Primary culture of dog kidney cells was made by author and they are being carried out successfully up to the 250th generation at present. It has been found that dog kidney cells can be readily isolated and also successive cultures of these cells are possible, just as with such established cell line as HeLa cells. The results of this study proved that measles virus possesses a high susceptibility to primary cultured dog kidney cells and the other cultured cells. Namely, the infectivity gradually rises from the first generation of the infected cells and by the third generation the infection has come to be established and completed, showing TCID 50/ml to be around 6.0 to 7.0, and as for CPE there can be observed fibroblast-like cell degeneration, giant cell formation, and the formation of cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. These findings indicate that dog kidney cells are one of the cells suitable for the study of measles virus.
A comparative study on the susceptibility of measles virus and pathological changes of cells in culture was carried out with dog kidney cells and many other cultured cells by inoculating measles virus into the media of cultures. As the result it was found that FL cells and HeLa cells demonstrated the highest infectivity, followed by that of dog kidney cells. Monkey cells (MS cells) and human amnion cells (JJC-3 cells) also showed a fair degree of infectivity to measles virus (the report on such cells has not yet been made public). On the other hand, L cells and hamster kidney cells, what had been generally reported to be readily infected by measles virus were found to show a low infectivity only, indicating them to be not suitable cells for such a study. In the case of dog kidney cells infected with measles virus, viral proliferation could be observed clearly during the period 4 to 7 days after the inoculation.
In normal controls and patients with various blood diseases, biopsies of the duodenal mucosa were performed for an investigation of histopathological changes and their relation to intestinal iron absorption. Followings are the results. 1. In essential hypochromic anemia, leukemia, and anemia associated with cancer, inflammatory changes were observed, and in a case of acute myelogenous leukemia, infiltration of immature myelogenous cells was observed. 2. Little inflammatory changes were noted in aplastic anemia, suggesting that histological changes in the intestinal mucosa are not related at least to the genesis of this disease. 3. In a case of hookwarm anemia, remarkable inflammatory changes were noted, suggesting the presence of disturbances in the intestinal iron absorption as one of the causes of this anemia. 4. No significant histological changes were observed in myxedema, Mikulicz syndrome, purpura simplex, and pernicious anemia. 5. The above investigations suggest that inflammatory changes of the intestinal mucosa generally have some influences on the iron absorption.
In normal controls and patients with various blood diseases, biopsies of the duodenal mucosa were performed for the observation of stainable iron distribution in the intestinal mucosa and quantitative analysis of the intestinal tissue iron. Followings are the conclusions derived from comparison of the above results with serum iron levels and sideroblasts. 1. As for the findings of stainable iron distribution, only minimal distribution was noted in a few cases of normal controls. The iron distribution was remarkable in aplastic anemia, mild to remarkable in a some cases of anemia associated with cancer and leukemia, and mild in a case of pernicious anemia. In contrast, however, none at all was noted in essential hypochromic anemia, many cases of leukemia, and anemia associated with cancer. In a case of pernicious anemia, remarkable iron granules were observed in the proper mucosal layer and epithelium after treatment. 2. Quantitative analysis of intestinal tissue iron generally showed lower levels in essential hypochromic anemia and anemia associated with cancer than in normal controls, higher levels in aplastic anemia, and inconstant levels in leukemia. 3. Co-relations were noted between the amount of intestinal tissue iron and the serum iron level, and also between the former and the appearance rate of sideroblasts. 4. In iron absorption tests, no significant changes were noted other than a tendency to a minimal increase of the intestinal tissue iron in aplastic anemia. 5. From the above results, it is assumed that the amount of intestinal tissue iron is nearly proportional to the serum iron level and the appearance rate of sideroblasts. These findings also suggest not only that the intestinal tissue iron is significant as the iron present in the course of iron metabolism of the body, but also that the intestinal mucosa as a series of the reticuloendothelial system like the spleen and liver, plays an important role in the course of iron metabolism with respect to its storage and absorption.
In normal controls, essential hypochromic anemia and aplastic anemia, biopsies of the duodenal mucosa were performed for an investigation of the amount of stainable iron and iron uptake by means of radioautography. Followings are the conclusions derived from comparison of these two values. 1. The uptake of radioactive iron into the intestinal epithelium is mild in normal controls and remarkable in essential hypochromic anemia, although no differences were noted following iron treatment. Almost no iron was taken up in aplastic anemia. 2. In general, the amount of non-hemine iron in the intestinal mucosa is invertly proportional to iron absorption rate of the intestinal epithelium. This indicates that the intestinal iron absorption is influenced by the amount of intestinal tissue iron, and the intestinal epithelium, bordering the intestinal cannal, plays an important role in the initial stage of the iron absorption.
