I conducted clinical studies on application of the speech aid for the purpose of improving nasopharyngeal function in those patients who still had speech disturbance due to nasopharyngeal insufficiency even after palatal repair. For the treatment of speech disturbance accompanying cleft palate, it is necessary to perform palatal repair to restore nasopharyngeal function to its normal level as early as possible and also to give systematic speech therapy. However, we encounter not infrequently cases with residual speech difficulty due to nasopharyngeal insufficiency even after such palatal repair. For this reason, I carried out clinical studies on 64 cases by applying the speech aid in order to improve their nasopharyngeal function and giving speech therapy. As a result I have drawn the conclusions as follows. 1. For the improvement of nasopharyngeal function and normalization of speech, the speech aid seemed to be indicated for those those patients with expiration loss rate of over 2.1 at the time of blowing with Taguchi's manometer. 2. When the speech aid applied was classified into four types according to the morphology and function of its palatomaxillar section, there were 36 cases (56.2%)for whom the palatomaxillar section was used for the sole purpose of supporting the pharyngeal section, but in the cases of bilateral and unilateral cleft lip and palate patients there were 63.4% of them for whom speech aid was used for restore the tooth defect and hard palate perforation. 3. Among 29 cases whose cephalometric x-ray films were taken at the time of pronouncing the vowel “a”, the cases showing Passavant's bar amounted to 66.5%, where the upper margin of Passavant's bar was in contact with the posterior inferior edge of the pharyngeal section, which coincided with the produced under the direct view of mirror, but in those cases not revealing Passavant's bar there could be observed no definite position-relationship. 4. With growth of the jaw the speech aid applied in 3-5 year old children had to be reconstructed in the majority of cases, and the duration of time from the first speech aid insertion to the first reconstruction set ranged 19 months to 23 months. 5. The speech aid proved to bo effective on nasopharyngeal function in 85.9% of the cases applied, bringing up the respiration loss to O point at the blowing time, which in the majority of them had been attained within 4 months after the application of speech aid. Especially marked was such an effect in those cases whose palato-pharyngeal sphincter function before the application was good, some even showing an immediate effect. 6. As to the speech improvement after the application of speech aid, there were 41.7%, of the cases recovering to normal speech level (degree one), and 22.9% of them who could carry on normal speech (degree two), revealing the application to be most effective in the age range of 3 to 6 years old. 7. As for the relation of speech improvement to repiration loss rate, in the cases whose respiration loss rate recovered to O after the application of speech aid there were 48.8% whose speech improvement reached degree one and 26.8% of them degree two, but in all those whose respiration loss rate did not recover to O, there was recognized a residual cleft palate speech (degree 3) that existed prior to the application of speech aid. 8. After the application of speech aid it required a speech therapy suitable to each individual in a narrow sence for a certain length of time, and most of the patients over one year old but under two years had to be given speech therapy. 9. There were some cases of auditory disturbance with slight hearing difficulty that seemed to affect the speech recovery, hence cases with auditory disturbance require oto-rhinologic therapy.
In about 100 pregnant women in Okayama city, serum folate, vitamin B12, iron levels and peripheral blood counts were estimated in each stages of pregnancy (16, 28, 36th weeks and 4 weeks after delivery). In most women, low serum iron levels were commonly observed in the late stages of pregnancy. The peripheral blood showed signs of iron deficiency. Mean serum folate level fell gradually as pregnancy came near to term. Macrocytic anemia was not observed and signs of folate deficiency were thought to be completely masked by that of iron deficiency. Hematological changes and serum iron, vitamin B12 and folate levels after administration of iron plus folic acid were compared with changes and levels after supplement of iron alone in 100 pregnant women. No hematological benefits by adding folic acid was revealed. It is concluded that folic acid deficiency in pregnant Japanese women is mild and routine supplementation of folic acid is not required except proved cases of folic acid deficiency.
