Dsungaria (T'ien-shan Pê-lu) played not a less great historical role than Kashgaria (T'ien-shan Nan-lu), from the view point of its being the main route of the communication, trade and cultural contact between eastern and western Asia. For that reason we can call the way running through this district the “Dsungarian Silk-road”. But the district, having the geographical condition as one steppe connecting directly with Mongolia and Kazakstan, has developped the history of the life chiefly nomadic since remote antiquity. This is the fundamental difference from the Kashgarian Silk-road which runs through the Tarim basin. The present paper treats the circumstances how agricultural spots were sporadically formed in the desert and steppe of Dsungaria and how they, as oases, becoming markets of nomads, formed an international trade route.
The writer of this paper intends to survey on the contract made by the delivery of a thing, i. e. contractus re, in Jewish Law. He mainly pursues his studies on the subject by means of the investigations into the MISHNAH and MISHNEH TORAH written by Maimonides. In order to find distinctive features of the Jewish contractus re, he pays attentions to the similar institutions in Roman and another Orient Laws.
It is a well known fact that there are many ambiguious points in the Koran and not a few sentences of the sacred book have the meanings contradicting each other. Since the first century of Hejira, these ambiguious and contradictory sentences have been utilized by the Moslems in various fields to defend their political or doctrinal standpoints and maintenances. Especially hot disputes had been developped around the questions of Allah, Koran, Caliph etc… Among them, the question of the attributes of Allah gave rise to the most fervent and complicated theological controversies because it is the most fundamental problem of Islamic teaching. The notion of Allah in primitive Islam has been challenged several times in the course of its development by various powerful currents of thought. When the simple conception of the nature of Allah was endangered by the challenge of rationalism of Greek philosophy, the Mu'tazilites made their efforts to save it. But when the influence of the Mu'tazilites become too rampant, al-Ash'ari, al-Maturidi and others rose to make safe the orthodox theology. When Mysticism became too influential, al-Ghazali succeeded to protect Sunnism. These defenders of orthodoxy used the weapons of their antagonists. Such a flexibility and adaptability of Sunni Islam seem to be its strong point which promises its long and ever growing future. I think this healthiness of Islam owes much to the Koran itself which has many ambiguious and contradictory sentences.
The parchment fragments, containing a part of the Twelve Minor Prophets in Greek, discovered in the Cave of Horror on the Wadi Heber of the Judaean Desert, belongs stratigraphically to the period of the Bar Koseba's revolt in the first half of the second century A. D. From the palaeographical and archaeological point of view, they would be contemporary with the Greek fragments of the Twelve Minor Prophets, argued in RB Vol. 60 (1953) by Barthélemy, and a leather scroll in Hebrew found in a cave somewhat upstream to Murabba'at, which covers a great part of the twelve Minor Prophets. These two groups of the fragments and a scroll were all perhaps possessed by the rebels. Considering their remarkable similarities to the Aquila's version and the MT, the writer supposes them the nearest manuscript to the Hebrew text, which would be sanctioned as canon by the Jamnian (Yabneh) synod in the late first century A. D. under the influence of the Rabbis during the second term of Tanna'îm, and strictly literal translations into Greek, which are ascribed to the same tradition circle and would be intended to b e done so above all rather than to revise.