Solcoseryl is a protein-free extract from calf blood with a high RES activity, and has a remarkably stimulating action on the respiration of cells. Clinically, Solcoseryl is applied on ulcerating diseases and so on. The effects of Solcoseryl on reticulo-endotherial function about the phagocytic and hemoglobin-incorporation activities were studied by the determination of glycyl-lycine 59Fe colloid in the blood of NC-mice. The results were as follow; 1) Solcoseryl had a slightly stimulating action on the phagocytic activity. 2) Solcoseryl had a remarkably stimulating action on the hemoglobin-incorporation activity.
The effects of Solcoseryl on erobic and anerobic glycolysis of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by using the Warburg's manomater. The results were as follows; Solcoseryl had a stimulating action on erobic glycolysis, but had no effect on anerobic glycolysis of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.
Effects of Solcoseryl were studied in vivo on Ehrlich ascites mice and mammary carcinoma in C3H mice. The results were as follows: 1) Solcoseryl did not prolong the servival time of Ehrlich ascites mice. 2) Solcoseryl had a stimulating action on tumor growth of mammary carcinoma in C3H mice. 3) There was no difference of servival times between Ehrlich ascites tumor mice treated with combination use of Solcoseryl and Mitomycin C or Toyomycin and those with single use of Mitomycin C or Toyomycin.
A histochemical study of the effect of Solcoseryl on the activities of nine enzymes, i.e. phosphorylase (P-ase), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), malic dehydrogenase (MDH), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (α-GDH), β-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase (β-HDH), glutamic dehydrogenase (GDH) and NAD diaphorase has been carried out on mucous membrane of the human stomach. For the demonstration of LDH, MDH, SDH, G-6-PDH, α-GDH, β-HDH, GDH and NAD diaphorase, the method of Pearse was used and for P-ase the method of Takeuchi was performed. Solcoseryl was added to each medium at the retio of one tenth, and for the controls the same volume of 0.9% NaCl solution was added instead of Solcoseryl. The results were summarized as follows; 1) The activities of G-6-PDH and α-GDH were increased by the addition of Solcoseryl in normal mucous membrane, intestinal metaplasia and carcinoma of the stomach. 2) NAD diaphorase activity was also increased by Solcoseryl. 3) The activities of P-ase, LDH, MDH, SDH, β-HDH and GDH were not changed by Solcoseryl. 4) Solcoseryl might promote the regeneration of the gastric mucous membrane.
In order to clarify the regenerating mechanism of the human stomach ulcer with Solcoseryl, the following histochemical experiment was performed. Frozen sections of some blocks of normal gastric mucous membrane, ulcer and carcinoma were incubated in a medium, which includes glucose as a substrate, nitro-BT, KCN, phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 and Solcoseryl, and the results were compared with control excluding Solcoseryl. The mains were as follows; 1) In normal gastric mucous membrane, the reaction was weakly noticed in spite of negative in controls. In repairing epithelium of ulcer and in intestinal metaplasic area, the staining was moderate, but in those controls it was negative. While, atrophic area of mucous membrane and granulation in ulcer base, did not show any reaction. Therefore, Solcoseryl might promote regeneration of the gastric mucous membrane, and its reacting point is perhaps newly forming part of epithelium such as the repairing epithelium. 2) Most cases of gastric cancer, especially in prolifirating part, showed a positive reaction, and this result suggested that Solcoseryl might promote the proliferation of cancer cells. 3) It is observed that Solcoseryl activates certain oxidative pathway of glucose in the epitherial cells.
A determination of steroid dehydrogenases utilizing cryostat technic has been accepted since Wattenberg reported. However, difficulties were also encountered on sectioning technic or standarization of enzymatic conditioning. The present study was design to establish new device of “en block” staining without cryostat technic. Determination of placental enzyme of 3β-ol-steroid dehydrogenase, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were performed by new technic and gestational changes in dehydrogenase were also studied in this paper. 1). 3β-ol-steroid dehydrogenase Marked activity of 3β-ol-steroid dehydrogenase was observed in syncytial trophoblast throghout a pregnancy. 2). 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase The lowest activity among dehydrogenase messured was noted in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which was localized in stroma of villi. 3). 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was found to be localized in stroma and vessel wall showing strong activity. It may be concluded the 3β-ol-steroid dehydrogenase is a essential factor for maintainance of pregnancy in connection with progesterone biosynthesis, while 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may act on placental function in steroid regulation after middle stage of pregnancy.
