The anticomplementary activity (ACA) of the sera from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients was measured by the modified Wasserman-Levine's method, and the following results were obtained. 1. The sera from SLE, liver cirrhosis, Hashimoto disease and rheumatoid arthritis patients revealed high ACA. 2. In SLE, ACA of the sera with high concentration of γ-Gl or IgG was significantly higher than those of the sera with low concentration of it. 3. There was no correlation between ACA and serum complement level in SLE, but ACA was rather high in hypocomplementemic sera. 4. ACA of the sera that showed the shaggy pattern was especially high among the sera showing various ANF patterns, and ACA correlated with the level of anti-DNA antibody in SLE. 5. ACA was significantly high in sera with high level of rheumatoid factor in SLE. 6. ACA in SLE varied with activities of lupus nephritis. These data may suggest that positive ACA shows the exsistence of the circulating immune complexes in SLE sera, and the measurement of ACA is important to know the prognosis of SLE.
The anticomplementary activity (ACA) of immune complexes or DNA was measured, then those data were compared with that in SLE sera. 1. High ACA was detected mainly in γ-Gl and β-Gl fractions of SLE sera. 2. DNA (especially denatured DNA) showed high ACA, and the treatment with DNase eliminated its ACA. DNA did not bind nonspesifically to normal γ-Gl. 3. ACA in some SLE sera was reduced after DNase treatment. This treatment worked mainly on ACA of γ-Gl fraction. 4. The procedure of complement inactivation which is employed in measurement of ACA, depressed ACA of cryoglobulin, experimental immune complexes and SLE γ-Gl fraction. This indicated that heat aggregation of native IgG could not account for high ACA in SLE sera. 5. The addition of enough amount of complement reduced ACA of immune complexes, but a certain level of ACA was still retained. 6. ACA of insoluble immune complex was much higher than that of soluble immune complex. These data may suggest that ACA in SLE sera originates from the circulating immune complexes, especially DNA-antiDNA antibody immune complexes and this ACA detected is the reflection of only a part of ACA caused by immune reaction in vivo.
It is only a little over two odd years since computer tomography (CT) has come to be used in Japan. However, during this short period of time great interest in the CT apparatus has been aroused. As we have had the opportunity to use the ACTA scanner (type 0100) set in June, 1976 at the hospital affiliated to Okayama University, we describe here our experiences with it and introduce an outline of the CT apparatus as well as its usefulness.
We have previously reported an outline of the ACTA scanner and its usefulness. In this report, we intend to present some aspects of the apparatus itself needing improvement and also offer our opinion on some points to be borne in mind on the actual use of the scanner.
In order to clarify the confused conception about so-called cenesthopathy, a pricise clinical and follow-up study was made on 22 patients who presented peculiar cenesthopathic complaints during long terms. Such cases as organic diseases, apparent schizophrenia and depression were excluded. The author could classify them into 5 groups. The 1st group is neurotic cases. The 2nd group is schizophrenic cases shifted from so-called borderline cases. The 3rd group is the cases of paranoid reaction. The 4th group is borderline cases in adolescence. The last 5th group is the cases unable to be classified into any groups above mentioned, and shows most characteristic symptoms. The distinguishing traits of 5th group were as follows. They developed symptoms in middle ages after being affected psychologically or physically. The persistent abnormal cenesthesia full of agony was rather tinged with hallucination, and it was some experience of moving, tense or pulling sensations, or of utterly new strange foreign sensations. Despite the peculiar strange complaints, they did not make pathological interpretations and their insight into their morbid states was preserved to some extent. But, pathological obsessive attitudes (such as skin-rubbing) and temporary abulic states often appeared, so that in their course they wore temporarily psychotic feature. Despite the chronic course, schizophrenic tendency did not appear. The author discussed the psychopathology of cenesthopathy and concluded that the 5th group should be diagnosed as typical cenesthopathia.
Influences of intravenous injection of sugar solution on the reduction process from biliverdin to bilirubin and conjugation of bilirubin in the rabbit liver was studied. 5% solution of glucose, fructose or xylitol was loaded into an auricular vein of the rabbit that contained both bilirubin and biliverdin in the bile. Following results were obtained; 1) After loading of sugar solution, decreased bile volume, increased concentration was observed up to 3 hours in each group, and the excreted amount of bile pigments was not increased. 2) The bilirubin fraction in the total bile pigments in the bile was gradually increased after loading of sugar solution on each group. The concentration of bilirubin was superior to biliverdin in 30 minutes in glucose group, in 1.5 hours in xylitol group, and 3 hours in fructose group after loading. 3) The direct bilirubin fraction in total bilirubin in the bile increased in each group after loading of sugar solution, but not significant. Molar ratio of glucuronic acid to total bile pigments increased immediately after loading of sugar solution. Significant increase was shown in glucose and xylitol loading group. 4) The percentage of alpha 3 azo-pigment to total bilirubin azo-pigments decreased and delta azo-pigment increased after loading of sugar solution than the control group. Alpha 2 and beta azo-pigment was observed in xylitol group, these azo-pigments were not shown in the control. 5) Small amount of bilirubin IIIα and bilirubin XIIIα exsists in the rabbit bile.
