Methods of microcapsule preparation are described. They are roughly classified into chemical, physicochemical, and physical methods. Fundamentals and examples of preparation are given for each of the methods.
The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effect of feeding plant polyphenolics on fatty acid composition, the vitamin E level and degree of lipid peroxidation in rat organs. Male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing safflower or fish oil at 50g/kg diet and vitamin E at 59mg/kg diet in the absence and presence of plant polyphenolics at 7.5g/kg diet for 6 wk. Fatty acid composition of total lipids, vitamin E levels, the levels of phospholipid hydroperoxides and the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the TBA assay with butylated hydroxytoluene in each organ were measured. Feeding plant polyphenolics decreased the level of arachidonate content in the liver of rats fed safflower oil. Comsumption of vitamin E in heart, lung and testies was slightly prevented, but that in stomach was enchanced by feeding plant polyphenolics in both safflower and fish oil diet groups. Phospholipid hydroperoxide levels in brain and liver of rats fed both safflower and fish oil were lowered, whereas those in lung, kidney and spleen of rats fed both the oils were greatly increased by feeding plant polyphenolics. In determination of the hydroperoxides, the possibility that the values include artificial ones associated with sample handling cannot be excluded. TBARS levels in brain of the fish oil diet group and in liver of both tha safflower and fish oil diet groups were decreased, but those in heart, lung and kidney in both the safflower and fish oil diet groups and those in spleen in the safflower oil diet group were increased by feeding plant polyphenolics. It is likely that feeding plant polyphenolics had little effect in preventing lipid peroxidation in rat organs.
Hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) (1,2,4-benzenetriol), one of the metabolites of benzene and a component in roasted coffee beans, generated a 0.5-0.6 equimolar amount of hydrogen peroxide in a neutral solution by consuming dissolved oxygen. The consumption of dissolved oxygen and production of hydrogen peroxide by HHQ were greater than those by pyrogallol (1,2,3-benzenetriol), and much greater than those by hydroquinone and chlorogenic acid. Consumption of dissolved oxygen and generation of hydrogen peroxide by HHQ, and decomposition of HHQ were completely inhibited by Cu, Zn-, Mn- and Fe-superoxide dismutase (SOD). HHQ generated the semiquinone radical(s) as assessed by electron spin resonance studies, and also the colored quinoid forms of HHQ as assessed by colorimetry. SOD also inhibited the formation of the semiquinone radical(s) and the quinoid forms of HHQ. The results indicate that superoxide plays an important role as a catalyst in the generation of hydrogen peroxide from HHQ in a neutral solution.
The correlation between the enthalpy (ΔH0m) and the entropy (ΔS0m) on micelle formation of more than 20 species of surfastants (including nonionic, anionic and cationic species) or their mixtures reported in the past was examined by the plots of ΔH0mvs ΔS0m. For each surfactant system a linear relation having almost the same slope (1/307 K-1), allowing for a small margin of error (±2.3%), was shown, but a different intercept (σ), dependent on the surfactant species, i. e., ΔS0m=(1/307) ΔH0m+σ, where 1/307 (K-1) means that the so called compensation temperature (Tc) is 307 K. Strictly speaking, Tc ranges from 299 to 315 K, depending on the species involved. The intercept corresponds to the entropy change at a specific temperature giving ΔH0m=0 at which the driving force of micelle formation comes only from the entropy term; this temperature is characteristic to the surfactant species. On the other hand, the compensation temperature was extensively discussed and it was concluded that there is found no specially significant meaning other than a mean temperature studied for each surfactant system. However, it was also pointed out that if the Gibbs energy changes (ΔG) for a set of systems have a good linearity with ΔH or ΔS at a fixed temperature, the observed compensation temperature can be attributed to the ratio of enthalpy change difference to entropy change difference (ΔΔH/ΔΔS) which is required to be a constant. For different mixed systems of given nonionic surfactants, abnormally low values in Tc (163 K-180 K) were observed when the compensation relation at each temperature studied was examined as a function of mixing ratio. This was ascribed to the upward convex curve in the CMC-temperature relation.
