Two spontaneous firing giant neurones (TAN, tonically oscillating neurone and PON, periodically oscillating neurone) were identified in the subesophageal ganglia of Achatina fulica Férussac. Effects of vaso-active peptides (substance P, physalaemin, eledoisin-related substance, neurotensin, bradykinin (B. K.), Lys-B. K., Met-Lys-B. K., angiotensin (A. G.) I, A. G. II, hypertensin, A. G. III) were examined on the excitability of these two neurones. Physalaemin showed the excitatory effect on the TAN excitability. This effect was due to depolarizing the TAN neuromembrane. The critical concentration (in bath application) was about 5×10-5g/ml. All of amino acids, of which physalaemin consists, were ineffective on the TAN excitability. The other mentioned peptides than physalaemin were ineffective on the same neuromembrane. All of peptides examined in the present work were ineffective on the PON excitability. Effects of vaso-active peptides are considered to be selective in the neuronal level.
Changes of migration velocity of peripheral blood basophils by addition of anti-IgE or anti-IgG were observed in 13 asthma patients including 5 of high IgE asthma, 5 of low IgE asthma and 3 of buckwheat asthma cases. Basophils from high IgE asthma cases showed increased migration velocity by addition of anti-IgE. By addition of anti-IgG, however, the basophils ahowed no change in migration velocity. Basophils from low IgE intractable asthmatic patients showed increased migration velocity by addition of anti-IgG but not of anti-IgE. Buckwheat asthma cases showed the similar changes as in high IgE cases, when exposed to the antigen of buckwheat.
Morphologic changes in vitro of basophils from the peripheral blood of patients with atopic bronchial asthma (serum IgE more than 1000 u/ml) and intractable bronchial asthma (serum IgE less than 100 u/ml) were studied by addition of anti-IgE or anti-IgG. In supravital observation by differential-inteference microscopy, basophils when exposed to anti-immunoglobulin moved rapidly and changed morphologically to a pear-shape and next to a hand-shape and the granules were degranulated from the tip of the cytoplasmic processus in a manner of exocytosis. In the observation by phase contrast microscopy, intracellular changes of granules and vacuolation were observed clearly, but ejection of granules were not observed by this method.
It has been considered that the most common cause of marked left axis deviation (LAD) is abnormal conduction through the anterior branches of the left bundle. This concept has been so much emphasized that there is a tendency to point out too easily an existence of left anterior hemiblock (LAH) when LAD is found in ECG. Thereupon to investigate this correlation, vectorcardiographic studies were conducted with Frank lead system in 101 subjects, who had electrical QRS axis with LAD (-30°-90°) and QRS duration less than 0.12 sec. in ECG. Half the cases had ischemic heart disease and/or hypertension, and one third of them had clinically no abnormal cardiopulmonary findings. In 40 subjects, abnormalities in ECG were not recognized except for LAD. The patterns of QRS loop were classified into 7 types in frontal plane (F-1F-7) and 6 types in horizontal plane (H-1H-6), from the point of the direction of main and terminal QRS vectors. F-1, 2 types represent elongations of QRS loop from left-inferior to right-superior quadrant, F-3 type; extention to leftward and F-4, 5, 6 types; locating chiefly in left superior quadrant. Each group consisted of one third of the all subjects. Pattern with characteristics of LAH was found in F-5, 6. F-3, 4 showed less superior displacement of QRS loop. Adding to these findings, F-5 showed a close relation to left ventricular hypertrophy in ECG. On the other hand, F-1, 2 showed LAD considered to be results of a delayed activation of the posterobasal resion of right and/or left ventricles. Twenty five cases showed SI SII SIII types ECG in which presence of SI resulted in LAD. Their horizontal QRS loops showed H-1, 2, 6 types and 76% of them except four cases with pseudo-LAD had narrow frontal QRS loops elongated from left-inferior to right-superior quadrant. Therefore, their spatial QRS loops were elongated from left antero-inferior to right postero-superior quardrant. Thirty five of the examined subjects satisfied Kulbertus' electrocardiographic criteria for LAH in which the limit of electrical QRS axis was broad, and 24 subjects did Rosenbaum's one which was more restrictive. Cases which satisfied any one of those criteria had various patterns in frontal QRS loop. Moreover, one third of them in each criteria showed F-1, 2 types. All of 9 cases showing F-5 satisfied the criteria of Kulbertus, but only 2 cases of them did that of Rosenbaum. Therefore, it was concluded that studies on morphorogic pattern of QRS loop are more useful than electrical QRS axis for diagnosis of LAH.
