The postoperative survival rate of gastric cancer patients who received blood transfusions was found to be significantly lower than that of patients who did not receive transfusions in each of five postoperative years. When classified by stages, the five-year survival rate of stage I cases was significantly lower in the transfusion group. When the effect of blood transfusion on the antibodyproducing reaction was experimentally studied using mice, the antibody-producing ability was significantly suppressed 3 and 4 weeks after allogenic transfusion, but no suppression was observed in the syngenic transfusion group. This antibody-production inhibition of spleen cells was found to be attributable to Thy 1.2+, Lyt-2+ cells existing in the fraction of plastic petri dish non-adherent cells, that is, suppressor T cells. On the basis of these clinical and experimental findings, it was concluded that blood transfusion adversely affects the cancer-bearing patient and induces an immunosuppressive state through the antibody-production system.
Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can be generated by incubating peripheral blood lymphocytes in recombinant Interleukin-2. LAK cells kill fresh autologous and allogeneic human tumor cells in vitro. The adoptive transfer of these LAK cells into tumor-bearing hosts can mediate the cure of disseminated cancer in a variety of animal model systems. But the mechanism of target cell killing by LAK cells is as yet undefined. We have postulated that such killing may involve some soluble cytotoxic factors produced and secreted by LAK cells. LAK cells were induced by mitogens and tumor cells to secrete cytotoxic factors against L929 cells. LAK cells produced cytotoxic factors within 2 hr after induction and maximal production was observed 6 hr after induction. There was a good correlation between in vitro LAK cell activity and production of cytotoxic factors. We have identified one of these cytotoxic factors as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). LAK cells lost their in vitro cytotoxic activity and TNF producibility after treatment with OKT-8 antibody. These findings suggest that TNF may be a mediator of in vitro LAK cell activity.
The workers at a shipbuilding yard were surveyed for viral hepatitis. An HBs antigen test was given, and the workers responded to a questionnaire. HBs antigen was detected in 4.09% of the workers. HBs antigen was detected in 5.40% of the workers with hepatitis, and in 4.01% of those without hepatitis (no significant difference). HBs antigen was detected in 20.0% of the workers with post-transfusion hepatitis, and in 4.06% of the workers without hepatitis. The difference in the frequency between the two groups was significant at the 5% level (χ2-square test). The rate of anamnesis of hepatitis was 9.08%, 5.50% and 6.29% among officers, career technicians and all workers examined, respectively. Hepatitis was under control in 2.12%, 2.82% and 2.66% of the officers, career technicians and all workers, respectively. The difference in the rate of drinking between the workers having anamnesis of hepatitis and those not among workers aged 3539 was significant at the 5% level (χ2-square test). The frequency of a family history of hepatitis between the groups among workers aged 4044 was significant at the 5% level (χ2-square test). The percent of workers having had a transfusion between the groups was significant at the 1% level (χ2-square test). As regards drinking water, type of toilet and of farming, there was no significant difference between the groups with hepatitis and that without.
From 1965 to 1974, 849 children with congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH) or congenital subdislocation of the hip (CSdH) were treated in our department, and primary reduction was achieved by conservative treatment in 685 cases. Seventy-five of them which had an unsatisfactory course as revealed by plain roentgenograms underwent arthrographic examinations under the age of 5 years. In the present study, 58 of them (69 hips) were evaluated around the age of 10 according to the system of Severin. The arthrographic findings were retrospectively analyzed to see if the arthrogram is of value in making prognoses. The results indicated that children showing an α angle greater than 28.0 degrees or a negative CE angle in plain roentgenograms require further arthrographic examination of the hip joint. Additional operations were thought to be necessary from treatment of cases in which arthrography revealed an α angle greater than 30 degrees or an α' angle greater than 11.6 degrees or interposition. The interposition disturbing the concentric reduction of the joint was demonstrated arthrographically as an arched shadow which continued from the “limbus” to the center of the cartilaginous acetabulum. Factors that indicate the probability of poor results according to Severin's evaluation are the presence of interposition and/or an abnormally thickened cartilaginous acetabulum: greater than 3.0mm at the Y cartilage, greater than 3.2mm at the pubic and ischial bones, or greater than 5.2mm at the iliac bone.