Folic acid contents of various foods (147 items) were estimated by the microbioassay using Lactobacillus casei as the test organism. Folic acid were abundant in vegetables, fruits, fishes and the liver of animals. Nineteen foods were examined for loss of folic acid during boiling. Leaching out into the water was also examined. 20-70% of free folate was destroyed after 5 minutes and 20-90% after 15 minutes. Destruction of total folate was less than that of free folate i.e., 30% after 5 minutes and 40-60% after 15 minutes. Pteroylglutamic acid was not destroyed by boiling for 15 minutes. So the folate destroyed during boiling was considered to be other forms of folate except pteroylglutamic acid. Folic acid contents of two hospital diet in Okayayma city was estimated. Mean daily folic acid amount in the diet of hospital A was 205μg of free folate and 839.8μg of total folate. In the diet of hospital B, 305.5μg of free folate and 738.1μg total folate were present. These amounts were much more than those reported in USA and England. As to the reason why megaloblastic anemia is rare and folic acid defi ciency is so mild in Japan, abundant folic acid intake from diets, uniformity of dietary habits i.e. boiled rice as basic food, were discussed.
For simplifying the measurement of respiratory resistance, an apparatus attached with the digital counter was devised and results were compared with those obtained by the one attached with Braun tube indicator. The following results were obtained. 1. The values obtained by the apparatus attached with digital counter showed greater dispersion than the values obtained by the other, as the values obtained by former showed the immediately after putting on the switch. Therefore mean value were calculated from the results of five times measurement. 2. The correlation of the obtained values from two kind of apparatus was recognized. But the perfect coincidence between them could not be found. 3. As to the measurement by these two apparatuses, it is necessary to determine the measuring coudition that can exactly detect each state of airway disturbance.
All studies were carried out with male Wistar rat. Blood samples were collected by decapitation. Plasma rat GH was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique. Tibia break and ether-laparotomy stress caused no significant change in plasma GH in urethane (150mg/100g B. W.)-pretreated rats. In pentobarbital (5mg/100g B. W.)-pretreated rats, on the other hand, tibia break resulted in a marked decrease (P<0.01) in plasma GH and etherlaparotomy stress produced a marked rise (P<0.01) in plasma GH. The intracarotid injectionof NIAMDD rat hypothalamic extract (the epuivalent of 2 rat median eminences) produced a significant rise (P<0.01) in plasma GH in urethane-pretreated rats, but by ether exposure prior to urethane ip injection, this significant rise of plasma GH was disappeared. In pentobarbital-pretreated rats, on the other hand, the intracarotid injection of rat hypothalamic extract produced a significant decrease (P<0.05) in plasma GH. These findings may suggest that NIAMDD rat hypothalamic extract has both GH-releasing and GH-inhibiting actions.
1) Significantly low serum complement level was observed in patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, myasthenia gravis, SLE, chronic glomerulonephritis, Hashimoto's disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and hyperthyroidism. 2) The measurement of CH50 in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and myasthenia gravis had the diagnostic values of these diseases but little to manage them. 3) Reduced CH50 level in SLE was characteristic in acute stage and correlated with immunoserological findings (LE cell preparation, ANF and DNA-Ab) but with urinary protein volume. 4) The early complement components (C1, C4, C2 and C3) in acute SLE were decreased, especially C4 and C2. 5) The recovery of low CH50 in SLE with steroid therapy was later than those of the other serological examinations. These observations suggest that measurement of CH50 in SLE is most usefull to manage this disease.
1) Significantly high complement level was observed in patients with malignant lymphoma, diabetes mellitus, Behcet's disease, cancer (except for hepatoma) and preangiitis syndrome. 2) It is suggested that most of elevated CH50 in Behcet's disease are correlated with an inflammation. 3) Raised CH50 in diabetes mellitus, differed from that of Behcet's disease, was concerned with other factor than an inflammation, but not with blood sugar level. 4) C1 titer was more increased in diabetes mellitus than in Behcet's disease. In arteriosclerosis C1 titer was significantly increased too, so that it is suggested that high complement level in patients with diabetes mellitus is correlated with vasclar damage.
