With the purpose to study the experimental ccrebral hemorrhage from histopathological and histochemical aspects, a series of experiments was conducted with the brain of 25 male rabbits (weighing about 3kg) after experimentally inducing renal hypertension by a modification of Goldblatt's method, and changes in the local metabolism of various cerebral tissue components, were studied. The results are briefly summarized as follows. 1. In the rabbits with experimental hypertension induced by a modified method of Gold-blatt the rate of cerebral hemorrhage was as high as 60%, namely, in 15 out of the 25 animals. Histologically, all the bleeding cases showed principal hemorrhagic focus and ball hemorrhages around the lesion. In addition, there were recognized fibrinoid necrosis of varying degrees in arterioles, and in a few cases the distension of arterioles which looked like aneurysm, showing bleeding at the tip of the distension. 2. By histochemical staining, enzymic activities of the bleeding brain was studied. As a result it was found that the nerve cells or perikaryon and neuropil of the cerebral cortex and subcortical nuclei, as well as glia cells of the white matter showed some differences in their enzymic activities. However, in general the activity of phosphorylase of the glycogen cycle, lactic dehydrogenase of Embden-Meyerhof pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of Warburg-Dickens cycle, and DPN-diaphorase activity of the ion transport system were accelerated. In contrast, the activities of succinic dehydrogenase and malic dehydrogenase of TCA cycle were diminished. Furthermore, a marked decrease in the activity of acid phosphatase of nerve cells suggested a considerable decrement in the cell function. In the cases where the thickening of the wall of arterioles were observable, there could be seen an increase in all the enzymic activities of the metabolic pathways, such as phosphorylase, lactic dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase, malic dehydrogenase, and DPN-diaphorase. This is an interesting finding as compared with the cases with derangement of the wall structures of arterioles by fibrinoid necrosis where it was proven histologically that all the activities of the enzymes were diminished or obliterated. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase of the hydrolytic enzyme system was markedly decreased in the capillaries and arterioles with derangement of wall structures and the thickening of the vessel wall. This indicated the destruction of the blood-brain barrier due to the acceleration in the permeability of the membranous structure, and this suggests that it is concerned with both the brain swelling as observed macroscopically in the bleeding brain and the metabolic disturbances in nerve cells as mentioned in the foregoing. As described thus far, histologically the findings obtained in this experiment do not differ much from those in the available literature, but histochemically many new findings have been obtained as regards local metabolic changes of enzymic activities.
Lipids combined with soluble proteins in nucleus and mitochondrial fractions of the liver, spleen and tumor of rats bearing Walker carcinoma were compared with those of normal rats by analysis on thin layer chromatography. The tumor used in the experiment was about one per cent of the body weight. 1) The extracting solutions used in the experiment, 1/15M phosphate buffer, 0.4 M NaCl were better than 0.1 M acetate buffer and 0.1 N NaOH. 2) Proteins per wet tissue weight were increased slightly both in liver and spleen. Tumor had more protein than that of the normal liver. 3) Total lipids per protein were increased slightly in the spleen but decreased in the liver, those of the tumor were higher than that of the normal liver. Triglyceride probably had important role on the results.
In electronmicroscopic observations of the multiplication process of virus particles in VERO cells infected with varicella-zoster virus, it was shown that the core of virus particle is made in the nucleus, moved into the cytoplasm through the nuclear membrane and becomes encapsulated by the capsid formed within the cytoplasm and, further, its outer surface is covered with an envelope.
Follow-up study of exercise, operation and bracings for CP children was conducted to foresee its prognosis. The evaluation of the results was based on the motor age test (M. K. Johnson). The subjects of the study: exercise; 45, operation: 44, bracings; 43. The results are given as follows. 1. The motor age test is found to be excellent for the objective evaluation. 2. Exercise plays the principal role in the treatment of CP, and bracings and operation will serve as supplementary measures. 3. It is desirable to begin exercises as early as possible, but the exercises started even with some of rather grown-up children would yield better results than expectation. 4. As for operative measures, the operation like that of Eggers which is primarily concerned with the motor function proves to be excellent. However, in the cases of osteotomy, elongation of Achilles tendon, etc. for deformity, the function tends to decrease gradually, even if postoperative results may appear to be good at first. 5. As for the group with bracings, they may show some improvement of motor age, but 41 per cent of such cases would show no improvement at all or rather deterioration.