Using α-naphthyl butyrate esterase (α-NBE) staining, the absolute monocyte count was examined in 30 patients with acute leukemia. The absolute monocyte count in the peripheral blood was significantly low (33.5±30.5/μl) in untreated cases, but near normal (268.0±88.5/μ l) in remission cases (normal subjects, 268.0±102.0/μl). There was an inverse correlation (r=-0.63, p<0.01) between the percentage of leukemic cells in the bone marrow and the peripheral monocyte count. Peripheral monocytes were cytochemically classified into 3 types according to α-NBE staining; namely, monocytes slightly, moderately and heavily stained were classified into Type I, Type II and Type III, respectively. In normal subjects the percentage of Type I monocytes was 9.8±6.3%; Type II, 28.6±8.7% and Type III, 59.7±12.6%. Type I monocytes were predominat in untreated acute leukemia, while the populations of monocytes retured to normal in remission. some relapsed cases showed not only a low absolute monocyte count, but also a high proportion of Type I and Type II monocytes before the clinical features of the relapse were apparent. Changes in the absolute monoyctes count and the staining behavior of monocyte to α-NBE are thought to reflect the clinical course of acute leukemia and to be useful for the early recognition of relapse. Quantitative and qualitative changes in monocytes are one possible cause of the increased susceptibility to infection of acute leukemia patients.
Levels of chemiluminescence (ChL) were measured in peripheral monocytes obtained from patients with acute leukemia. Items examined were base line (BL), peak level (PL), peak time (PT) and BL/PL ratio. Levels of monocyte ChL examined during diffferent states of acute leukemia [before chemotherapy, state of complete remission (CR) and state of relapse] showed no significant differences as compared to those in healthy controls. However, prolongation of PT in untreated cases, elevation of BL and low BL/PL ratio in cases of CR and elevation of PL in relapsed cases tended to be observed. Four of 5 acute leukemia patients with CR, in which monocyte ChL was measured sequentially, showed an elevation of BL and PL before and/or during the early stage of relapse. Moderate inverse relations were observed between the percentage of leukemic cells in the marrow and monocyte BL and PL, respectively, and between the absolute counts of monocytes in the blood and monocyte BL and PL, respectively. These results suggest that there are two dynamic phases of monocyte ChL in acute leukemia; namely, BL and PL are rather high when the volume of leukemic cells is small, and BL and PL decrease as leukemic cells enlarge. The sequential measurement of monocyte ChL in the state of CR may aid in the early recognition of relapse.
Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in 74 patients with brain tumor. The delayed type hypersensitivity skin test and the percentages of T and Tγ cells among peripheral lymphocyte were used as immunological parameters. Significant impairment of the delayed type hypersensitivity test and an increase in the Tγ cell counts were found in patients with malignant brain tumor as compared with normal controls and patients with benign tumor. After removal of the tumor, these parameters returned to normal. Tγ cell counts in patients with sub-tentorial tumor were significantly higher than those with supra-tentorial tumor. It has been suggested that certain intracranial tumors might interfere with the possible cerebral function participating in the regulation of cell mediated immunity. The Tγ cell level is considered to be a valuable parameter for evaluating cell mediated immunity in patients with malignant brain tumor.
From 1982 to 1984, an alumina ceramic total knee (KC-1 type) replacement without cement was performed in 64 knees of 48 patients. The design of the prosthesis is similar to that of the cementless Mark-II prosthesis (metal on plastic), which originated in our department. Clinical evaluation was made on 52 knees of 40 patients according to a criteria proposed by three universities. Radiographic findings were compared with the the clinical assessment. The mean length of follow-up was 29.9 months, ranging from 10 to 43 months. This prosthesis was inserted in 29 patients (38 knees) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in 11 patients (14 kness) with osteoarthritis (OA). The average age at the time of surgery was 58.4 years, ranging from 43 to 81 years. Clinical knee scores were 36.7 in RA patients and 42.5 in OA preoperatively, and improved up to 74.6 and 82.3, respectively, at the follow-up. The mean range of motion (ROM) was 77.7 degrees in RA and 103.5 degrees in OA preoperatively and 86.3 degrees in RA and 98.2 degrees in OA at the follow-up. The mean flexion contracture of the knees improved from 24 to 5 degrees in RA and from 13.2 to 0.3 degrees in OA. The mean ROM was significantly improved in cases of TKR with bone graft, compared to that in cases of TKR without graft. Pain relief and joint stability were clinically excellent. The average femorotibial angle (FTA), determined by radiographic examination was 176.8 degrees preoperatively, and remained almost unchanged until the time of the follow-up. The average medial angle of the tibial component was 88.7 degrees a few months after the operation, and 88.4 degrees at the time of the follow-up. The average postoperative posterior angle of the tibial component was 84 degrees, the same as at the time of the follow-up. In this series, the postoperative FTA and the medial angle of the tibial component tended to correlate with the pain relief score. In 7 knees (6 patients), the postoperative medial angle of the tibial component changed over 4 degrees by the time of the follow-up, but the clinical knee scores of 6 of the knees were greater than 75 points. The medial angle of the tibial component tended to be 90 degrees at the time of the follow-up study, although the angles had a variation of about 4 degrees.