The negative T wave in lead aVL is one of the electrocardiographic features of left ventricular hypertrophy or myocardial infarction, associated with negative T wave in lead v5, v6 and I. Whereas the significance of isolated negative TaVL, not associated with other abnormal negative T wave, is of much controversial. The electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic changes of 146 cases were studied for appreciation of negative TaVL, whose TaVL were negative in 115 cases with or without negative ST, Tv5, v6, positive in 23 cases, and flat in 7 cases. The electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy was found in 50 cases, of old myocardial infarction, in 24 cases, and the remaining were admitted to RI>RIII group (41 cases) and to RI<RIII group (31 cases). In left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial infarction, isolated negative TaVL was the sign of anterior or anteroinferior displacement of spatial T loop, indicating abnormal, possibly of ischaemic origin, lesion in lateral wall of left ventricle. In RI>RIII group, if associated with isolated negative TaVL, TIII>TI and TVI/TV5≥0.74, the same displacement as in left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial infarction was found, suggesting ischaemic change of lateral wall. In RI<RIII group, if associated with isolated negative TaVL, TIII>TI and TVI/TV5≥0.56, the spatial T loop was in anterior position, but with no pathological meaning. Negative TaVL associated with RI>RIII, TIII>TI and TVI/TV5<0.74 or RI<RIII, TIII>TI and TVI/TV5<0.56, was sign of inferior, posteroinferior, posterior or normal position of spatial T loop, and abnormal T loop (spatial length/width≤2.6, abnormal speed of inscription, irregular shape, wide spatial QRS-T angle) was found more frequent in RI>RIII group (66.7%) than in RI<RIII group (35.3%). Negative TaVL with negative ST, T change in V5, v6 was sign of right anterior, right anterosuperior, right posterosuperior displacement of spatial T loop, indicating more severe lesion of anterior or lateral wall.
The healing processes of deciduous tooth socket after extraction seems to have some influence on the growth of permanent teeth. As for the studies on healing processes of extraction wound of teeth, there are many reports by Euler (1932), Hahn (1958), Smith (1958), and Tomozawa (1973), but as far as we know, there is no report dealing with deciduous teeth. For this reason, using pups (about 3 months old, weighing 1.5Kg-3.0Kg, about the same solidification of eruption of deciduous teeth and calcification of permanent teeth germ) the first and second frontal teeth of upper jaw of the right and left sides, and the first and third frontal teeth on the right and left sides were extracted. Then exfoliative cytological, pathohistological as well as macroscopic observations were carried out on the healing processes of the extraction wound with lapse of time, and the following results were obtained. It was found that 15 days after tooth extraction the maturity of epithelial cells became quite marked, and by 30 postoperative days exfoliated cells gave the findings similar to those of normal gingiva. The proliferation of the subepithelial connective tissue was marked by 5-10 postoperative days. After 20 days and later the exfoliative cytological findings revealed an acute increase in the number of precornified cells, and the pathohistological findings showed a tendency of parakeratosis. Macroscopic findings indicated a decrease in erythema, swelling and exudative substances, and the shrinkage of scar could be recognized by 15 days and thereafter.