Mesobilirubinogen was prepared from the reduction of bilirubin crystals (Daiichi Kagaku Co. Ltd.) or extracted from the feces of a patient with hemolytic jaundice. Mesobiliviolins were obtained after oxidative procedures of mesobilirubinogen. Mesobiliviolin isomers were separated with thin layer chromatography by Stoll and identified with mesobiliviolin IIIa, IXa and XIIIa respectively by mass spectrophotometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The identified mesobiliviolin isomers were studied spectrophotometrically. 1. Mesobiliviolin isomers prepared from the feces were of the same properties as that from bilirubin crystals in all examined items. 2. Mesobiliviolin isomers were found composed of three ones and identified with mesobiliviolin IIIa, IXa and XIIIa by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. 3. Mesobiliviolin IIIa dimethylester was reported instable by Stoll, but it was found stable during 8 hours if kept in methanol in the dark at room temperature. 4. Absorption maxima of mesobiliviolin IIIa, IXa and XIIIa dimethylester in methanol at pH6.0 were 554.7nm, 555.0nm and 559.5nm, and in the case of nonesterified free form of them were 555.0nm, 555.6nm and 559.2nm respectively. 5. Absorption maxima of both their dimethyl ester and nonesterified free form of mesobiliviolin isomers migrated slightly to longer wave length in methanolic solution after acidification with hydrochloric acid at pH1.0. 6. Conversion between methylesterified mesobiliviolin isomers did not occur under treatment of alkali or strong acid.
Intestinal absorption of direct bilirubin was studied with chemically synthetic 3H-bilirubin sulfate which was alkali-stable, and compared to that of commercial 3H-bilirubin. 3H-bilirubin sulfate and 3H-bilirubin was loaded into three isolated intestinal segments, that is, the (isolated) duodenal segment, the (isolated) small intestinal segment and the (isolated) large intestinal segment of heterozygous Gunn rats and Wistar strain rats. After loading of bilirubins, biles and urines were collected at intervals of 2 hours up to 8 and from 8 to 24 hours. Radioactivity of the excreted biles and urines was studied and resulted as follows: 1) After loading of 3H-bilirubin sulfate dissolved in physiological saline into the three each segment of Gunn rats or Wistar strain rats, ratios of the excreted radioactivity into bile were not significantly different between them. 2) After 3H-bilirubin sulfate was dissolved in pool rat bile or physiological saline, the two each sample was loaded into the three each segment of Gunn rats. The difference of the excreted ratio was not significant between them. 3) In case of loading of 3H-bilirubin sulfate into the small intestinal segment and the large intestinal segment in comparison of the duodenal segment, the ratio of excreted radioactivity into the bile was higher. 4) After 3H-bilirubin sulfate or 3H-bilirubin was dissolved in pool rat bile, the sample was loaded into the three each segment of Wistar strain rats. The biliary excretion within 24 hours following the loading of 3H-bilirubin sulfate into the duodenal, small intestinal and large intestinal segment were 2.58, 4.41 and 4.33%, and loading 3H-bilirubin, were 8.55, 7.35 and 3.70%, respectively. Difference between the excretion ratio of 3H-bilirubin sulfate loading group and 3H-bilirubin loading group was significant when loaded into the duodenal and small intestinal segment. But there was no difference between the excretion ratio of 3H-bilirubin sulfate loading and 3H-bilirubin loading into the large intestinal segment. 5) It was suggested that 3H-bilirubin sulfate was absorbed from intestinal mucosa and excreted into biliary tract without any change of its nature.
