5 times the usual dose for 5 days) rapidly to animals (dogs) and studied the pathohistology of the brains, and obtained the following results. Hyperemia of capillary blood vessels, anemic changes, necroses, the thickening of media, and various changes, in the tissue surrounding these vessels; namely nodules formed by glia cells, infiltrations of small round cells, edema, swelling of nerve cells, or chronic atrophic picture, can be observed scatteringly in the cerebral cortex, gray matter, various subcortical nuclei, and in the cerebellum.
In Part 2 the author discussed about the organic damages induced in the dog brains by the rapid administration of a large dose of Antabuse, and confirmed the deduction nade in Part 1. In the present experiment the normal dose, taking the usual dose administered to human as the standard, to dogs for a long period of time (0.01 g kg for 40 days) and studied pathohistologic findings in the brains of these animals. As the results the findings were similar to those reported in Part 2, namely, various pathologic changes could be found in the blood vessels of the cerebral cortex, gray matter, various subcortical nuclei and cerebellum, and also in places these pathologic changes extended to the cerebral parenchyma surrounding the blood vessels. The results in the present cases differed from those in Part 2 in that the changes in blood vessels were slighter in degree but more extensive and they were aged.
A 47-years old farmer, male: Afflicted with paratyphus C, at the age of 29 years, and followed by tertian malaria, attack occurring at the interval of three days. Thereafter he had continual and intermittent tic-like or tonic cramps. This cramps grow more frequent with lapse of time, and finally the cramps occured uninterruptedly during his waking hours. This does not change by emotional changes, what he wants to do or by his will, but it is absent during his sleeping hours. Concomitant with such clinical symptoms, multiple foci from the right hemisphere can always be observed in the electroencephalogram, and sometimes multiple foci from the left hemisphere can also be seen. In the physocephalic picture a slight atrophic picture can be recognized in a portion of the cerebrum, especially in the right hemisphere. Then in March when he was about 47 years old, he had occasional expiratory dyspnea, and thereafter there occurred transiently such symptoms as loss of memory, fatigue, and restlessness what might be construed as “epilepsy-replacement” phenomena. However, up today there occurred no great or small fit or loss of consciousness.