Specificity of anti-Rauscher leukemia virus goat serum was strictly checked by purification, labelling with fluorescein and elimination of nonspecific reaction. Using this antiserum, antigen analyses of the spleen and liver cells of Rauscher leukemic mice and human leukemic cells were examined by the direct immunofluorescence technique and following results were obtained. By electron microscopy, the eclipse phase was reported to be about 1 week after virus inoculation, but it was found that viral antigen was observable already in three days after virus infection. In the experiment with human leukemias, cells from bone marrow or peripheral bloodsmears from patients with 20 acute leukemias (14 of myelocytic, 6 of lymphocytic), 6 chronic leukemias (3 of myelocytic, 3 of lymphocytic), 10 malignant lymphomas (4 of Hodgkin disease, 4 of lymphosarcoma, 2 of reticulum cell sarcoma), 2 multiple myeloma and 10 other disorders were tested with anti-Rauscher leukemia virus goat serum. However, specific fluorescence was not seen in any cells tested. Based on these findings, the role of virus in human leukemia was discussed.
As a virological approach to the study of human leukemia, the group-specific (gs) antigens in the human lymphoblastoid cell lines chronically infected with Rauscher leukemia virus, OUMS-11a-R, OUMS-6C1-R1 and OUMS-6C1-R2, were examined by the immunofluorescence technique with anti-gs-1 rat serum and anti-gs-3 goat serum. Immunofluorescence-positive cells with the anti-Rauscher leukemia virus goat serum and anti-gs-1 rat serum were observed in 0.2-0.6% of OUMS-11a-R cells, and in 8-15% of OUMS-6C1-R1 and OUMS-6C1-R2 cells. However, no staining was detected in any cell lines with anti-gs-3 goat serum. The number of fluorescent cells roughly coincided with those of cells producing type-C virus particles as observed by electron microscopic examination. In all instances, the fluorescence was restricted to the cytoplasm. It was diffuse and homogeneous in almost all cases, although granular cytoplasmic fluorescence was sometimes observed. There was no nuclear or perinuclear fluorescence. The specificity of these antisera was confirmed by the occurrence of specific fluorescence in the spleen and liver of mice infected with Rauscher leukemia virus, but not in the control tests of uninfected mice. From these results of gs antigen analyses in the human lymphoblastoid cells chronically infected with Rauscher leukemia virus, it was considered that type-C virus particles propagated in these cells were Rauscher leukemia virus itself used for infection, and it seemed unlikely that the hypothetical viral genome of human origin was activated and human type-C virus particles were rescued.
Regional axillary lymph nodes, spleen and distant mesenterial lymph nodes were taken out one, two, three and four weeks after isografting methycholanthrene-induced tumor (MC-tumor) on the back under the skin of C3H mice and lymphocytes were prepared from these lymph nodes and spleen. These lymphocytes were then mixed with the primary cultured tumor cells of MC-tumor in the 20:1 ratio, and cultured for 24 and 48 hours in order to determine antitumor activity of the lymphocytes. As a result it has been shown that at an early stage of one week after tumor transplantation a strong antitumor activity appears only in the regional axillary lymph nodes, which weakens gradually thereafter, and as the time elapses two to three weeks, it disappears. In the spleen, a strong antitumor activity can been ovserved in the third week after tumor transplantation, but the activity disappears by the fourth week. In the distant mesenterial lymph nodes, the antitumor activity grows stronger along with lapse of time after the transplantation, which reaches its peak by the fourth week. These findings indicate that antitumor activity of lymphocytes in different sites appears earliest and strongest in the regional lymph nodes, which weakens and disappears as the cancer progresses, which an antitumor activity makes its appearance in further distant lymphatic tissues.