In the course of the screening examination of the adult diseases, 2692 inhabitants of the community were examined the occult blood in the urine with N-multisticks (Ames Co.) from April to October, 1977, and the following results were obtained. 1) The positive rate of the occult blood in the urine was 16.3% of the examinee, but the rate of female (17.7%) was higher than that of male (12.0%), and the positive rate of the occult blood in the urine became higher with increase in age. 2) Following the cystitis of the urinary bladder the kidney disease was the most prevalent disease among the past history of the urinary tract diseases, and the pollakisuria was the commonest complaints. 3) In the positive cases of the occult blood in the urine, 93.4% of which was protein negative or questionable positive in the urine, but 6.6% of which was protein positive, and this group must have a precise examination. 4) In 61.8% of the positive cases of the occult blood in the urine, the hematuria was observed microscopically in the urinary sediments, and in 1.6% of the positive cases of the occult blood in the urine many cylinders were observed. From the above results, we concluded that it was necessary to add the occult blood examination to the urinary screening examination of the adult diseases.
Influence of sugar loading on the reduction process from biliverdin to bilirubin and their excretion into bile from the liver was studied using the rabbit whose liver was damaged with acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Five percent solution of glucose, fructose and xylitol were used for the experiments, and loaded into the auricular vein of the rabbit at the rate of 10ml per Kg of rabbit's weight. Following results were obtained; 1) After sugar loading, bile volume increased at a half hour in glucose loading group and at 0.5, 1 and over 3 hours in fructose loading group, but decreased in xylitol loading group. 2) Bile pigment concentration and the excreted amount of bile pigment increased or showing the increasing tendency after sugar loading in all groups. 3) The bilirubin fraction in the total bile pigment increased gradually after sugar loading in all groups. 4) The direct bilirubin in the total bilirubin fraction increased after all sugar loading groups, but not significant. Molar ratio of glucuronic acid to total bile pigments increased sleightly immediately after sugar loading in all groups and increased significantly in glucose and xylitol loading group.
Short necked clams (Venerupis Amygdala japonica) were maintained in a controlled laboratry environment in sea water containing suspension of crude oil and then transferred to clean sea water. Transfering and disappearance of n-paraffins in the soft body of short necked clams were examined by gaschromatography. n-Hexane solution after clean up treatment was treated by distribution method with n-hexane and acetonitrile and were separated n-paraffins and aromatic hydrocarbons. Short necked clams were reared in oil disperser or supplement with C20, C22, C24 of n-paraffins and n-paraffins in soft body of short necked clams were analyzed by gaschromatography. The following reasults were obtained. 1) C13-C20 of n-paraffins in crude oil were transfered in the soft body of short necked clams. The concentration of n-paraffins increasd with rearing time in crude oil suspension and decreased with crean sea water. The rate of disappearance of C10-C15 in n-paraffin were decreased faster than C16-C20 of n-paraffins. 2) Short necked clams were reared in the crude oil suspension (1, 000 ppm) for 3 days. n-Hexane solution after clean up was treated by distribution method. n-Paraffins remains in n-hexane and di-, tri-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons transfered from n-hexane solution to acetonitrile solution. 3) Short necked clams were reared in oil disperser solution (100 ppm). Gaschromatograms of soft body of short necked clams showed the presence of C12-C16 of n-paraffins. Short necked clams were reared in oil diperser solution supplemented with C20, C22, C24 of n-paraffins. Gaschromatogram of soft body of short necked clams showed the presence of C20, C22, C24 of n-paraffins except C12-C16 of n-paraffins of oil disperser.
Eels were reared in the tetrachloroethylene solution (50 ppm) for 3 days. Flesh of eel were taken out and homogenizes with water (20.5 ppm tetrachloroethylene). Thereafter homogenized solution were administered to rat (10 ml/Kg) orally. Concentration of tetrachloroethylene in organs of rat as time lapses were analyzed by gaschromatography with ECD detecter. The following results were obtained. 1) Tetrachloroethylene were detected in all organs tested. 2) Concentration of tetrachloroethylene in blood were decreased as time lapses and biological half life was calculated as 16 hours. 3) Similar concentration of tetrachloroethylene in muscle to that of blood were observed and biological half life was calculated as 19 hours. 4) Higher concentration of tetrachloroethylene in liver than that of blood were observed and biological half life was calculated as 5 hours. 5) The highest concentration of tetrachloroethylene among tissue tested were observed in adipose tissue. Maximum concentration was observed 6 hours after administration. The value was 10 times as much as than that of blood. The biological half life was calculated as 6 hours. 6) The effects of tetrachloroethylene on rat liver mitochondria were conducted and the decoupling action of oxidative phosphorylation was recognized.