The chronic rheumatic dysfunctions were studied mainly on the knee joint and also the methods of their rehabilitation were researched. 1) The functional disturbances caused by joint rheumatism, which were seemed be sever at first impression, were cured by adequate circumstances and improvement of the instruments and the patients are able to enjoy almost usual life. 2) The dysfunction of the knee joint caused by rather more pain and drop down of muscle power than the descending mobility. 3) For estimating of the muscle power not only coil scale but also the measuring of pressure in joint cavity was used. The value gained by the former and the latter showed an paraller proportion. 4) According the increasing of the muscle power the local symptomes as pain, hydrops etc. were recovered. 5) The research of prognosis of the patients after surgical synovectomy was done. Five years four monthes later there was no remarkable differences between the operated patients and the others, who have had the same symptomes and were not operated. 6) On the chronic rheumatoid knee joint it must be used conservative therapy for less pain and more stability. For this purpose, too much steroid hormone must be not administrated and surgical therapy must be carefully performed.
1. A report was made on a 30-year old male with tumor of cauda equina. Histopathologically, this was found to be a intradural angioma cavernosum at L2-L5. 2. An interesting point to be noted in this case was the fact that the patient had a persisten pain in the lower limbs for the seven years before the operation. Namely, the course taken prior to the operation was of monosymptomatic one. 3. As the pain itself proved to be slight and there were little neurological findings, and the patient was of abnormal character, he had been left untreated for a long period of time for the lack of the definite cause of disease. Since the case had been adjudged to be caused by psychogenic factors, a discussion was made on this point as well as on other outstanding findings.
81 subjects including 35 cases of acute hepatitis, 20cases of chronic hepatitis, 16 cases of liver cirrhosis, and 10 normal controls were selected for studying the glucuronic acid conjugation and bilirubin glucuronide formation in the subjects with liver diseases. Benzoic acid was administrated in every cases and the fractions of whole benzoic acid, hippuric acid and benzoyl glucuronide in the urine excreted within 6 hours were determined and the results obtained were compared with serum bilirubin glucuronide fraction or the results of liver function tests. The results were as follow. 1. In case that 4g of benzoic acid was administered, no more than 5.3% were conjugated to benzoyl glucuronide, however, when 5g was gigen, the conjugation rate increased to 10.7% in the average value. Then 4g administration was used for this experiment. 2. Although the excretion of total benzoic acid and hippuric acid showed the relative increase, the benzoyl glucuronide formation was found to be diminished in the cases of non icyeric acute or chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. 3. In the icteric stage, the excretion of whole benzoic acid or hippuric acid showed decrease as compared to the non icteric stage, while, benzoul glucuronide formation was found to be increased in the cases of acute or chronic hepatitis, however, no change or a little decrease was observed in the case of liver cirrhosis. 4. The excretions of whole benzoic acid, hippuric acid and benzoyl glucuronide were all decreased in the severe stage of hepatitis, however, the excretion of benzoic acid showed more marked increase as compared to that of hippuric acid excretion as the patients recovered, besides, benzoyl glucuronide excretion also increased with recovery. When the recovery of the patients more progressed the excretion of benzoic acid or hippuric acid became almost normal, on the contrary the benzoyl glucuronide formation decreased. 5. Although the relatively good correlation was observed between benzoyl glucuronide formation and the serum colloidar reactions (TTT, ZnTT, CoCl2), no significant correlation could be found between the serum colloidar reactions and the percentage of benzoyl glucuronide to whole benzoic acid excreted. No significant correlation could be found between benzoyl glucuronide and serum alkaline phosphatase or S-GOT, S-GPT. 6. Any significant correlation could not be observed between benzoyl glucuronide formation and the molar ratio of glucuronic acid contained in ester form bilirubin.