We have examined seven cases of fascioliasis in and around Okayama prefecture. Five cases were from Okayama prefecture, one case was from Hiroshima prefecture and the other one was from Hyogo prefecture. There were many cattle pastured for milk or beef in the place from where the patients came. The main symptoms were epigastralgia, right hypochondralgia and fever. We suspected fascioliasis by eosinophilia and space occupied lesions in the liver which were demonstrated by abdominal computed tomography or ultrasonography. Three cases were confirmed of the diagnosis by detection of the eggs in the feces or in the duodenal contents. Three other cases were diagnosed by skin test and sero-immunological techniques such as the Ouchterlony method and immunoelectrophoresis. One case was ectopic fascioliasis; the parasite wandered subcutaneously in the abdomen and was excised from the skin of the left hypochondrium. Treatment was carried out with bithionol administered orally at a dose of 50mg/kg on alternate days for 10 to 15 doses. In some cases, praziquantel was used at a dose of 75 mg/kg for three days combined with bithionol.
The systemic and hepatic circulation of 20 adult mongrel dogs was examined during and after inhalation of 2% (OE2%) and 3% (OE3%) enflurane in oxygen. A high correlation (r=0.83) was noted between CI and PVBF. A correlation between CI and HABF was recognized at the higher concentration of the anesthetic: r=0.03 in the OE2% group, and r=0.60 in the OE3% group. The systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and mesenteric vascular resistance (MVR) changed similarly in the OE2% and OE3% groups, and the disturbance of the systemic blood flow distribution was considered slight. SVR and MVR increased similarly to levels significantly above the control levels after termination of enflurane inhalation in both groups. The hepatic arterial vascular resistance (HAVR) during inhalation was lower than either SVR or MVR, and was sighificantly lower than the control level in both groups. However, after the inhalation was terminated, there no longer was a significant difference between the experimental and control HAVR. Since SVR and MVR changed similarly at both concentrations of enflurane, disturbance of the systemic blood flow distribution was thought to be small. It was clear that the decrease in HABF was less than the decrease in PVBF.
Inbred mutant El mice are highly susceptible to convulsive seizures upon stimulation by “throwing”. Amino acid levels were analyzed in the cortex, hippocampus, midrain, hypothalamus, pons-medulla oblongata and cerebellum of non-stimulated El mice [El(-)], of stimulated El mice [El(+)] during the interictal period and ddY mice (ddY) (controls) using an amino acid analyzer. Levels of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine and taurine were generally higher in the brains of El mice than those of ddY mice. Levels of aspartate, glutamate and GABA were lower in the brains of El(+) mice than those of El(-) mice. No significant difference was found in the hypothalamus. In addition, changes in amino acid levels were examined during the pre-convulsive stage, during convulsions and after convulsions of El(+) mice. The glutamate level was generally increased during the pre-convulsive stage, but other amino acids such as aspartate, glutamine, GABA and tauirne were decreased at that time compared to the interictal levels. These changes in amino acids were mostly found in the cortex, hippocampus and midbrain. These results suggest that glutamate may play a role in the triggering of seizures in El mice.
