Cleaning habits are changing day by day with the development of new technologies, new soil substrate systems and diversity of water. The rapid growth and diversity of detergents, market requires continuous consideration of new materials to meet the demand of new, improved and modified products. Detergent gels are exciting new type of detergent, represent now a days attractive subject for advanced technology. Gels are non-conventional detergents, used for fabric cleaning. Detergent gels are not as popular as conventional detergents like powders and liquids because of their high cost but from performance viewpoint detergent gels are better than conventional detergents due to its compact nature. This paper attempts to review types of detergent products, features, formulation technology, ingredients & their functional properties and applications of detergent gels.
The properties of asphaltenes derived from Venezuelan vacuum residues have been investigated using several techniques. X-ray diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectrometry results indicate that asphaltenes are complex mixtures that form nanostructures with some (low) degree of ordering, probably consistent with a sheet-like arrangement of aromatic nuclei. Nanostructures seem to be also present in solutions of the asphaltenes in toluene, and an increase in their concentration can induce phase separation by flocculation. Asphaltene aggregates show an isolelectric point at around pH=4 and their charge is highly negative at high pH. This is attributed to the presence of ionisable acidic groups that also are responsible of low water/toluene interfacial tensions at basic conditions. A decrease in interfacial tension is also induced by increasing asphaltene concentration or the addition of electrolyte. The results are correlated with the stability of water-in-oil emulsions, which seems to be determined by interfacial adsorption.
In many cases nitrosoamines (NAs) of carcinogens are generated in gastric juices and absorbed from the alimentary system; consequently, many methods to remove NAs and their precursors contained in meals mainly by adsorption have been developed. In searching for new adsorbent, a fast system of quantitative analysis is indispensable to valuate adsorption capacities of the candidates for new adsorbents. Though high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems have been used for this purpose frequently, this system requires relatively large amounts of samples and a long time to treat a separation column. In this paper we proposed utilizing capillary electrophoresis (CE) allowing quick analysis requiring only small amounts of samples. In this separation system, NAs can be detected without any derivatization, because on-column detection at short wave length can be adopted on CE with a narrow tube as a separation column. The analytical conditions for capillary electrophoretic separation of NAs were optimized with a mixture of four NAs as a model sample. As a result, these four NAs were well separated from each other with a neutral phosphate buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an electrophoretic solution. In this condition the calibration curves of NAs gave straight lines with good linearity of 0.9995-0.9999 as correlation coefficients.
The major constituent of the ether extract of the New Zealand liverwort Plagiochila circinalis afforded five new fatty acid esters of sterol or triterpenoid. Their structures were unequivocally determined, while the purification was not completed. They were shown to be cycloart-24-en-3β-yl α-linolenate, stigmasteryl γ-linolenate, cycloart-24-en-3β-yl arachidonate, 4α, 14α-dimethyl-8, 24(28)-ergostadien-3β-yl arachidonate and 4α, 14α-dimethyl-8, 24(28)-ergostadien-3β-yl eicosapentaenoate. Cycloart-24-en-3β-yl eicosapentaenoate which has been found in the Malagasy liverwort Mastigophora diclados, was also isolated from the title species.
It is well known that most of the nutritional components of rice are contained in outer layers of bran and germ and that these have various effects on the health of the consumer. This study aimed to clarify the anti-oxidation activity of the bran of rice of ten cultivars, including the standard cv. Nihonbare. Rice samples were milled through seven discrete steps of milling yield, i.e. 98-100%, 96-98%, 94-96%, 92-94%, 90-92%, 88-90% and 88-100%. The radical-scavenging activity, including that against the active oxygen, was investigated on the bran obtained from each step. The results showed that bran obtained from a milling yield of 98-100% of newly harvested rice has the highest anti-oxidation effect.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effective dosage of a vegetable and fruit juice mix, enriched with free plant sterol (sterol VFJ), on serum concentrations of cholesterol and safety assessment was made for normocholesterolemic and mildly hypercholesterolemic Japanese subjects as high dosage (HG: 1.6 g sterol/day), low dosage (LG: 0.8 g sterol/day) and placebo control groups (CG). All subjects were continuously monitored during a 12-week treatment period and serum cholesterol were measured. Throughout the experiment, the subjects were allowed to engage in normal daily activities. It is noteworthy that total cholesterol (T-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in LG and HG decreased significantly at 4, 8 and 12 weeks (LG: p < 0.05; HG: p < 0.01) compared to the baseline (0 weeks). The degree of change in T-C (ΔT-C) and LDL-C (ΔLDL-C) in HG and LG compared to CG was significant at 4, 8 and 12 weeks (LG: p < 0.05; HG: p < 0.01). Stratified analysis indicated T-C and LDL-C in LG and HG of high T-C (T-C ≥ 220 mg/dL) subjects (CG: n = 32; LG: n = 31; HG: n = 36) decreased significantly at 4, 8 and 12 weeks compared to the baseline (LG: p < 0.01; HG: p < 0.05). ΔT-C and ΔLDL-C in HG and LG compared CG significantly decreased at 8 and 12 weeks (LG: p < 0.05; HG: p < 0.05). But in normal T-C (T-C < 220 mg/dL) subjects (CG: n = 19; LG: n = 19; HG: n = 18), T-C and LDL-C were significantly changed at some point during the period of treatment though not at 12 weeks. Sterol VFJ is thus shown less effective for diminishing serum lipid in normal and healthy subjects. Safety assessment data indicated significant change in some parameters, but which in all cases was within the normal range. No time-dependent or dosage-dependent change could be detected. From the present findings, sterol VFJ would appear a safe and effective beverage for improving serum lipid concentrations in normocholesterolemic and mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.