The author reported generally on the tretment of foul water which oozed out from Makomodani (the valley of Makomo) of the dumping ground in Kurashiki City, Okayama Prefecture. And it is concluded that the most efficient counterplan for foul water pollution is to restrict laying and heaping up the garbage and to drain away the natural water of rain fall by its own passageway made for the rain, letting it not to stream in this Makomodani dumping ground.
Mass X-ray surveys for detecting lung cancer were conducted by our research group since 1967. Thirty-two cases of lung cancer (16.5/100, 000) were detected in 1973 and 56 cases (24.4/100, 000) in 1974. Chemotherapeutic effects were examined on 167 lung cancer cases from our hospital records from 1963 to 1973. The effective cases of chemotherapy apparently survived longer compared with ineffective cases. Cases after 1969 with sufficient chemotherapy were reviewed for survival compared to cases before 1968. Our combined FOBEM therapy (5FU, vincristine, Bleomycin, cyclophosphamide and Mitomycin C) showed a high percentage of survival in comparison with the earlier single-agent administration. In lung cancer patients the FOBEM protocol or Ifosfamide massive intermittent therapy is recommended. The use of either of these two methods resulted in higher survival of small cell cancer cases compared to cases treated prior to FOBEM treatment. Patients on chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy survived longer compared to patients on chemotherapy alone. Survival of lung cancer patients was prolonged by immuno-chemotherapy with a streptococcal agent.
In order to see the effects of lithium ion on the EEGs, cat brains were perfused with the standard artificial blood for 30min. and then with the blood containing either 0.810mEq Li+/1 (Group 1) or 8.095mEq Li+/1 (Group 2) for further 30min. Another group of cats (Group 3) were perfused for one hour with artificial blood where sodium ions were completly replaced with equimolar lithium ions. The EEGs and the concentrations of tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were compared with those of the standard perfusions. In Group 1, the cortical EEGs showed a slight decrease in the amplitude of the background fast rhythm and a slight increase in slow wave throughout the examinations, and the EEG findings were as same as those of the standard perfusions'. In Croup 2, the amplitude of the background activity and sporadic slow waves were increased and the slight slowing of basic rhythm was observed. However, the EEG findings consisted mainly of the fast rhythm throughout the experiments without remakable changes. In Group 3, during the first 10-15min. the EEGs showed the same pattern as the standard perfusions. During the next 20-45min., however, 200μV or higher voltage spike bursts of 10-30 seconds' duration with the afterdischarge appeared repeatedly. Thereafter the EEGs were reduced to low voltage slow waves or flat pattern until the end of experiments. Therefore, when the brains were perfused with lithium ions together with sodium ions, the electrophysiological activity of the brain was in good function more or less similar to the normal state. However, when the sodium ions were replaced with lithium ions, the brain activity could not be maintained. In Group 3, the brain cortex tryptophan concentrations was decreased to the 60-70% of that of the standard perfusions (p<0.005). In all regions examined, i.e. the cortex, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, thalamus, cerebellum and medulla, the concentrations of 5-hydoxytryptamine were as same as those of the standard perfusions. In the hippocampus the concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were decreased to 60% of the standard value (p<0.05)and tended to be lower in the caudate nucleus and the medulla, but in other regions they were almost as same as the standard values. Therefore, it is concluded that the metabolism of 5-hydroxytryptamine was inhibited when the cat brains were perfused for one hour with the sodium free blood containing lithium in a high concentration.
The effects of heavy metals, such as Hg, Pb, Cu, Cd, As, Sn, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn on the two developing sea urchin eggs. Temnopleurus and Hemicentrotus were investigated. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The development of fertilized eggs was inhibited when embryos were exposed to 10-6M of HgCl2 and CuCl2 and to 10-4M of CrCl2 and NiCl2 in Herbst's artificial seawater from fertilization until the formation of the blastula larva. 2. Chlorate and acetate of heavy metals were dissolved in filtered seawater. The morphological differences of embryo were not observed until the formation of the pluteus larva in the two solutions. Inhibitory effects were observed when embryos were exposed to seawater at concentrations of 10-7M of Hg and Cu, to 10-6M of Cd, and to 10-5M of Pb, Ni and Zn. At a concentration of 10-4M of Cd there were no visible effects until the appearance of swimming blastula larva, but larva development was strongly inhibited at time of bonification from pluteus larva, and there was no further later development. In 10-6M Hg, Cr, and Ni, the larvae were structural abnonal and shaped like Apollo. In 10-7M of Hg exogastrula embryos were produced. 3. Threshold concentration of complete inhibition on the early development of sea urchin embryos was at 10-6M of Hg, 10-5M of Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn, 10-3M of Mn. In the case of Cd 10-5M, complete inhibition didn't occur until the pluteus larva stage. 4. Only additive effects were obtained on the developing sea urchin eggs when two heavy metals were combined in filtered seawater. A high frequency of morphological abnormalities were formed such as exogastrula and Apollo shaped pluteus especially in coupling of Hg and Cu or Cd and Zn. 5. There were no visible effects in filtered sewage from fertilization to the formation of the pluteus larva. When embryos were exposed to acetate salts of Hg, Cu, Cd, and Zn in filtered sewage, there were 10 fold inhibitory effects on development. But formation of skeleton in the pluteus larva was found in filtered sewage containing Cd. 6. Only additive effects were observed on sea urchin embryo when combined with Hg, Cu, Cd, and Zn in filterd sewage. But the abnormalities were decreased in all cases. Inhibition of bonification were reduced in mixture of Cd and filtered sewage.