Resolution of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutanamide and 4-amino-3-hydroxybutananilide was carried out with optically active camphor-l0-sulfonic acid and tartaric acid, respectively. Hydrolysis of optically active 4-amino-3-hydroxybutanamide and 4-amino-3-hydroxybutananilide on a strongly acidic resin yielded 4-amino-3(R)-hydroxybutanoic acid (R-GABOB) and 4-amino-3(S)-hydroxybutanoic acid (S-GABOB). As Infrared absorption spectrums of R-GABOB and 4-amino-3(RS)-hydroxybutanoic acid (RS-GABOB) were different, RS-GABOB was shown to be a racemic compound. Although direct resolution of a racemic compound is impossible, RS-GABOB was converted into a racemic mixture as the corresponding salt of mxylenesulfonic acid, and resolution was accomplished by selective crystallization. RS-GABOB is a racemic compound, its incorporation into the brain is a little. It is known that incorpration into the brain of optically active R-GABOB is greater than that of RS-GABOB or optically active S-GABOB. We discovered that the incorporation into the brain of di-RS-GABOB-maleate-1-14C, upon i.p. injection was greater than that of RS-GABOB-1-14C. As di-RS-GABOB-maleate has the monomolecular action of RS-GABOB in circulative blood, it passes easily through the blood brain barrier.
It is known that GABA is one of the important inhibitory chemical neurotransmitter substances in the central nervous system. Some neurochemical disorders, such as epileptic seizures, have been treated by reinforcement of the GABAergic transmission system. Recently we have studied the action of various GABA receptor modulators on induced seizures in El mice. An intraperitoneal injection of γ-vinyl GABA (a GABA transaminase blocker), 1500mg/kg, completely inhibited El mouse seizures with significatly increased endogeneous GABA levels in the brain. Administration of 3 mg/kg of muscimol (a GABA agonist), i. p., completely inhibited the seizures with increased glutamine levels in the brain. Administration of 100 mg/kg of progabide (a GABA agonist), i. p., completely inhibited the seizures with no significant chnage in amino acids in the brain. An intraperitoneal injection of 32 mg/kg of diazepam completely inhibited the seizures with significantly increased glutamine levels in the brain. An intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg of baclofen (an agonist for the GABA receptor) blocked the seizures with decreased levels of GABA, glutamic acid and alanine in the brain. These results suggest that inhibition of El mouse seizures may depend on an increased GABA level in the case of γ-vinyl GABA, on the action of a GABA receptor agonist in the case of muscimol and progabide, on the reinforcement of GABA receptor binding through benzodiazepine receptor in the case of diazepam, and on the action of a GABAB receptor agonist in the case of baclofen.
Ventilation and perfusion examinations using 133Xe gas were done on 9 Patients with silicosis and 7 normal subjects. The data included single breath image (V-DOT), wash out image (WO) and perfusion image (Q-DOT) and were stored in a Shimadzu Scintipac 1200. The 9 patients were divided into two types according to the classification by chest X-ray findings of the Japanese Labour Ministry, namely type I (3pts) and type II (6pts). Six regions of interest (ROI) were established: the upper, middle and lower lung fields of both lungs. There were no statistically significant differences in the V-DOT/Q-DOT of the six ROI between patients with silicosis and the normal control subjects. However, there were statistically significant differences in the MTT of the right upper and middle lung fields between the 6 patients with type II silicosis and the normal control subjects. This study showed that obstructive changes in the early stage of silicosis start from the upper lung field.
Postmortem pancreas tissue was prepared within 6 hours of death for the comparative study of pancreatographic findings and histological findings to define characteristic pancreatographic findings of chronic pancreatitis and determine their diagnostic value. Pancreas tissue was obtained from 25 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 12 with pancreatic cancer and 125 with a normal pancreas. Among various pancreatographic findings, irregular dilatation and irregular arrangement of the branches of the pancreatic duct, and also irregular dilatation, rigidity with irregular margin and stenosis with irregular margin of the main pancreatic duct showed the highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value and thus had the highest diagnostic value. However, the sensitivity was not high enough, indicating that the above pancreatographic findings could be absent at the site of positive histological findings. As for the differential diagnosis between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, stenosis accompanied by irregular margin of the main pancreatic duct is more likely to suggest cancer, whereas simple stenosis suggests pancreatitis. The absence of branches suggests cancer, while rigidity accompanied by straightening of branches suggests pancreatitis.