Amino acid metabolism in various blood diseases was studied by the method of column chromatography of Stein-Moore. 1) Serum free amino acid levels in hypoplastic anemia was low, especially glycine and alanine, and was found unidentified ninhydrine positive substances. 2) Amino acid fractionation in essential hypochromic anemia revealed no significant abnormalities in comparison to that of normal individuale. 3) In leukemia the peaks of amino acid fractions were either higher or lower depending upon the type of leukemia, but as the disease was controlled by treatment, the pattern of amino acid fractionation approached the normal pattern in all the cases. 4) In renal anemia a low amino acid fractionation pattern apparently resembling that of hypoplastic anemia was obtained. 5) In pernicious anemia there was a high amino acid fractionation pattern, indicating poor utilization of amino acids before treatment, but after treatment the pattern was normalized. 6) In multiple myeloma amino acid metabolism was unique and as in hypoplastic anemia there were unidentified substances, X substance, which were considered to be intermediate metabolites. 7) The pattern of amino acid fractionation in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and in agranulocytosis exhibited some resemblance to that of hypoplastic anemia in that it contained unidentified substances, but the overall pattern of the former was different from that of the latter.
1) The free amino acids in the serum of patients with hypoplastic anemia showed a low amino acid fractionation pattern with a marked decrease of glycine and alanine and the prese nce of unidentified X substances. 2) The conjugated amino acids from the same source demonstrated a similar fractionation pattern with reduction of glycine and alanine and accompanying X substances. 3) The free amino acids in the urine of patients with hypoplastic anemia were generally increased in comparison to those of normal individuals. The urinary excretion of glycine was particularly prominent. 4) From these finding it is concluded that amino acid metabolism in hypoplastic anemia is unique. 5) Injection of X substances into rabbits induced a temporary, slight anemia. 6) The author believes that derangement of amino acid metabolism has something to do with the development of hypoplastic anemia.
1) Administration of amino acid preparations in patients with hypoplastic anemia resulted in some amelioration of the low fractionation pattern of serum free amino acids, but glycine and alanine remained decreased and X substances persisted. 2) Although hematological remission was seen following steroid therapy in the majority of patients with hypoplastic anemia, the amino acid fractionation pattern characteristic of this disease was unaltered with persistance of X substances. 3) The fractionation pattern of serum free amino acids was not modified by splenectomy in hypoplastic anemia.
The axon degeneration following lesions in the dorsal lateral and posterior lateral thalamic nuclei of the cat was traced in serial sections impregnated by the Nauta-Gygax method. The following conclusions were drawn. 1. The dorsal lateral nucleus projects diffusely to the cortex of the middle and posterior suprasylvian gyri, the lower part of the posterolateral gyrus, the anterior and posterior limbic regions, the postsubicular area and the hippocampal fusiform gyrus. However, the severely degenerating cortical areas vary with the site of the lesions in the lateral dorsal nucleus. The anterior part of the dorsal lateral nucleus projects profusely to the anterior part of the above-mentioned cortex, while the posterior part of the nucleus has strong projection to the posterior part of the cortex. This indicates that the cortical projection of the dorsal lateral nucleus is organized essentially in a topical manner in the anteroposterior direction. 2. The cortical projecting area of the posterior lateral nucleus corresponds roughly to that of the dorsal lateral nucleus. In addition, it includes the anterior suprasylvian gyrus and the anterolateral part of the lateral gyrus, area 19. The heavily projecting areas, however, are limited to the anterior and middle suprasylvian gyri and the adjacent part of area 19 in the lateral gyrus, as well as the cortical part around the anterior part of the splenial sulcus. Moreover, the heaviest cortical projection of the posterior lateral nucleus to these cortical areas is organized in a topical manner in the anteroposterior dimension. The anterior part of the posterior lateral nucleus projects most profusely to the anterior part of the heavily projecting areas, while the posterior part of the nucleus has the most massive projetion to the posterior part of the areas. In all cases with lesions in the posterior lateral nucleus slight degeneration is found in the limited cortical part of the anterior sylvian gyrus. 3. It should be mentioned that the dorsal lateral and posterior lateral nuclei have diffuse projection to certain cortical areas, collectively called the association cortex, though their heavy projections are organized in a topical manner in the anteroposterior dimension.
