Studies were performed on the alterations of the carbohydrate metabolism, liver functions, and serum electrolytes in rabbits in rabbits and rats which were acutely poisoned by organofluorides. 1. In the poisoned rabbits the blood glucose levels showed no consistent abnormalities, but in the rats marked hypoglycemia was induced which tended to be more pronounced before and after convulsions. 2. At the time of intoxication the lactic dehydrogenase system seemed to be secondarily augumented due to the blockade of the Krebs cycle. The system is metabolically located at the final stage of the anaerobic glycolysis. 3. No abnormalities in the serum transaminases and colloidal reactions were observed. 4. No significant alterations were seen in the serum Na, K, Ca, and Cl. 5. These observations suggest the presence of an abnormal carbohydrate metabolism, although species-dependent, in the intoxicated animals.
The EEG of five patients poisoned by an agricultural organofluoride (Nissol) were studied. The mild cases showed almost no abnormalities, but as the intoxication became severe, the EEG ragned from low-voltage, irregular slow waves to almost flat waves. However, a good response was observed to glucose administration even in these cases. The close association of an impaired carbohydrate metabolism as manifested by hypoglycemia in organofluoride poisoning would be an important point in the differential diagnosis from other types of pesticide poisoning and EEG appears to be a useful procedure for the evaluation of intoxication.
The influences of an organofluoride (Nissol) poisoning on the heart were studied with respect to ECG of experimental rabbits and 5 intoxicated patients. 1. In the rabbits initially there appeared depression of ST segments and giant T waves, and terminally they succumbed to the sudden onset of ventricular flutter and fibrillation. 2. ECG from the patients were characterized by bradycardia, PQ prolongation, and U waves, but no arhythmia was seen. 3. These clinical ECG findings are compatible with vagotonia or hypopotassemia.
PMS, HCG and dynamic tests were conducted to study changes in urinary 17-Ketosteroids (17-KS) during gonad stimulation, as well as to determine 17-KS values and fraction ratios after administration of SU 4885, ACTH and dexamethasone. As a result it was possible to establish the adrenal 17-KS patterns. In addition, studies were carried out on urinary 17-KS of patients with diseases of the gonad and the adreno-pituitary systems, and the following results were obtained. 1) There occurs no appreciable change in the urinary 17-KS by stimulating the gonad with PMS or HCG, while it is possible to tell the gonal functions on the basis of changes in the androsterone fraction, androsterone ratio and the 11-oxy-17-KS/11-deoxy-17-KS radio, as determined by the dynamic test. 2) The administration of SU 4885 increases 11-deoxy-17-KS and among 17-KS fractions DHA and etiocholanolone constitute predominant fractions. 3) The administration of ACTH raises the levels of 11-oxy-17-KS and 11-deoxy-17-KS, but the increase in 11-oxy-17-KS is much greater. It has been found that androsterone, DHA, and etiocholanolone fractions are markedly increased, but androsterone ratio and DHA ratio, differing from that of etiocholanolone, have not increased. 4) The administration of dexamethasone decreases every 17-KS fraction, but the decrease in 11-oxy-17-KS is greater than that of 11-deoxy-17-KS. And the androsterone fraction tend to decrease, but androsterone ratio tend to increase indicating a 17-KS mainly secreted by the gonad system. 5) It has been possible to establish the 17-KS patterns of the adrenal system by this study. 6) In the study of abnormal cases, it has been demonstrated that careful analysis of androsterone and 11-oxy-17-KS levels, androsterone ratio, and 11-oxy-17-KS/11-deoxy-17-KS ratio by the methods already mentioned make it possible to identify various endocrine disorders, and concurrent dynamic test enables us to abtain still more precise results.
Washed chicken red blood cells (CRBC) were injected into the popliteal lymph nodes of the rabbit by way of the efferent lymphaties and the fate of nucleated CRBC in the nodes was studied, together with immune cellular proliferation in the lymphnodes provoked by the injection of CRBC. The chief results obtained are as follows: 1. In normal rabbits that had not been sensitized with CRBC, the injected CRBC underwent hemolysis and their nuclei were found diffusely scattered over the wide area of the popliteal nodes, particularly in the lumen of lymphatic sinuses until 2 hours after the injection 2. At 6 hours after the injection the nuclei of the injected CRBC were mostly phagocytized by the reticular cells in the lumen of lymphatic sinuses or other parts of the nodes. Thereafter, the nuclei of CRBC had been digested nearly complitely by the reticular cells and disappeared by the 12th hours after the injection. 3. In the sensitized rabbits that had been intravenously injected with CRBC two weeksago, phogocytosis of the injected CRBC by the reticular cells occurred at 2 hours after the injection and CRBC disappeared nearly completely by the 6th hours, after having been digested by the reticular cells. 4. In the sensitized rabbits, the immune cellular responses in the lymph nodes, proliferative reaction of pyroninophilic blast cells and plasmocytes in particular, occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent than in the normal rabbits that had not been previously injected with CRBC.
Isolated Brown-Pearce carcinoma cells (BPCC) were injected directly into the popliteal lymph nodes of rabbit by way of the afferent lymphatics and proliferation of the injected BPCC in the lymph nodes was studied. The chief findings are as fellows: 1. When BPCC were injected into the popliteal lymph nodes of normal rabbits which had not been sensitized with BPCC, the injected BPCC which surrived after injection into the nodes may proliferate rapidly and the nodes were replaced by proliferating BPCC nearely completely by the 14th day after injection. 2. In the lymph nodes in which an extensive proliferation of the injected BPCC had occurred, a large number of pyroninophilic blast cells appeared in the visinity of growing tumors. This is considered to be a response of lymph nodes characteristic of immune mechanisum against BPCC. 3. When BPCC were injected into the popliteal lymph nodes of the sensitized rabbits that had been inoculated with BPCC 6070 days previously, no tumors did grow in the lymph nodes that received an intranodal injection of BPCC.
Isolated Brown-Pearce carcinoma cells (BPCC) were injected either into the efferent or afferent lymphatics of the popliteal lymph nodes of rabbit and the spread of cancer by metastasis in both cases was studied. The chief findings are as follows: 1. The mortality rate was almost the same in both cases, but the average survival period was shorter in the cases of injection into the efferent lymphatics than in the cases of injection into the afferent lymphatics. 2. Metastasis of cancer in the abdominal cavity occurred to a greater degree in the former cases than in the latter cases. 3. When carcinoma cells were injected into the efferent lymphatics, a retrograde metastasis of cartinoma was observed in the popliteal lymph nodes on the in ected side in two of four cases. 4. In the popliteal lymph node on the opposite side, no metastasis of cancer occurred, regardless of whether carcinoma cells were injected either into the efferent or afferent lymphatics.