Recently, chinoform has come to attract the attention as one of the etiologic factors of the disease, subacute myelo-optico neuropathy commonly known as SMON in Japan. For the purpose to study the metabolism of chinoform in vivo, a series of experiments were conducted with labeled chinoform (131I-chinoform) with rats of Wistar strain. As a step to increase the toxicity of chinoform, carbon tetrachloride was administered to the rats to induce liver disturbances as to increase the chinoform retention in vivo, and as another step rabbit-antirat kidney serum was injected to the animals so as to elicit allergic nephritis, and then 131I-chinoform was intravenously injected each of these two groups of animals. The next procedure was to analyze the in vivo distribution of 131I-chinoform. The results of the study are briefly summarized as follows. In the case administered with carbon tetrachloride practically all the central nervous system and the sciatic nerve revealed a higher radioactivity of free chinoform, and also the percentage of free chinoform to the total chinoform was greater as revealed by the radioactivity of the chloroform-soluble fraction. By microautoradiography, labeled chinoform was detected in Purkinje cells and glial cells in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, glial cells of the thalamus as well as the brain stem, and in the posterior root ganglia, anterior horn cells and meninges of the spinal cord. In the liver it was observed in Kupffer stellate cells and cholangioli and slightly in hepatic cells. As for the kidney, the labeled chinoform was markedly incorporated in the proximal convoluted tubuli and slightly in the glomeruli. Next, in the rats with experimental nephritis, the decreasing rate of radioactivity in the blood was relatively low as compared with that of the control group. In the kidneys the radioactivity was high in the total fraction, chloroform-soluble fraction and chloroform-insoluble fraction as compared with respective values in the controls, showing 30 to 50-fold values.
In order to know the difference of health between peasants and fishermen, health surveys were carried out at two districts, Yoshino District, a farming country, and Kurosaki District of a fishing country, in Okayama Prefecture. There are many methods for health evaluation reported by many investigators. In this study a kind of health evaluation was tried in these regions by the results of the clinical examination, blood examination, urinarysis, flicker, questionaires about fatigue and Nofu-disease. The results are briefly described as follows, 1) It was revealed that the constitution evaluated by stature, body weight and girth of chest of the fishermen was superior to those of the peasants, while the vital capacity proved to be the reverse. 2) The seasonal changes in the specific gravity of whole blood were found to be paralleled with those in the body weight. 3) The seasonal changes in the body weight in Yoshino-peasants were less than those in the fishermen. 4) The correlation of the blood contents between first and second examiantions was high in males, but low in females. 5) A correlation of the blood contents between man and wife was recognized. 6) The seasonal and diurnal changes in urinary protein in peasants were different from those in fishermen. 7) The GOT levels in peasants in summer were higher than those in autumn. 8) The method for health evaluation was tried by fatigue evaluating equation and by calculating the score from 10 kinds of examination results. 9) There was the evidence of skewness in frequency distribution of hemoglobin concentration and specific gravity of the whole blood with both groups of men and women.
For the purpose to know changes in blood contents, seasonal changes and changes by age in blood contents of peasants and fishermen were studied, while comparing the results reported by other authors. During our surveys we gave them advice according to the results of the examination. 1) As a result it has been found that relation exists in males between the blood contents and age, but it was not clear in case of females. 2) Increase in the blood contents can be observed in peasants and fishermen irrespective of seasonal changes. 3) Decrease in the blood contents was recognized in summer. 4) Anemia in the farmers engaged in vinyl green house culture seems to be intimately associated with the serum iron concentration. The seasonal changes in the serum iron concentration occur, that is to say, the serum iron concentration in peasants and fishermen decreases in summer, but increases again in autumn, however, it does not increase in farmers engaged in vinyl green house culture. 5) It has been also demonstrated that a correlation exists between the specific gravity of the whole blood. 6) Changes in the blood contents of males seem to be less than those of females. 7) A correlation of the blood contents is found existing between man and wife.
In our routine X-ray examinations of the stomach we do no longer encounter much difficulty in the diagnosis of the case. By virtue of a marked improvement of the X-ray instruments as well as by a great advance in techniques of the diagnosis we now can use endoscope, fibrinoscope, cytological examinations among others that our diagnosis is betting more and more accurate, as revealed by many reports. Nonetheless, the difficulty we encounter in our X-ray diagnosis is in those cases with contracture or deformation in the pyloric antrum. Of course, in the cases with malignant pathological changes or ulcers, we face relatively less problems, but in those cases with various pathological changes on the mucous coat such as an irregular relief, a partial hypertropy or lacking in any definite finding, we find it difficult to decide whether such changes have been elicited by gastritis or other causes. We discussed about how we might handle when we meet such cases with contracture of the pyloric antrum.
Disease exhibiting an abnormal tumorous shadow on the pericardium in x-ray picture is rare, and that with pericardial cyst is still more scarce. Having encountered a case, suspected of pericardial cyst, which on surgical operation proved to be of pericardial diveaticle accompanied by myxoma, we presented details of our findings on this very rare case.