The present investigation is an attempt to study the cortical projection of the posterior ventral nuclei of the cat by the Nauta-Gygax method. 1. Preterminal degeneration is found in both primary and secondary sensory areas (SI and SII) in all cases with lesions in the posterior ventral nuclei. 2. The posterior ventral nuclei are composed of the posteromedial and posterolateral ventral nuclei. The former projects to the coronal gyrus (face area of SI) and the anteriormost part of the anterior ectosylvian gyrus (face area of SII) in a somatotopically organized manner. 3. The ventromedial part of the posterolateral ventral nucleus sends fibers to the lateral sigmoid gyrus (arm area of SI) and the anteroinferior part of the anterior ectosylvian gyrus (arm area of SII). 4. The dorsolateral part of the posterolateral ventral nucleus projects to the posterior sigmoid gyrus (leg area of SI) and the posterosuperior part of the anterior ectosylvian gyros (leg area of SII). 5. The cortical projecting areas in both SI and SII of the posteromedial ventral nucleus are continuous, while those in both SI and SII of the posterolateral ventral nucleus, particularly its dorsolateral part, are separated. 6. The paralaminar part of the lateral ventral nucleus projects mainly to the motor area in the anterior sigmoid gyrus. 7. The cortical projecting areas in SI of various parts of the posterior ventral nuclei tend to overlap each other. The cortical projecting areas of the posteromedial ventral nucleus extensively overlap with the motor area in the anterior sigmoid gyrus, while those of the posterolateral ventral nucleus, particularly of its dorsolateral part, do not spread into the motor area. 8. The cortical projecting areas in SII of different parts of the posterior ventral nuclei overlap each other, although they are essentially organized in a somatotopical manner.
Localized electrolytic lesions were placed stereotaxically in the dorsomedial thalamic nucleus of the cat, and the ensuing degeneration was traced in serial sections impregnated by the Nauta-Gygax method. The major conclusions are as follows: 1. In the present study the dorsomedial nucleus is divided into a medial and a lateral part, the latter being composed of dorsal, lateral and ventral parts in a narrow sense. 2. The dorsomedial nucleus is connected with the neighboring thalamic nuclei, though some intrinsic fibers spread within the nucleus. The medial part projects to the lateral central nucleus, paracentral nucleus, anterior and posterior paraventricular nuclei, rhomboid nucleus and medial ventral nucleus. The lateral part projects to the parafascicular nucleus, dorsal and posterior lateral nuclei, submedial nucleus and lateral ventral nucleus, in addition to the intralaminar nuclei. Besides, the dorsomedial nucleus sends fibers to the anteriormost part of the reticular nucleus. Its caudal part gives off a few fibers to the posteromedial ventral nucleus and the medial pulvinar nucleus. 3. In addition, the dorsomedial nucleus projects to some subcortical centers, such as the lateral preoptic and lateral hypothalamic nuclei, olfactory tubercle, nucleus of the diagonal band, claustrum and entopeduncular nucleus. In some cases it sends a few fibers to the anterior extremity of the amygdaloid complex, but does not appear to project to the caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus. 4. The dorsomedial nucleus projects diffusely to the medial cortex of the frontal lobe and the lateral cortex of the proreal gyrus. However, the medial part of the nucleus sends abundant fibers to the medial cortex of the frontal lobe, while the lateral part of the nucleus projects profusely to the lateral cortex of the proreal gyrus. On the other hand, the anterior part of the dorsomedial nucleus projects predominantly to the anterior part of the frontal cortex, and the posterior part of the nucleus to the posterior part of the frontal cortex. These data indicate that the essential cortical projection of the dorsomedial nucleus is organized in both the mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions, though any part of the dorsomedial nucleus can project diffusely to the entire frontal cortex. 5. In cases with lesions in the lateral part of the dorsomedial nucleus, some degenerated fibers in the cortex of the proreal gyrus tend to spread dorsolaterally beyond the presylvian sulcus into the cortex of the anterior sigmoid, coronal and orbital gyri.
Phospholipids combined with soluble proteins of the male Wistar Strain rats transplanted with Walker carcinoma were studied. The soluble fractions were extracted by 1) 1/15 M Phosphate Buffer (pH. 7.2), 2) 0.4 M NaCl from the nucleus and mitochondrial fractions of the liver, spleen and tumor of the rat. The phospholipids devided from soluble proteins were analysed and compared with those of normal rat by meaus of photodensitometrical technique and p32 activity on thin layer chromatogram. 1. Total phospholipid per protein was decreased slightly in liver, increased in spleen of the tumorbearing rat. 2. Sphingomyelin was increased in liver, spleen and tumor tissue, lecithin in spleen and cephalin in tumor tissue were increased slightly. 3. In the tumorous condition, the L/C ratio in liver and spleen was higher than in normal, but in tumor tissue, it was lower than in normal liver or spleen.