The sodium and water balance of rats was varied, and changes in the number and distribution of specific atrial granules (ASG) were observed electron microscopically. The number of ASG in atrial muscle cells increased in rats without salt intake for 7-8 days. On the contrary, the number of ASG began to decrease 10 days after rats were given 2-2.5% sodium chloride solution ad libitum instead of water. After 30 days, the number of ASG decreased markedly in the central sarcoplasmic core, in the sarcoplasmic layer and under the cell membrane. Most atrial muscle cells in rats 6 days after hypophysectomy contained less ASG than those of control rats, and 30 days after the hypophysectomy, only a small number of ASG were observed in the central sarcoplasmic core, in the sarcoplasmic layer and under the cell mumbrane. The number of ASG increased the first 5 days after adrenalectomy, but did not change after 7 days. The number of ASG increased a little 4 weeks after birth in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). ASG increased up to 20 weeks after birth of SHR, concomitantly with an increase in the blood pressure. To study the mode of secretion of ASG in detail, Ca-ionophore A23187 was used. In ionophore-treated cells, exocytotic figures were clearly demonstrated.
Fibronectin (FN) is known to promote fibroblast proliferation and attachment of collagen fibers at the site of tissue repair or fibrosis. Although increaed levels of FN were shown in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with interstitial pneumonia, the source of FN and the role of FN in the pathogenesis of interstitial pneumonia are still obscure. BAL fluid of patients with various types of interstitial pneumonia were obtained to measure FN and albumin (Alb) levels and to examine the cellular components. Because of the different recovery rate of BAL fluid, the FN/Alb ratio of the BAL fluid was evaluated as the real FN level in the lungs. A high FN/Alb ratio was shown in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, interstitial pneumonia with rheumatoid arthritis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and sarcoidosis in comparison with normal volunteers. Patients with impaired pulmonary function or acute and progressive interstitial pneumonia were shown to have a higher FN/Alb ratio than patients with normal pulmonary function or inactive interstitial penumonia. The levels of FN in BAL fuid showed a statistically significant correlation with total cell, alveolar macrophage and neutrophil concentrations of BAL fluid, but not with the lymphocyte concentration. Alveolar macrophages, isolated as adhesive cells by a brief incubation in plastic culture plates, were cultured for 48 hours, and the level of FN in the culture medium was measured. FN production by alveolar macrophages was greater in patients with interstitial pneumonia than in norman volunteers. These data suggest that the local increased production of FN might accelerate the fibrotic process in the alveolar wall, following the accumulation of alveolar macrophages and other cellular components.
Gallium-67 citrate (67Ga) is known to accumulate in inflammatory areas. Though the exact mechanism of the transportation and localization of 67Ga citrate in foci of inflammaion is still obscure, 67Ga scintgraphy has been used clinically to evaluate patients with interstitial pneumonia with regard to disease activity and progression. Quantitative analysis using 67Ga scintigraphy has been attempted several times, but the results have been inadequate, even with computer analysis. In this study, the combination of 67Ga scintigraphy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was applied to patients with various types of interstitial pneumonia to estimate quantatively 67Ga accumlation in the lungs. The radio activity of BAL fluid and peripheral blood were measured directly, and the ratio of radioactivity of BAL fluid/peripheral blood was calculated for each of the patients. Radioactivity in the peripheral blood was contained mainly in the plasma. On the other hand, most radioactivity in BAL fluid was shown to be located in the cellular component. The cellular component of BAL fluid was separated by culture in plastic culture plates into adherent cells (macrophage-enriched fraction) and non-adherent cells (lymphocyte-enriched fraction). Comparison of radioactivity of each cell fraction proved that alveolar macrophages contained most of the 67Ga citrate in BAL fluid. Therefore, the high 67Ga uptake in scintigrams of patients with interstitial pneumonia represents the increased number or activated state of alveolar macrophages in the lungs. The direct measurement of 67Ga radioactivity in BAL fluid could be a useful method to analyze quantatively 67Ga scintigrams of interstitial pneumonia patients.
In progressive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), arthritic affection of the upper cervical spine is relatively common, mainly manifesting atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS). However, posterior AAS (PAAS) is a very rare condition. We reviewed five RA patients with PAAS. All of the patients were aged women with progressive RA, who had been treated with steroids and had been hospitalized for many years. Two patients had symptoms of myelopathy due to spinal cord compression, and another one suffered from severe pain in the neck. These three cases were treated surgically with posterior atlanto-axial fusion or posterior occipito-cervical fusion, and the result was good. Conservative treatment has been indicated for the other two patients with only instability as indicated by stress X-ray. X-ray examination confirmed that the most remarkable finding was PAAS due to destruction or disappearance of the odontoid process. The more severely the odontoid process was eroded, the more backward the atlas was dislocated.