In the attempts to classify leukemic cells it is often difficult to identify cells solely with fixed and stained blood smears as in acute leukemia where the percentage of blast cells is high. In such instances, however, it is generally possible to distinguish most cells when vital observations are carried out in conjunction with cytochemical methods, fluorescence micro scopy, as well as electronmicroscopy. The results of these observations have been briefly summarized. The characteristic findings of lymphoblasts, myeloblasts, and monoblasts as revealed by May-Giemsa staining, brilliant cresyl blue supravital staining, phase-contrast microscopy, vital staining and electronmicroscopy. are illustrated in the tables.
ECGs were examined in 88 cases before and after operation. After operation, ECG was taken on the second, fourth and sixth day. Fourty-two cases (48%) showed some changes in ECG after operation. Patients with gastric cancer showed some changes most frequently (63%). Among the post operative changes, T wave change was more common. Hypertension, bleeding, variation of blood pressure during operation and operation time had influence on the ECG. Serum potassium was prove to be lowered after operaiion.
It is well recognized that those cells, requiring protein synthesis as growing immature cells or the secretory gland cells, contain a large amount of RNA in their cytoplasm, thus ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm plays a very important role in the protein synthesis. Altho ugh cerebral ganglion cells contain a fairly large amount of RNA in their cytoplasm, the cell growth, cell division and protein secretion are not usually observed in these particular cells. High level of RNA of the cerebral ganglion cells may have an intimate relation with the highly differentiated cell function of the cerebral ganglion. For the purpose to elucidate the high level of RNA in the cerebral ganglion cells and its function, the author injected ribonuclease into the brain and liquor of guinea pigs to decompose RNA in the brain tissue. The behaviors of the animal under these conditions were observed, and also histological examinations were performed with each animal. As the result the following points were clarified. 1) when over 1 mg of RNase was injected into the brain, it caused lytic change of RNA in the cerebral ganglion cells and functional disturbances such as immobility, but the animal still retained the orientation ability. 2) It was confirmed that neither reduction nor disappearance of RNA in the cerebral ganglion cells could be the real cause of the experimental guinea pigs. These results suggest that this method would serve adequately for the analysis of the role of RNA in the brain cells.
In a previous paper it was revealed that either the injection of RNase directly into the cerebral tissue or into liquor by cisternal puucture caused similar changes on tbe reduction of RNA level of the cerebral ganglion cells in the brain of guinea pigs, and the behavioral changes of the animals. It was thought that the same method might also be applicable to the mouse in which further paychological and behavioral analysis are more readily accomplished. In the present experiment RNase was injected directly into cerebral tissue of the mouse and the motor function of the mouse brain was analyzed. As the result it was found that on the injection of 0.05ml of 1% RNase directly into the cerebral tissue of the mouse, severe motor disturbance was induced, and in addition, the degree of the functional disturbance paralleled with the decreased leve of RNA on the cerebral ganglion cells.
In the previous paper (parts 1, 2) it has been clarified that RNA in the cerebral tissue of animal has an important bearing on the function of motor nerves. As one of the series of such studies, using mice an attempt was made to see what bearing RNA in the cerebral nerve cells would have on memory retention, and the results of this study are presented in this paper. First, a group of mice were trained to memorize a complicated labyrinth consisting of 14 sets of T-shaped passages until they remembered every passage so that they could pass through this set of pathway without a single mistake. Then 0.05ml of 0.5% or 1.0% RNase Hanks's solution was injected directly into the brain of mice. In the case of the mice injected with 0.5% RNase, although histologically the decrease in the cytoplasmic RNA of cerebral nerve cells was relatively small in some of them, these mice once trained to pass through the complicated 14 sets of passages, fumbled at 3 to 5 places. In the case of the mice which had been well trained to pass through the complicated labyrinth originally without a fault and injected with 1.0% RNase, in which the decrease in the cytoplasmic RNA of the cerebral nerve cells was marked, and the disturbances of the function of motor nerves were observed, it was found that they lost their way at 6 or 7 places. From these findings it is concluded that a decrease in the contents of RNA in cerebral nerve cells of the mouse brings about a disturbance if the memory retention as observed after the injection of RNase; in other word, RNA in the cerebral nerve cells has an important bearing on the memory retention in animal.
1) The prognosis of hydrarthrosis is generally good with spontaneous healing to be expected. Female patients aged over 40 years with the progress lasting more than 5 years tend to gradually develop polyarthritis, which is also pathohistologically similar to rheumatoid arthritis. 2) RA-tests from the synovial fluid of the knee joint are closely related with RA-tests from the serum, the positive-rate being roughly same with each other. CRP-tests from the synovial fluid, however, is lower than that from the serum. 3) Both proteins and cells in the synovial fluid of the knee-joint are increased in hydrarthrosis, and they also parallel with systemic activities of the disease. 4) The disease is systemically active in cases whose RA-test from the synovial fluid is positive. 5) Intra articular pressure of the knee-joint normally varies from -10 to +40mm Hg as the joint moves, however, the peak-pressure would rise as high as +250mmHg in hydrarthrosis or synovial retention. As the result of this, synovial capsules and both vastus (medial and lateral) become more atrophied, which is considered to go into a vicious cycle. 6) In the advanced rheumatoid arthritis, steroid hormones locally injected into the knee joint do not posses long-lasting effect.