In our experiments of fatty acid biosynthesis in vivo with mice given whole-body irradiation of 600R using acetate-1-14 C, we studied the amounts of 14CO2 exhaled, specific activity of total lipids, and activities of each fatty acid fraction of the liver, and obtained the results as follows. 1) It has been found that at early stage after irradiation the majority of acetate is utilized in oxidation and the part used in the biosynthesis is less, in the irradiated animals than in controls. 2) In these irradiated animals the biosynthesis of palmitoleic acid and stearic acid is relatively inhibited.
After giving whole-body irradiation of 600R, albumin complexed-palmitic acid-1-14C or linoleic acid-14C were used to mice, and we studied differences in changes of metabolism in these irradiated animals. For this study we measured amounts of 14CO2 exhaled, specific activity of liver lipids, and activities of individual fatty acid fractions with lapse of time, and obtained the following results. 1) It was found that the incorporation of palmitic acid-1-14C into 14CO2 was increased about 150% in the irradiated group as compared with that in controls. In contrast, that of linoleic acid-1-14C was decreased by about 50% as compared with controls. 2) The incorporation of palmitic acid-1-14C into liver lipids was considerable in the early stage after the the irradiation, but it decreased rapidly and became less than that of controls wi thin a short period of time. The uptake of linoleic acid-1-14C into the liver of inadiated qroup was found to have been decreased. 3) In the irradiated groups, data revealed an inhibitory effect on unsaturation and chain el ongation of both palmitic acid and linoleic acid.
Nine new lymphoblastoid cell lines have been established from peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with infectious mononucleosis, subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON), acute myelogenous leukemia and chronic lymphatic leukemia. All the cell lines grow in suspension and mostly consist of lymphoblastoid cells regardless of the cell source and clinical status of the donors. A few percentage of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigen-positive cells were detected by the immunofluorescence method in all the cell lines. These cell lines have maintained karyotypes of predominantly normal diploid modes. It is suggested that the origin of these cell lines may be certain lymphocytes in peripheral leukocytes. From the present study, a following hypothesis may be offered on the establishment of the lymphoblastoid cell lines. It is conceivable that EBV which is harbored in vivo in lymphocytes might be activated and replicate in the early stage of leukocyte culture. The virus would, thereafter, exert an antigenic stimulation on some of the lymphocytes and consequently they would undergo blastoid transformation, yielding self-sustaining cell lines.
Three types of investigations by the immunofluorescence method were performed. Antibody to EB virus (EBV) in various sera and EBV antigen in the nine lymphoblastoid cell lines were tested by the indirect method and production of immunoglobulin in these cell lines was by the direct method. 1) It has been shown that the virus is widely disseminated among normal persons in Japan. 2) Newborn infants possess EBV antibody on delivery. This antibody is probably transmitted from mother to fetus via the placenta. 3) There is no difference in EBV antibody titers between normal individuals and donors from whom the lymphoblastoid cell lines were established. 4) EBV antigen appears in a small number of lymphocytes and macrophages within a few weeks after initiation of peripheral leukocyte cultures. 5) All the established cell lines persistly demonstrate a few percentage of EBV antigen-positive cells. 6) All the cell lines produce two or three classes of immunoglobulin but the proportion of the stained cells varies considerably during long-term culture.
This is an experimental and clinical study to investigate the mechanism of the Disequilibrium-Syndrome in hemodialysis from the point of biochemical changes of the body fluid and osmotic pressure. METHOD Mongrel dogs were used for this study. Three hour hemodialysis using Kolff's single coil kidney was performed on uremic dogs, which had been nephrec tomized bilatelally and, clinically hemodialysis was performed on 40 patients with renal failure, since November 1967, to December 1970. Dialyzers used in the study were either Kolff-Twin-coil type or Kiil's type. Effort has been made in this study to investigate correlations of parameters followed to patient with or without Disequilibrium-Syndrome. 1. Dialyzer. 2. BUN-Dialisanse. 3. Time of dialysis. 4. Severity of patient. RESULT 1. The level of Urea-N in lymph and serum, resumed to normal by the end of the first hour of dialysis, but those in cerebrospinal fluid decreased very slowly. There were notable changes of excretory gradient on Urea-N between blood and cerebrospinal fluid. 2. Biochemical changes of thoracic duct lymph during hemodialysis were very similar to those of serum. 3. There was slight change of osmotic pressure between serum and cerebrospinal fluid before and after dialysis. 4. None of patients developed Disequilibrium-Syndrome in case of BUN below 110mg/dl, within 3 hour of dialysis, and 30% of BUN-dializanse. CONCLUSION It was fond in this study that osmotic-gradient per se might be one, not all, of cause of Disequilibrium-Syndrome. However. in clinical practice, rapid alteratons of homeostasis seems to be related to this syndrome.