In the previous report, we dealt with the method and the culture of human embryonic liver cells, and its difficulties in establishing epithelial cell lines from normal human liver. HuL-4 cell strain was published as an epithelial cell strain in the previous paper. We examined the cell morphologically, histochemically, and the cellular localisation of albumin and AFP (α-fetoprotein) immunofluorescently. Chromosome of the cells and uptake of Indian ink into the cell were also undertaken. We also calculated the growth curve of the strain and analyzed the liver specific enzymes. The results are summarized as follows. 1). HuL-4 cell strain derived from human embryonic liver disclosed dominant epithelial cell growth than fibroblastic cells, and it continued to cultivate up to 24 passages in 758 days. 2). Direct immunofluorescence method for albumin and AFP failed to show any positive stain. 3). PAS staining of the cell revealed weak positive, and it was digested by diastase. PAP silver staining was negative, and the uptake of Indian ink into the cells was negative for up to 12 hours. 4). Chromosome analysis of the cell was normal (46 numbers, diploid) and no marker chromosomes were detected. 5). Hul-4 cell strain was epithelial morphologically, but it contained no liver specific enzymes.
Effects of sympathomimetic amines on the regional blood flow (RMBF) in the intact and ischemic myocardium of the left ventricular free wall were studied using thirty-nine anesthetized open-chest dogs. The regional myocardial blood flow in the inner third-(subendocardial) and the outer third-(subepicardial) layer of the left ventricular wall was continuously monitored by heated cross-thermocouples designed according to Grayson's heat exchange method. The left circumflex coronary artery was constricted by a screw type constrictor until myocardial reactive hyperemia following 15 second-occlusion of the vessel nearly disappeared. The drugs were injected into the right femoral vein. The results were as follows: 1) No significant difference in RMBF between the inner- and outer-layer was shown in the normal myocardium. After coronary constriction, the flow ratio through the inner- to the outer-layer (I/O ratio) in the ischemic myocardium decreased. 2) Adrenaline (0.2μg/kg) produced the flow increment through the inner- as much as the outer-layer in the normal myocardium. In the ischemic myocardium, adrenaline produced changes of RMBF in the same manner. 3) Noradrenaline (0.4μg/kg) produced the flow increment in the inner- and outer-layer of the normal myocardium. I/O ratio was not changed. In the ischemic myocardium, the flow through the inner-layer was not increased, while the flow through the outer-layer was increased. I/O ratio was reduced. 4) Isoproterenol (0.2μg/kg) produced an increase in RMBF through both layers in the normal myocardium, whereas I/O ratio was reduced for less increase in the flow through the inner layer. In the ischemic myocardium, RMBF in the both layers were, reduced according to a fall in aortic blood pressure. I/O ratio in the ischemic myocardium was further lowered after isoproterenol. 5) Methoxamine (0.1 mg/kg) produced no significant change of I/O ratio in normal myocardium, since the blood flow through the outer-layer was increased as much as the inner-layer. In ischemic myocardium, however, I/O ratio was slightly increased with a rise in aortic blood pressure and a decrease in heart rate. These results might suggest that heart rate and/or blood pressure have closed relations to the flow through the inner-layer, especially in the ischemic myocardium.
Parietal cells in the rat gastric mucosa fractured by freeze cracking method under conditions of the control state and tetragastrin stimulation were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The structures thus revealed were compared with those by transmission electron microscopy. 1) In the fractured cytoplasm, intracellular canaliculi lined by numerous microvilli invaginated deeply towards the basal cytoplasm. Typically, microvilli had a club-like structure about 0.6μ in length and 0.2μ in thickness with a bulbous tip and slightly narrowed base. Most of the tops of the microvilli tended to grow up the direction of the canaliculi to the gland lumen, sometimes appearing bent or twisted. Intracellular canaliculi and microvilli differed in shape and size during secretory cycle. 2) Tubulovesicles appeared as many small holes of about 0.05μ in diameter and distributed predominantly in the apical or pericanalicular cytoplasm. Some tubulovesicles directly opened into the secretory canaliculi. Occasionally, tiny microvilli appeared in tubulovesicles. 3) Thirty minutes after tetragastrin stimulation the tubulovesicles increased in size and in number, the small microvilli were more frequently found. Furthermore, a close approximation of the membranes between adjacent tubulovesicles occurred and a 5-layered diaphragm was formed by the fusion of the membranes and changed to a 3-layered diaphragm as the result of the successive elimination of the fused 5-layered diaphragm. In a similar procedure, the membrane of a tubulovesicle apparently fused to that of the secretory canaliculi, and then the depletion of the fused membrane seemed to occur. Tubulovesicles were thus believed to open into the secretory canaliculi and to contribute to the formation of new microvilli. 4) In conclusion, in the stimulated state some amount of the membrane of tubulovesicles was transformed to the membrane of the microvilli in the secretory canaliculi. Consequently, the membrane of tubulovesicles would be preserved as the membrane of the secretory canaliculi, although some of them are believed to disappeare in the process of the depletion of fused membrane. Possibly after cessation acid secretion, the microvilli membrane would be retrieved to the tubulovesicles, but further investigation would be necessary to demonstrate this process.