In Report I, the survey performed on the polypropylene fancy-mat workers in Seno-cho in summer was reported. And the following survey in winter was made on the same subjects on January in 1971. The results obtained were as follows: 1) It was found that 57.6% of the subjects worked for over ten hours a day, and this percentage was higher than in summer. 2) The number of subjective fatigue complaints offered by the workers was smaller in winter. 3) The number of the workers with high values in Donaggio's test of urine was increased in winter. 4) The incidence of low specific gravity of whole blood was higher because of longer working hours in winter. 5) Most of the cases of anemia were found in female workers (aged 28 to 52). These were iron deficiency hypochrome anemia. In these cases, it was observed that after recovery, the hemoglobin content of erythrocytes increased, while that there was no change in the number of erythrocytes.
Since about 1967, a polypropylene pipe that is 1.0mm in diameter has been used for weaving fancy mat in place of a rush. And the fancy-mat workers take extremely long working hours to weave it for the pursuit of profits. So, to clarify the relationship between the conditions of working and of their health, a survey was made on 118 workers (of whom, 52 males and 66 females) in 49 households in Seno-cho, Okayama Prefecture, in 1970. The results obtained were as follows: 1) As for the environment in the workshop, a noise level of weaving machines reached 80 phone. This value appeared to show the influence on the physical function of workers. 2) Admitted was want of sleeping hours among most of the workers because of irregular working hours, that is, over ten-hour labor a day (this contained 32.4% of the workers) and a working system of day-and-night shift. 3) Most of subjective fatigue complaints were the cases of chronic fatigue. The values of Donaggio's test of urine were high in 32.7% of the workers. 4) It was found mostly in the subjects of night-working type that values of Flicker descrimination varied more than 10% upward and found in the sujects of early-morning-working type that varied more than 10% downward. 5) As for the conditions of nutrition intake, it appeared that the side food was preferred to the staple food. This tendency is similar to an urban-type, though Seno-cho is located in a rural district.
A survey of pneumoconiosis caused by “send” dust was performed on the rush-mat workers in Seno-cho and Hayashima-cho of Binan district, Okayama Prefecture. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Out of 199 rush-mat workers in Binan district (of whom, 163 subjects with working career of over 10 years in Seno-cho and 36 subjects with career of over 15 years in Hayashima-cho), 2 cases of P3, 7 cases of P1 and 6 cases of Pz were found. 2) Pneumoconiosis due to “sendo” is clay pneumoconiosis and atypical silicosis caused by inhalation of the dust with free silica in low percentage (about 20%). And this disease shows its gradual development. As is evidenced by these, most of the cases of pneumoconiosis due to “sendo” were found in the workers with working career of over 20 years. 3) It was examined that 48.7% of “sendo” dust contained particles of under 5μ in diameter. And a higher incidence of pneumoconiosis due to “sendo” of fancy-mat workers among rush-mat workers was considered to be caused by indoor labor at the ill-ventilated workshop filled with a great deal of “sendo” dust. 4) Accordingly, as preventive measures against “sendo” dust, there needs the improvement of the environment in the workshop to install a ventilation and so on.
By extracting the a. carotis communis and the a. carotis interna of rabbit, frozen sections of about 30μ in thickness were prepared. These were immersed in diluted causatic soda solution, and the conditions of the fenestration of elastic membrane were studied. On the other hand, some of the above specimens were fixed with 10% formalin solution, and after staining elastic fibers they were observed under light microscope as the control. In addition, they were also observed electron microscopically. In the internal elastic membranes of both arterial walls in the case of the ones immersed in causatic soda solution for several days, the surface area of the fenestration was about 15-20% which is mch more than the area of 2-5% seen in the section specimens, and their size ranged 2.5-10μ and most of them were about 6μ and the morphology revealed that the fenestrations shift from a cross-wise elliptic shape to a longitudinal elliptic shape from the inner layer to the middle layer. The above-mentioned fenestration is not a simple space but it contains elastic fibers crossing longitudinally and cross-wise within it.