By means of brain perfusion method, for the purpose to study the effects of glutamic acid and its related amino acids on EEG, cerebral blood flow and systemic blood pressures, these amino acids were administered into the carotid system of perfused cat brains under a certain fixed condition and the intensity of each drug action was compared. The amino acids tested in the experiments were L-glutamic acid, L-aspartic acid, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, N-acetyl-DL-aspartic acid, β-hydroxy-glutamic acid, L-glutamic acid-Na, L-aspartic acid-Na, and N-acetyl-DL-aspartic acid-Ca. For EEG, acidic amino acids induce transient excitatory changes followed by inhibition. These excitatory changes prove to be low-amplitude fast waves or burst of seizures, and postexcitatory inhibition to be slow waves or flat waves. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, even in a minimal dose, induces marked bursts of seizures followed by L-glutamic acid, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid-Na, and L-aspartic acid-Na, in their potency. Generally, N-acetyl-DL-aspartic acids show only low-amplitude fast waves but some of them do induce burst of seizures. β-Hydroxy-glutamic acid elicits only low-amplitude fast waves but never burst of seizures. N-Acetyl-DL-aspartic acid-Ca, differing from the free form, never induces excitatory changes. For the cerebral blood flow, acidic amino acids decrease the blood flow, but those that show a strong decreasing effect are N-alkyl amino acids such as N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and N-acetyl-DL-aspartic acid. On the Other hand, acidic amino acids increase the systemic blood pressure, and of them such an effect is especially marked with N-alkyl amino acid.
In an attempt to study variations in the size of epithelial cell populations in the intestinal mucosa, these cells were isolated from the mucosa of small intestine of male mice (Db strain) weighing around 20g, by the use of Ranvier's 1/3 ethylalcohol, and the total number of epithelial cells was estimated under various experimental conditions, after counting these cells by the hemocytometer. The chief results obtained are as follows: 1. In the mice fasted for 5 days, the total number of epithelial cells isolated from the mucosa of small intestine was gradually decreased, reaching to a minimum value of about 1/6 of the normal levels at 5 days. 2. Following total-body x-irradiation in a dose of 600 r, the total number of eithelial cells in the small intestine was reduced abruptly and a minimum volue of about 1/8 of the normal levels was reached within several days. 3. In mice that received a single intraperitoneal injection of either Mitomycin-C, Endoxan, or Thio-TEPA, in a dose of 5mg/kg, 160mg/kg, 15mg/kg, respectively, the size of epithelial cell populations in the small intestine was rapidly diminished in a manner similar to that observed after total-body X-irradiaton. However, the rate of reduction in the epithelial cells populations was greater in these cases than in the case of X-irradiation, except for in the case of treatment with Endoxan. 4. The observed reduction in the size of epithelial cell populations of the small intestine is due chiefly to inhibition of mitosis of epithelial cells in the crypts and partly to destruction of proliferating epithelial cells in these areas.
Some experimental studies on skin homograft were performed between A and C 57 BL or Db strain of mice, to investigate the influence of qualitative and quantitative difference of graft antigen upon homograft rejection reaction. In this study, difference in amount of graft antigen in homograft rejection was tested in the experiment with two kinds of different size of normal skin (1.0 cm.×2.0 cm. and 2.0 cm×4.5 cm.). The normal skin was kept frozen either simply or in 15% glycerin in saline for 3 to 24 hours to have physical denaturation of the graft, and to have a biologically deteriorated graft, atrophied skin was harvested from mice, which were administered with 1 mg. of prednisolone intraperitoneally daily for 3 to 9 weeks. The results obtained were as follows, 1) The larger piece of skin survived longer than the smaller piece, although no significant difference in time before onset of rejection was observed. The rejection of the second set graft was accerelated, regardlessly of the size of the first graft. This suggested that the longer survival of the larger graft was due merely to requirement of excess time to complete the rejection process after its onset. 2) There was no significant difference in the survival time of the first graft between the frozen and normal skin, and the same was also observed between the grafts which were simply frozen and were frozen in 15% glycerine in saline. No second set phenomenon was observed when the skin simply frozen for 3 to 24 hours was used as the first graft. However, the accerelation rejection of the second set graft was clearly observed in mice who received the first graft which was kept frozen in 15% glycerine saline for 3 to 6 hours. This indicated that freezing storage of skin in 15% glycerine saline for up to 6 hours could saved enough antigen of the skin to sensitize the mice for the second set phenomenon with its first graft. 3) The atrophied skin obtained from prednisolone-treated mice survived longer than the healthy skin from untreated mice in its first graft. When the second set graft was made on mice who received and rejected the skin from prednisolone-treated mice, the rejection was accerelated as equally as in mice who received and rejected the normal skin as first graft, indicating that in skin showing simple atrophy, though it was macroscopically and histologically demonstrable, no qualitative deterioration of transplantation antigen might occur, in contrast to the occurrence of quantitative reduction of the antigen according to the grade of atrophy. 4) The results were also obtained from the study in the analysis of the serum γ-globulin and tissue amino acid in the skin, to support the above statements.