In order to study transfer of organic sulfur compounds in crude oil from fish flesh to animals, following experiments were conducted. Crude oil was administered orally to rat and distribution of organic sulfur compounds were determined by gaschromatography (with FPD). 1) Organic sulfur compounds remained after 24 hours administration. 2) Minute concentration of organic sulfur compounds in blood were detected 3 and 6 hours after administration. 3) Higher concentration of organic sulfur compounds among tissue tested was observed in liver 3 hours after administration and minute concentration was remained 6 hours after administration.
The mutual effects of NaNO2+CdCl2 and NaNO2+ZnCl2 on the oxidative phosphorylation of rat liver mitochondria were examined and following results were obtained. (1) Mixed solution of NaNO2 and CdCl2 more decreases respiratory control index at any concentration of NaNO2(0-8.6mM) than the index without addition of 4.3μM CdCl2respectively. (2) Mixed sollution of CdCl2 and NaNO2 more decreases respiratory control index at any concentration of CdCl2(0-10μM) than the index without addition of 5mM NaNO2 respectively. (3) Mixed sollution of NaNO2 and ZnCl2 more decreases relative activity of State-3 and dinitrophenol stimulated respiration at any concentration of NaNO2(0-8.6mM) than the activity without addition of 4.3μM ZnCl2 respectively. (4) Mixed sollution of ZnCl2 and NaNO2 more decreases relative activity of State-3 and dinitrophenol stimulated respiration at any concentration of ZnCl2(0-10μM) than the activity without addition of 5mM NaNO2 respectively.
A study of the relationship between the vasculature and cell poliferation characteristics give some insight into the mecanism of the tumor growth. So the author observed the corrosion casts of tumor microcirculation by scanning electron microscope and explored the mechanism by which tumor tissue develops. Then the facts mentioned below were clarified. 1) Tumor vessel growth was divided into 4 stage according to the chin vascular morophology: (1) slight capillary alteration; (2) formation of fine capillary netwark; (3) modification in arteries; (4) ncrosis. 2) To quantify these vascular changes, the auther measured vascular volum, diameters of the vessels, vascular surface area, length and numberof buds by about 400 sheet of photographs which obteined by SEM. In the tumor tissue the values changes characteristcally in each stage. From the first to second stage, neovascularization was high in the tumor. In the third and forth stage, these values decreasd rapidly. 3) The auther observed vascular regeneration and rev ealed that host vessel give rise to buds which grow in length and width to form sprouts meet, they fuse, giving rise to loops or crossconnection and ultimately to intricate netwarks.
In order to study transfer of n-paraffins in crude oil from fish flesh to animals, following experiment were conducted. n-Paraffins (C10-C20) were administered orally to rat and distribution of n-paraffins in organs were determined by gas chromatography and the following results were obtained. 1) n-Paraffins were detected in all organs tested. 2) Maximam concentrations of n-paraffins in the organs were in the order of liver adipose tissue femoral muscles blood. 3) n-Paraffins in the organs decreased as the lapse of time relatively fast and the order was liver blood femoral muscles adipose tissue. And adipose tissue were thought to be accumulated tissue of n-paraffins. 4) The concentration of C16 n-paraffin was the highest in all the n-paraffins and it's biological half life was in the order of blood adipose tissue femoral muscles liver.
A cast was taken of the rabbit mesenteric lymph node by injecting Mercox resin into the lymphatic vessel, then excising the lymph node and removing the tissue with 20% KOH. The resulting cast was observed under an SEM. The outer surface of the cast, corresponding to the marginal sinuses, consisted of an arrangement of dome-like structures of about 1mm in diameter. A cross section of the cast showed that the marginal sinuses penetrate deeply into the cortex down to the trabecular and cortical sinuses, surrounding the secondary lymphoid nodules and connecting with the medullary sinuses. The cast of the diffuse lymphoid tissue showed numerous structures like tangled strings of beads, each bead with a maximum diameter of 40u and minimun of 10u. These were lymph pathways running through the reticulum cell network between the marginal sinuses and medullary ones. The cast of the primary lymphoid nodules showed a coral-like or irregular menbranous structure of 5u in thickness just under the dome-like marginal sinuses. Blind ending lymph vessels filled with resin were demonstrated at the center of the secondary lymphoid nodules. The cast of the medullary sinuses showed tortous tubes of 100-150u in diameter branching from or anastmosing with each other. The fine coral-like structures were also seen around the medullary sinuses.