Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were estabilished. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60°C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %.
The effects of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the oxidation of bonito oil triacylglycerol (TAG) were examined under the absence or presence of α-tocopherol. Synthesized PC or PE having saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in known position were used in this study. Unsaturated PC and PE promoted TAG oxidation under the absence of α-tocopherol. On the contrary, unsaturated PE showed synergistic antioxidant effect with α-tocopherol, while PC had little effect. The strongest synergistic effect was found by 1-palmitoyl (16:0, PA)-2-docosahexaenoyl (22:6n-3)-PE, followed by 1-PA-2-arachidonyl (20:4n-6)-PE, 1,2-dioleoyl (18:1n-9)-PE, and 1-PA-2-linoleoyl (18:2n-6)-PE, respectively.
A study was conducted to investigate the short-term safety of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in overweight Japanese male volunteers. The study design was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial including 60 healthy overweight volunteers (body mass index (BMI), 25~35 kg/m2). The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: 5.4 g CLA-triacylglycerol (3.4 g as CLA), 10.8 g CLA-triacylglycerol (6.8 g as CLA) and placebo (10.8 g safflower oil) daily for 12 weeks. The CLA-triaclyglycerol contained 9c,11t- and 10t,12c-isomers at an equal proportion. The safety was evaluated by analyses of blood parameters and by clinical examinations at the baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks, including vital signs and adverse effects. All subjects completed the study. The occurrence of adverse events tended to be higher in the CLA groups than in the placebo group, but all of the adverse events were mild to moderate, within normal ranges, and temporary. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity did not differ significantly between the groups at 12 weeks, but in the high CLA group it was slightly increased from the baseline. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was higher in the high CLA group than in the placebo group after 12 weeks and was higher than at the baseline in both CLA groups. However, statistical analysis of the population of apparently healthy volunteers who had normal blood parameters at the baseline revealed that AST and ALT levels did not differ significantly among the 3 groups at 12 weeks. Moreover, no clinically significant changes in vital signs were observed in any of the groups. These results indicate that CLA at a dose of 3.4 g/day is a safe dietary level in healthy Japanese populations in terms of the parameters examined.
Water-soluble metal working fluids are used for processing of aluminum alloy materials. This short paper describes properties of new additives for water-soluble cutting fluids for aluminum alloy materials. Some alkyldiphosphonic acids were prepared with known method. Amine salts of these phosphonic acids showed anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy materials. However, they have no hard water tolerance. Monoesters of octylphosphonic acid were prepared by the reaction of octylphosphonic acid dichloride with various alcohols in the presence of triethylamine. Amine salts of monoester of octylphosphonic acid with diethyleneglycol monomethyl ether, ethyleneglycol monomethyl ether and triethyleneglycol monomethyl ether showed both of a good anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy materials and hard water tolerance.
Cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein (C-FABP) is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein multigene family expressed in various tissues. A high level of C-FABP mRNA in adipose tissue has been reported, but its physiological significance in regulating adipose tissue function is not clear. To obtain insights into the role of C-FABP in adipose tissue, we studied the obesity-related and dietary fat-related changes of C-FABP mRNA expression in adipose tissues. C-FABP mRNA levels in interscapular brown adipose tissue, and epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissues were higher in Zucker fatty rats than in lean controls despite that the difference in brown adipose tissue was not significant. Fish oil compared to palm and safflower oils significantly reduced the mRNA level of C-FABP in brown adipose tissue and epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissues in Sprague-Dawley rats except for one occasion. Our study demonstrated that C-FABP is a protein whose mRNA expression is easily modified by hereditary obesity and the type of dietary fat. Therefore, C-FABP may play a significant role in regulating adipocyte function in response to changes in nutritional conditions.
Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control), and frying oils heated for 20 h at 180°C with amino acids, gluten, sugar, and wheat starch, respectively. The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oils were observed. The serum of all the experimental groups showed a tendency toward lower levels of triacylglycerol and free fatty acids and higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) than that of the control group. Among experimental groups, the rats fed a diet containing oil heated with gluten were least influenced by thermally deteriorated oil in terms of serum levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, phospholipids, cholesterol, and insulin; histological evaluations; and number of dark-red patches found on the surface of the liver.
Platinum-ruthenium bimetallic nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reduction using sodium borohydride in reverse microemulsions of water/isooctane/Igepal CA-630/2-propanol for fuel cell catalysts. The prepared nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The average size and morphology of nanoparticles are dependent on the water volume fraction in reverse microemulsion system in the range of ca. 2-4 nm. The morphology of particles is related with the percolation behavior of water droplets in reverse microemulsions. By the pretreatment of water phase using a hydrochloric acid, the particles of a homogeneous solid solution state can be obtained. The CO stripping cyclovoltammetry and the electrochemical measurements compared with commercial catalyst show that the prepared particles have a high electrochemically active surface area and a stable and high catalytic activity for reformate gas oxidation.