With adult rabbit under nembutal anesthesia they were subjected to laparotomy, and after ligating chylus about 10ml of India ink diluted 4-fold with physiological saline solution was injected slowly into inguinal lymph nodes and external iliacal lymph nodes. About 5 hours later the abdominal aorta was taken out, and it was cut into longitudinal and cross celloidin sections of about 100μ in thickness, which were stained with aldehyde-fuchsin or light-green solution and the distribution of lymph vessels in the arterial wall was observed. With some of the above specimens transparent samples were also prepared. By the forced reverse flow of lymph it was found that the excretory lymph vessel group arising from lymph capillary immediately adjacent to the internal elastic membrane of the aortic wall runs gradually along collagenous fibers through the fenestrations of each elastic membrane of the tunica media, and appears at the tunica adventitia and after confluencing they become a ralatively large excretory lymph vessel, but they further confluence with the excretory lymph vessel arising from the lymph capillary of fat tissue in the tunica adventitia, and they form an aggregative lymph vessel which runs over the exterior layer of the tunica adventitia, and when it comes out of the tunica adventitia it enters into the aortic lymph node. What is noteworthy is the fact that both the aggregative and excretory lymph vessels have peri-lymphvessel spaces. Embryologically, such a peri-lymphvessel space is a kind of closed space formed by the peri-arterialwall connective tissue consistig of double membrane that covers a part of the aortic lymph nodes to make an aggregative lymph vessel, and then excretory lymph vessel, which should be considered as a lymph space. Further at the site where the aggregative lymph vessel come in this closed space there is a narrow gate.
The distribution of nerve fibers in the arterial wall of both the elastic-type artery and muscle-type artery was studied by rabbits with the light and electron microscope. A noteworthy finding with the elecron microscope was the connection of smooth muscle cells with the unmielynated nerve ending observed in the middle layer of the tunica media of the common carotid artery of the rabbit, and the cell membrane of the nerve ending and the cell membrane of smooth muscle cells is separated by a space of about 500Å and the space is filled with a substance of a relatively high electron density. At this nerve ending there can de observed two synaptic vesicles and a neurofilament within the axon. The electron density of such a vesicle is high. In the space between the cell membrane of the ending and the cell membrane of smooth muscle cell there are several synaptic vesicles released. The size of these synaptic vesicles is approximately the same as the largest vesicles among various synaptic vesicles observed in the tunica adventitia of the a. carotis interna of the same rabbit.
In the human thoracic duct wall the direction and the ascending angle of the smooth muscle cells are not necessarily fixed according to the site, but as a rule the smooth muscle cells of the interior layer of the tunica media ascend longitudinally at about 80° with their origin at the internal elastic membrane and connect to the circular muscle of tunica media that ascends at angle of about 10° and terminates at the external elastic membrane. At the exterior side of tunica media it becomes often longitudinal and sometimes it forms the exterior layer. The smooth muscle cells which connect the middle layer and exterior layer from the interior layer run in a specific arc line. In the case where a pair of valves cover the thoracic wall, at the site between the two valves there can be observed no longitudinal muscle of the interior layer. Generally the internal elastic membrane is incomplete, and often it forms longitudinal networks, but there is sometimes the case where morphologically it forms a well arranged internal elastic membrane
As for the direction and distribution of the nutrient blood vessels in the human thoracic duct wall, the arterioles and venula that have branched out from the main branches of the tunica adventitia enter into the tunica media in the same ascending angle as smooth muscle cells of the exterior layer of the tunica adventitia. The artery that has entered into the tunica media, runs obliquely in an arch line while sending out a few branches on its way before reaching the tunica intima. On the exterior surface of the internal elastic membrane, these branches quickly connect with each other to form a marked capillary networks all over the outer surface of the internal elastic membrane. In a rare instance, some branches from such capillary network are distributed in the subendothelial layer through the network of the internal elastic membrane. The running way of capillary venule group originating from the above-mentioned capillary network is the same as the arterioles originating from the artery.
Prolactin-dependency was studied by incubation method of 32P-uptake, and the relationship between prolactin-dependency and prognosis of human breast cancer was discussed. Prolactin dependent breast cancer patients have favorable prognosis, on the contrary, prolactin-independent ones poor prognosis. Prolactin-dependent breast cancer patients have long survival, even in the cases of recurrence.
Prolactin concentration of hypophysis of transplantable testosterone dependent tumor, Shionogi carcinoma-115, was studied by disc electrophoresis. Prolactin in hypophysis of Shionogi carcinoma-115 was high concentration than the control mice. The hormonal dependency was altered by administration of prolactin and testosterone, and recovered the dependency in 2nd or 3rd tumor transplantation.
A survey of a respiratory disease was performed among 1433 inhabitants in the air-polluted area, Mizushima Industrial Area, and 568 inhabitants in the non-air-polluted area. And the following results were obtained. The incidence rate of chronic bronchitis was higher in the air-polluted area. But the results on pulmonary function test by flow volume curve showed abnormality much more in cases of chronic bronchitis in the non-air-polluted area.