In the examinations conducted on 62 grown-up children (69 joints) housed at the Kojika-en (Hospital and home for crippled children), who had been treated by subtrochanteric osteotomy for congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH) during the period from 1956 to 1962, the following results were obtained. 1) Their postoperative values that can be considered as excellent and good amounted to 15 joints (21.7%), those classed as fair 32 joints (46.4%), those as tolerable 18 joints (26.1%), and those poor 4 joints (5.8%), 2) Roentgenograms of those with good postoperative results revealed that the angle of the osteotomy was preserved well for a long time, and the ratio a/A (where a stands for ischium center line-femoral shaft median line; and A for body median line-ischium center line) did not increase, and in addition, the center of hip-movement was at lesser trochanter. 3) The diminution of the angle of osteotomy proved to be especially marked in younger ohildren and the reoperation was performed in some. 4) In the analysis of walking gaits with moving pictures, it was found to be difficult to eliminate completely both walking with gluteus maximus and medius gait, but most of them could carry on activity of daily life. 5) Dysfunction of gluteus muscles has a great bearing on prognosis. 6) Bilateral subtrochanteric osteotomy, if conducted after a careful study of the case and cut at an appropriate angel, will bring moderately good results. 7) From anatomical viewpoint, it can be safely said that the subtrochanteric osteotomy is an useful treatment for old CDH and it is such a nature that can solve this difficult problem sufficiently.
1. On measuring the values in various parts of the heart in fluorograms, it was examined how they change in ten years. The result of the examination showed that the aortic arch diameters right and left, the transverse diameters on the left increased in proportion to the increase of man's age. The rate of increase, however, was not the same in age; generally, the older a man is, the greater the percentage of increase will be; the left transverse diameters showed the greatest rate of swell in the age from twenties to thirties. 2. About the relation between age and cardiac measurements, every measured value, except the right transvers diameters, was proved to be greater in the older age. The right transverse diameters registered its highest value in the age from thirties to forties without reference to blood pressnre. 3. In regard to the transition of blood pressure and cardiac measurements over ten years; the notable increase in the aortic arch diameters and the left transverse diameters of high blood pressure group was perceived, as compared with the normel blood pressure group. In the left aortic arch diameters and the left transverse diameters, the high blood pressure group showed twice as much rate of increase as the normal blood pressure group. 4. About the relation between blood pressure and cardiac measurements, the high blood pressure group showed greater value than the normal blood pressure group in the left transverse diameters and the aortic arch diameters right and left.
1. The measured values in various parts of the heart in fluorograms, examining how they change in ten years, was calculated. Its result showed the difference of the increse caused by body-weight was hardly noticed. 2. Concerning the relation between body-weight and the measured value of heart; in the group of fat people, the left aortic arch diameters and the transverse diameters right and left showed a considerable greater value than in those of average and thin people. 3. with recept to the transition of blood pressure and cardiac measurements over ten years, the high blood pressure group showed a notable increase in the aortic arch diameters right and left and the left transverse diamters against the normal blood pressre group. 4. As to relation between blood pressure and cardiac measurements, the high blood pressure group showed high value in the left transverse diameters and the aortic arch diameters right and left, in comparison with the normal blood pressure group.
By direct examinations of 46 patients with 55 injured nerves out of those patients who had received the suture of injured median and ulnar nerves in the past 7 years at Department of Orthoedic Surgery, Okayama University and of those over one year after the operation, postoperative results were studied and the following findings were obtained. 1. As the lapse of time after inception of the nerve injnry passes 3 months, the postoperative result gradually grows poorer and after 6 months the prognosis is extremely poor. In contrast, the secondary suture performed as early as 3 to 8 weeks after the injury gives satisfactory results and it does not necessarily require primary suture. 2. The younger the patient, the better is the prognosis, especially the prognosis is very good in the age range of 0 to 9 years old. 3. It has been found that prognosis is relatively good in the cases of sharp cut injuries such as glass cut injury because the damage to nerves as well as to surrounding tissues is smaller and the danger of infection is less. 4. In the cases who had infection of some kind prior to receiving the nerve injury the postoperative results are invariably poor. 5. when the injury is sustained at a level more proximal, the results are poorer. Ulnar nerves are injured more frequently at high and intermediate levels. This point also explains the poor postoperative results in the cases of ulnar nerve injuries. 6. There is a possibility of recovery for the period of 5 years after the nerve suture, and especially the recovery of sensory function can be expected for 5 year period after the suture operation. 7. In the ease where median and ulnar nerves are injured simutaneously on the same level, these two nerves recover to about the same degree. 8. By means of two test, namely, picking up test and precision grip test, it has been possible to examine the effect on the routine affairs of life of the patient, that was ditficult to accomplisd by the former sensory tests. 9. The sudomotor function after suture of injured nerve does not necessarily parallel with the recovery of sense, and in the cases past 3 years after suture the sudomotor function in practically every case has recovered to normal irrespective of the sensory function.