It has been shown that changes of serum electrolyte have occurred during cardiopumonary bypass and that the changes have affected on prognosis of open heart surgery. This study was undertaken to reveal causes of the electrolyte changes and to minimize them. Clinical study was performed in 48 patients who underwent open heart surgery for either congenital or aquired heart disease. Experimental study was made using 30 healthy mongrel dogs and a main purpose of the experiment was to determine mutual changes of the electrolyte, including sodium, potassium and magnesium. when magnesium was added in the priming solution Heart-lung machine employed was disc oxygenator type (Pemco) or bubble oxygenator type (Junken), primed with hemodiluted solution (20%) under normothermia. The following results were obtained: -Clinical studies- 1) Serum potassium and magnesium levels decreased during perfusion, but potassium level of R. B. C. increased a little. Urinary excretion of potassium increased after perfusion. However, it started during perfusion in a group (group B) in whom digitalis, KCl and diuretic had been given before operation. Potassium of the serum and R. B. C. returned to the preperfusion level by the 1st post-op. day and magnesium level did by the 4th post-op. day, but in group B it returned after the 4th post-op. iday. 2) Hypokalemia during perfusion became severer as perfusion time was prolonged. 3) Open heart surgery resulted in metabolic acidosis but serum potassium level was not. in correlation with serum PH. 4) Potassium and magnesium levels in the muscle decreased after perfusion, while sodium level increased. -Experimental studies- 1) Potassium and magnesium levels of the serum and R. B. C. decreased as well as in the clinical studies. 2) In the cerebrospinal fluid, however, potassium and magnesium levels were gradually risen during perfusion. 3) Potassium level of the striated muscle decreased during perfusion, but there was no change in potassium level. Potassium level of the liver remained unchanged. 4) Magnesium supplements during perfusion maintained electrolyte balance satisfactory, namely, urinary loss of potassium reduced and, therefore, hypokalemia was improved. It was concluded that magnesium supplements were recommended to be added to priming solution to improve potassium metabolism during and after extracorporeal circulation.
Effects of alprenolol, propranolol and practolol on hemodynamics were studied in open-chest anesthetized dogs, and following results were obtained; Coronary blood flow was decreased accompanied with a rise in coronary vascular resistance following the administiation of the drug. Cardiac output and heart rate were decreased, and total peripheral resistance was elevated significantly. Practolol produced lesser changes in coronary and systemic hemodynamics than alprenolol or propranolol; especially lesser elevation in total peripheral resistance and smaller decrease in maximun blood flow of aorta.
Salt-form bilirubin, one of the direct bilirubin, was prepared from human bile. The saltform bilirubin dissolved with physiological saline was injected into tail vein of Wister strain rat, heterozygote and homozygote Gunn rat; the bile was collected up to eight hours after loading of the salt-form bilirubin. The amount of salt-form bilirubin excreted into bile and its characterization of excreted salt-form bilirubin was studied by thin layer chromatography and photochemically. The following results were obtained; 1) Absorption maximum of the salt-form bilirubin excreted into bile was observed at 400-430nm, and absorption maximum of its azo-pigment in pH 14 was at 555-560nm. The salt-form bilirubin showed negative ninhydrin reaction and benzidine reaction, and the nature of excreted salt-form bilirubin was coincidated with the former reports from our department. According to qualitative reactions and the absorption maxima, the salt-form bilirubin excreted into bile did not change its nature and conjugation. 2) Up to eight hours collection of bile after loading of the salt-form bilirubin amounted under 200mcg, it was excreted 64.42% in Wister strain rat and 53.81% in heterozygote and homozygote Gunn rat in the average, respectively. The maximum excretion of the salt-form bilirubin was observed in the first two hours after loading in each groups; these portion occupied at 42.9% and 46.5% of the excreted amount in eight hours, respectively. There was no significant differences between the excretion rate of the salt-form bilirubin in Wister strain rat and heterozygote and homozygote Gunn rat.