Silkworm (Bombyx mori) blood was found to be a dispersion of numerous blood cell particles in varied aggregate form. The aggregates easily entwine to produce coagulates of blood cell particles. Anticoagulant is thus neccesary to prevent such formation over oa prolonged period. In this study, the anticoagulant of heparin and EDTA (ethylenediamine-tetraceetic acid) generally used for mammal blood was applied to silkworm (Bombyx mori) blood and the results were investigated. Electron micrography indicated heparin to adhere to the spherical portion of silkworm (Bombyx mori) blood, disrupt blood cell particle-particle interactions and prevent coagulation. EDTA was absorbed to the surface of the fibrous portion of blood cell particles was found to penetrate silkworm (Bombyx mori) blood cells and prevent entwining that would have led to caogulate formation. Viscosity measurement data clarified the machanism of the anticoagulant effects of silkworm (Bombyx mori) blood cells particles.
Trans fatty acid content in domestic and imported chocolates and chocolate confectioneries were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and silver-ion thin-layer chromatography. Mean total trans fatty acid content in domestic chocolates (3.1%, 80 brands) exceeded that in imported products (1.3%, 10 countries, 37 brands). High trans fatty acid type hard butter was found to be used as a cocoa butter substitute several brands of domestic products but not in imported products. In chocolate cake, mean total trans fatty acid content was 7.3% for domestic (43 brands), and 3.2% for imported products (9 countries, 22 brands), these values exceeding those of chocolates. In domestic chocolate-applicated sweets, mean total trans fatty acid content in foreign-style confectioneries (29 brands), ice cream (25 brands), and spreads (5 brands) was 11.0%, 3.5%, and 14.1%, respectively. In imported chocolate-applicated sweets, baked confectioneries (7 countries, 10 brands) contained 8.7% trans fatty acid.
Fabrics treated with fluoroalkyl acrylate (FA)/polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA) copolymers were stained with oily soil containing particulate soil. After laundering the fabrics, soil release (SR) efficiency was determined based on residual content. For a soil mixture of carbon black and triolein, FA content of polymer increased, making it inceasingly farder for soil to adhere to the fabrics. Soil was easily removed by laundering. On comparing FA/PEGMA with FA/stearyl acrylate (StA) copolymers of the same FA content, soil adhesion was essentially the same in all cases, but SR efficiency of FA/PEGMA exceeded that of FA/StA copolymers. SR efficiency is thus enhanced by: (1) soil-repellent effect from low surface-free energy of FA and (2) soil-releaseing effect from structural transformation. The hydrophilic structure, dominated by fluoroalkyl groups in air, is transformed into a hydrophilic structure dominated by hydrophilic groups in water (flip-flop mechanism). We will discuss the effects of fabric treatment and polarity of oily soil later in this paper.
Examination was made of the general properties of margarine, 36 brands, cooking oil 4 brands and confectionery, 23 brands, used in Czech, Hungary and Poland. Lipid content of margarine ranged from 24.4-79.9%, and energy, from 226-738kcal/100g. Many products showed low fat and low energy. Lipid content of confectionery was from 8.0-27.1% for biscuits, and 23.5-27.2% for cookies. As tocopherol related components in margaerine, more than 1mg/100g total tocotrienol was detected in 6 of 10 brands, from Czech, 6 of 8 brands, from Hungary and 6 of 18 brands, from Poland. Palm oil would thus appear to present in these products. 2 brands of cooking oil contained 7.9mg and 5.6mg/100g total tocotrienol. Many products contained brasicasterol, which is characteristic of rapessed oil. Thus, for most of the products repessed oil may be used mainly. Several products contained Δ 7 stigmastenol, which is characteristic of sunflower or safflower oil. IN many products, C12, included in coconut oil or palm kernel oil were present at high levels in Czech, Hungary but not in Poland. Mean total trans fatty acid content of margarine was 7.1% for Czech, 3.1% for Hungary and 17% for Poland. Thus, in Czech and Hungary, the use of hydrogenated oil for making margarine would appear small but considerable for confectionery.
A New method for concentrating esterified astaxanthin (Asta) in euphausiid oil was established. This oil was found to consist of triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, phospholipids and 0.086% Asta, which was composed of 52.5% diester form, 33.3% monoester form and 14.2% free form. By florisil column and silicagel column fractionations, diesterified Asta could be concentrated by more than 230 times from euphausiid oil THe content and recovery of diesterified Asta in the triacylglycerol fraction were 20% and 73%, respectively. By the present method, naturally occurring diesterified Asta could be easily concentrated in the triacylglycerol fraction. The Asta concentrates may be used as available materials possessing antioxidative and some physioligical activities.