The icteric male rabbits produced through ligation of common bile duct were employed for investigating not only the shifts of serum bilirubin glucuronide fraction but the change of formation of benzoyl glucuronide or hippuric acid after administration of benzoic acid and the following results were obtained. 1. The molar ratio of glucuronic acid to bilirubin in the serum decreased by ligating the common bile duct, however, the ratio kept on nearly 1.0 even later than the 3rd day in the normal rabbits, while, the molar ratio in the rabbits with liver injury were more markedly depressed as compared to normal group and kept the value 0.55-0.45. The liver injury with chloroform and that with carbon tetrachloride showed no difference in the molar ratio. 2. No significant difference in 3 fractions of bilirubin fractionated by the method of Kosaka-Hara was found between normal rabbits and rabbits with liver injury after common bile duct ligation; almost all were equally occupied with ester form bilirubin, besides, no change could also be observed by the duration after common bile duct ligation. 3. The good correlation was found between molar ratio of glucuronic acid contained in ester form bilirubin to ester form bilirubin in serum and the grade of disturbance of the serum colloidal reaction. 4. In case that the grade of liver injury showed more than (+), molar ratio revealed less tkan 0.8, on tke other hand, no liver injury was found in the cases with 1.2 or more. 5. When benzoic acid was given to the normal rabbits with ligated common bile duct the excretion of benzoic acid or hippuric acid became minimum after 3 days and showed some recovery after 5 days, while, the excretion of benzoyl glucuronide increased after ligation of common bile duct, however, already revealed the tendency to decrease when the excretion of benzoic acid or hippuric acid reach minimum. It was considered from this results that a limitation seemed to exist in the substitutional effect of glucuronic acid conjugation. On the other hand, not only the excretion of benzoic acid but that of benzoyl glucuronide was diminished in the rabbits with liver injury as compared to normals, then it was concluded that the substitutional effect of glucuronic acid conjugation impaired in the case of liver injury.
The most serious and fatal operative complications of the closed heart surgical procedures are massive hemorrhage from an accidental left atrial tear unexpectedly. In these cases, had been equipped for elecktlically induced ventricular fibrillation, the blood loss might have been mininal and facilitated exposure to permit rapid suturing of the defect, so I would like to emphasize to the usefulness of induced vontricular fibrillation in the control of massive hemorrhage from the heart. So I had been carried on laboratory studies to induced ventricular fibrillation in normothermic dogs and obtained the following results. 1) Continuing the ventricular fibrillation for over 5 minutes duration, there were no surviveddogs, but all survived to the cirrulatory arrest within 4 minutes, three of the 4 dogs died but only I dog stayed alive between 4 to 5 minutes. It has been showed that in dog the safe length of circulatory arrest inducing ventricular fibrillation under normothermic conditions is 4 minutes. 2) Incising left atrium, the mean blood loss was 120 ml per minute, equal to 15 ml prokilogramm per minute. Inducing ventricular fibrillation soon after atriotomy, the mean blood loss was 80 ml, equal to 12 ml prolkilogramm per minut. The mcan blood loss was 50 ml in atriotomy under induced ventricular fibrillation, equal to 4 ml prokilogramm per minut, it was effective in reducing blood loss compared with the former. 3) Blood pressure almost dropped to Zero under ventricular fibrillation but there was not able to provide a dry operative field in the results of persistent venous return secondary to siphonage effect. Induced ventricular fibrillation definitly facilitates the intracardiac procedures and prevent air embolism from the removal of loose intracardiac thrombi.