Exfoliative cytologic studies were carried out with 102 cases which had been enucleated, marsupialized or biopsied at the Department of Oral Surgery, Okayama University Medical School, and 15 cases of ameloblastoma were also studied as the disease which required differencial diagnosis. 1) The number of exfoliated cells showed a considerable difference between the cases. 2) The exfoliated cells from the cysts were appeared mostly as the individual cells and the aggregation of few cells, while the ceses of ameloblastoma showed a great number of cell aggregation in addition to them. 3) The cytoplasm: The stainability, the median palatine cyst, dermoid cysts and globulomaxillary cyst were well, postoperative buccal cysts, follicular dental cysts, radicular cysts and ameloblastomas were stained to an intermediate degree, while only the salivary retention cysts were stained poorly. As to the stainability according to colors most of the dermoid cyst cells were stained to yellow, but cells from other cases were stained in a blue color. Moreover dermoid cysts showed the superficial cells mostly, whereas in the other cases most of cells were from the intermediate layer. As for the contour shape, each cyst case presented a specific shape, polygonal, columnar and oval, which indicated the possibility of determination of the origin of epithelial cells to a certain degree. 4) Nucleus: While there could not be seen so much considerable differences in the nucleus as with the cytoplasm, there were some cases showing abnormalities such as irregularities in chromatin pattern, chromatin content, thickenning of the nuclear membrane, nuclear outline, multinucleation and anisokaryosis. 5) Nucleole: Some nucleoles showed abnormality in the number, stainability and contour but the degree of such abnormalities were less than cells from the malignant tumors. 6) The long diameters, short diameters and the area of cytoplasm showed significant differences in the cysts and ameloblastomas compared with normal buccal mucosa, while the same studies of the nuclei showed the significant differences could be founded some but not all of them. The C/N ratio were increased.
Respiratory insufficiency arises from various causes. Treatment by mechanical ventilators is not always effective for it. When it arises, long term artificial pulmonary substitution is thought to be a reasonable approach to provide better results. However the best method for improving survival rate has not estadlished yet. Author studied hemodynamics in acute hypoxic state upon dogs weighing 9kg to 12kg. Secondary the hemodynamic effects and gas change capabilities of three methods of extracorporeal respiratory support which were venovenous, venoarterial and arteriovenous perfusion was studied in this state. In acute hypoxic state (PaO2; 20-25mmHg), both left and right heart pressure rose and cardiac output increased at first which was called hypercirculatory state. Secondary, left heart pressure went down and cardiac output was decreased. However right heart pressure stayed high. Then the right heart peessure becawe low and the dogs died finally in average 63minutes. Hypercirculatory state was early seen on venovenous and arteriovenous perfusion, and PaO2 did not rise satisfactorily. On the other hand, hypercirculatory state was not seen on venoarterial perfusion, and PaO2 rose satisfactory. Author concluded venoarterial perfusion was the best method for respiratory insufficiency cases which was not improved by mechanical ventilation.
The Nehb lead system was examined to emphasize and find out at early stage ST depression of the left precordial leads (V5, V6, V7). The results were as follows. 1) The 19 patiens with ischemic heart disease were recorded after exercise tests. The mean QRS vector was situated on the left, posterior and inferior. The mean ST vector was directed to the right, anterior and superior. Namely, the former tended to be at a 180° angle to the latter. 2) The experiments of a torso, which was made by a trunk model of a japanese adult man, proved that a magnitude of the lead Nehb-D was larger than those of the leads V5, V6, V7. From the image surface which was obtained from the experiments of the torso the direction of the lead Nehb-D was situated on the same left, posterior and inferior as the leads V6, V7, especially close at the lead V7. The lead Nehb-A was the most largest magnitude, but the direction was situated on the same left, anterior and inferior as the V5. The directions of the leads Nehb-D, A, J and the leads V5, V6, V7 were the same in both azimuth and elevation and the image surface. Accordingly, the lead Nehb-D is usefull to emphasize and find out ST depression earlier than in the left precordial leads (V5, V6, V7).
A characteristic of the Nehb lead system and especially a value of the lead Nehb-D were studied in 136 subjects 1) The lead Nehb-D was similar to the lead V7, the lead Nehb-A to the lead V5 and the lead Nehb-J to the lead V3. Those similarities were about 50per cent each. 2) On a form of QRS complex of the Nehb lead system, the lead D was mostly qR type. The lead A was mostly qRs, then RS and qRs type in order of frequency. The lead J was mostly RS type. 3) The electrocardiograms of 80 healthy men were all normal both in the standard lead system and in the Nehb lead system. 4) The number of cases of abnormal ST changes at rest were 22 in the standard lead system and 55 in the lead Nehb-D out of 136 cases. 5) The number of abnormal ST-T changes after exercise tests were 61 in the standard lead system and 90 in the Nehb lead system. 6) In the cases with abnormal ST-T changes only in the leads II, III and aVf, the abnormal ST-T changes of the lead Nehb-D were a few.