Catalase activities in the organs of normal, acatalasemic and heterozygous-hypocatalasemic mice were determined after the tissues were incubated with perborateat different temperatures. Catalase activity in the normal mouse hemolysate and liver homogenate measured after being incubated with perborate at 20°C for 5 min. was slightly lower than that measured at 37°C. In contrast, residual catalase activity in acatalasemic mouse hemolysate and liver homogenate measured at 20°C for 5 min. was markedly higher than that measured at 37°C, suggesting that residual catalase in the acatalasemic mouse blood and liver is inactivated during incubation with perborate at 37°C for 5 min. Catalase activity in the bloodand solid tissues of acatalasemic mice measured at 20°C was 1.29 to 3.30 times as high as that measured at 37°C. The ratio of catalase activity in the blood and solid tissues of acatalasemic mice to that in normal mouse tissuesincubated with perborate at 20°C for 5 min. was calculated to be 4.3% in blood, 65.7% inliver, 15.6% in kidneys, 69.9% in lungs, 33.7% in stomach, 30.0% in brain and 31.8% in heart. Catalase activity in the blood and solid tissues in heterozygous hypocatalasemic mice measured at 20°C was 1.09 to 1.70 times as high as that measured at 37°C. This ratio of catalase activity in the heterozygous hypocatalasemic mouse tissue incubated at 20°C to the activity of tissue incubated at 37°C is between the ratio of normal mice and that of acatalasemic mice. The ratio of catalase activity in the blood and solid tissues of heterozygous hypocatalasemic mice to the activity in the corresponding organs of normal mice measured at 20°C for 5 min. was calculated to be 47.3% in blood, 95.0% in liver, 36.6% in kidneys, and 44.9% in stomach.
The metabolism of toluene and m-xylene, which were injected into rats, was studied. A linear relationship existed between the amount of toluene injected into rats and urinary HA in the range of over 0 to 2.05 mmoles/kg of toluene. The same relationship was noted with m-xylene. Amounts of HA and m-MHA excreted in urine decreaed with the lapse of time from the 1st to 3rd day. The amounts recovered to the level before the injection on the 3rd day.
The effect of carbon tetrachloride on the excretion of HA and m-MHA, metabolites of toluene and m-xylene, respectively, was examined. Urine was collected before the injection and 24, 48 and 72 hours after the injection and analysed for HA or m-MHA by HPLC. Total excretion of HA in the urine of rats injected with toluene and carbon tetrachloride (subcutaneously) was less than when toluene alone was injected. The more carbon tetrachloride was injected the less was the total excretion of HA in the urine. Total excretion of m-MHA in the urine of rats injected with m-xylene and carbon tetrachloride (subcutaneously) was less than when m-xylene alone was injected.
Rats were injected with toluene intraperitoneally and the amounts of toluene exhaled were studied. The decrease in toluene in the blood paralleled the decrease in toluene in the exhaled air. The concentration of toluene in the blood attained a maximum after 60 min. and its half life was 180 min. The concentration of toluene in the exhaled air attained a maximum at 90 min, and its half life was 300 min. Twenty-five % of the toluene injected was exhaled and 31% was excreted in the urine. Fifty-six % of the toluene was excreted within 6 hours. The amount excreted in the urine was greater than that exhaled.
Mice were injected with 14C-toluene, and the radioactivity in the blood, exhaled air and organs was determinated liquid scintillation counter. The concentration of toluene in the blood attained a maximum 45 min. after the injection and decreased with a half life of 45 min. The amount of toluene in the exhaled air also attained a maximum 45 min. after the injection and decreased with a half life of 55 min. The exhalation curve of toluene paralleled the concentration curve of toluene in the blood. The ratio of the toluene concentration in red cells to that in plasma was 1:2.24. The concentration of toluene in the organs 180 min after the injection was in the decreasing order of adipose tissue>Kidney>liver>blood>brain. The fraction of the blood containing metabolite was applied to a thin layer plate and developed with toluene:acetic acid:water=150:50:2.5. The radioactivity of benzoic and hippuric acids on the thin layer chromatogram of blood obtained 480 minutes after the injection was 83% and 17% of the total, respectively.