In standard plate, supernatants of the crushed tissues of both stomach carcinomas and gastric mucous membrane without any carcinoma yielded a strong fibrinolysis. In general carcinoma tissues were remarkably activated by adding streptokinase in the supernatants. It is presumed that those phenomena indicate a increasing tendency of proactivator and activator in both tissues. Fibrinolytic activity is in high degree in epithelial tissue comparing with none epithelial tissue and brain tissue. In heated plate, fibrinolysis caused by any kind of crashed gastric carcinoma tissue is strong and not affected by streptokinase. Therefore, increased quantity of plasmin or protease-like substance might be assumed in the carcinoma tissue. Fibrinolysis of epithelial element is stronger in heated plate than that of none-epithelial tissue and brain tissue. Those result indicated that there is a certain relationship among the lytic activity of protein substrate, metastatic ability and primaly tissue of the tumors.
TAEM-lysis and caseinolysis are stronger in any carcinoma than in none-carcinomatous mucous membrane of the stomach. And those lytic activities, which are generally activated by malignant change such as carcinomas in alimentary tract, breast and thyroid, are marked in epithelial tissue in comparison with none-epithelial tissue and brain tissue. This lytic substance might be plasmin or protease-like substance, because it is not activated by strepto-kinase. This result presumably shows a certain relation among the proteolytic activity, metastatic ability and primary tissue of the tumors.
The pathomorphological changes of the dog kidney cells (MDCK cells) infected with distemper virus (Hokkaido strain) were examined in the electron microscope. In the inclusion bodies, randomly arrayed tubular filaments were recognized and the virus particles were not seen. Many of the infected cells which contained inclusion bodies developed a lot of spherical shaped virus particles on and the outside of the cell surfaces. The virus particles which negatively stained with PTA showed the nucleocapsids inside of them. The tubular filaments in the inclusion bodies were closely resemble the nucleocapsids of the virus particles in size and shape.
Formalin-treated extracts of spleens of BALB/C mice infected with Rauscher leukemia and formalin-treated or non-formalin-treated, centrifuged supernatants of long-term cultures of AKR mouse kidney cells infected with Rauscher virus were emulsified with Freund's adjuvant and used for vaccination. These vaccines almost completely protected against challenge inoclulation of 1 percent supernatant fluids of infected spleen homogenates sufficiently virulent to kill all the control animals, but did not protect against challenge of 10 percent supernatant fluids similarly prepared. In mice with leukemia, peripheral blood pictures were characterized by severe anemia, marked increase of nucleated cells and reticulocytes and occurrence of erythroblasts. Enormous hepatosplenomegaly was accompanied by proliferation of reticulum cells and erythroblasts in the advanced stage of leukemia. In mice which were protected against leukemia with vaccines, no abnormal findings were present either peripheral blood pictures or histological sections of the spleen and liver. By electron microscopy virus particles were observed in the spleen of leukemic and nonleukemic mice. From these experiments, the mechanism of immunity by the neutralizing antibody in the blood plasma against infection with Rauscher virus was discussed.
The serum protein were investigated by cellulose acetate electrophoresis in normal BALB/C mice, Rauscher leukemic mice, mice which were either protected or not protected with virus vaccine against virus challenge and mice which were given vaccine only. In leukemic mouse serum γ-globulin level increased slightly as the mice approached an initial stage of leukemia. In the advanced stage of leukemia there were a decrease of γ-globulin, α-globulin and albumin and an increase of β-globulin. Twenty days after virus inoculation, an abnormal fraction, not found in normal mice, was detected between α2-globulin and β-globulin fractions and markedly increased according to the progression of leukemia. The abnormal fraction was considered to be specific in Rauscher leukemia. Electrophoretic studies in mice which were protected against leukemia with vaccine revealed no such abnormal fraction but showed a marked increase of γ-globulin and β-globulin, probably due to a reaction of the host toward Rauscher leukemia. In mice which developed leukemia in spite of vaccination, the results of serum electrophoresis were the same as in the case of non-vaccinated leukemic mice. The change of serum fractions in mice which were treated with vaccine only showed an increase of γ-globulin and β-globulin.