In a previous study, statistical method using two distributions was applied to analyze detergency of oily soil. The method uses statistical distributions of detergent power and adhesive force of soil. In this paper, this method was applied to an analysis of detergency of solid particles. Soiled cotton cloth was prepared with red iron oxide dispersion liquid in Terg-O-Tometer. Four-time consecutive washings tests were conducted with dodecyl sulfuric acid sodium salt (SDS) and alcohol ethoxylate (AE) aqueous solutions in Terg-O-Tometer. Change of removal efficiencies due to repetitive washing was utilized to seek the two distributions. Predicted removal efficiencies calculated from computer simulation corresponded to experimental values. Different adhered states of soil, prepared by varying soiling conditions, were expressed as Removal Resistance. As soiling mechanical power increased, Removal Resistance shifted toward higher adhesive force of soil and an amount of soil had also increased. Iron oxide concentration only had an affect on an amount of soil. The results showed that the method using two statistical distributions can be applied to the detergency of solid particle.
In the present study, we examined how wicking and moisture content and tactile sensation of textiles are altered with change in spinning rate and washing. On polyester cotton-blend textiles, moisture was found to increase with the amount of cotton. The evaluated scores of the tactile sensation for the washed textiles were different from those for the original. With the addition of cotton to the polyester textile, the scores greatly approached to the score of the cotton textile.
Mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murill) extract has been reported to possess antitumor effects through immune activation. Here, we investigated the beneficial effects of combining A. blazei extract with marine phospholipids in comparison to A. blazei extract alone on myeloma sp2 tumor suppression when orally administrated. The experimental groups designed for sp2 tumor bearing BALB/c nu/nu mice were drinks of: (1)control; (2)1.0 mg/mL squid phospholipid liposome alone; (3)0.5 mg/mL A. blazei Murill water extract alone; (4)1.0 mg/mL squid phospholipid liposome with 0.5 mg/mL A. blazei Murill water extract in the form of those simple mixture; and (5)1.0 mg/mL squid phospholipid liposome with 0.5 mg/mL A. blazei Murill water extract partially encapsulated. Orally administrated volumes amounted to approximately 5 mL per day per mouse for all groups. A. blazei Murill water extract alone and squid phospholipid alone served groups show moderate tumor suppression with total administrations of approximately 105 mg/mouse for squid phospholipid through out the experimental term. When both A. blazei Murill water extract and squid phospholipid were administrated simultaneously in a simple mixture form, promotional effect on cancer tumor suppression was observed. And when A. blazei Murill water extract was partially encapsulated in the squid phospholipid liposomes with total administrations being 105 mg/mouse for squid phospholipid, effect on cancer tumor suppression was more pronounced. Though there was no statistically significant difference in tumor sizes between the simple mixture form administrated group i.e. group (4) and the partially encapsulated form administrated group i.e. group (5), the tumor vanished mouse was seen in the partially encapsulated form administrated group. Thus it was concluded that combinational administration of the A. blazei Murill water extract and the marine phospholipid may be useful in myeloma sp2 therapy.
Intramolecular cyclization of 3-hydroxy acids was investigated using iodine as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The reaction proceeded to completion in the heterogeneous system. Lactones were obtained by intramolecular cyclization of 3-hydroxy acids. Propella lactone (11-oxatricyclo[4.4.3.01,6]tridecan-12-one) was conveniently synthesized from 3-hydroxy acid ((6-hydroxyspiro[4.5]dec-6-yl)acetic acid) in 88% yield with carbon skeleton rearrangement. Spiro lactones and bicyclic lactones were also obtained from the corresponding 3-hydroxy acids in yields of over 75%. The most suitable reaction conditions were a temperature of 80°C, a molar ratio of 3-hydroxy acid:iodine = 1:0.1, and a time period of 6 h. In addition, terpenic lactones were efficiently synthesized from the corresponding 3-hydroxy acids, derived from (+)-camphor, (-)-fencone, and (-)-pulegone, with skeleton rearrangement. The yield of the solvent-free reaction was as high as that of the corresponding reaction in solution.
Cholesteryl 4-(7-diethylamino-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl)benzoate (1) had an enantiotropic cholesteric phase. The crystal structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The crystals of 1 had intermolecular CH···π and CH···O interactions. 7-(Diethylamino)-3-phenylcoumarin derivatives (1) gave a strong emission band at 500 nm in the solid state when excited at 440 nm.
Fluoroalkyl end-capped acrylic acid oligomers/fullerenes nanocomposites reacted smoothly with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and silica nanoparticles under alkaline conditions to give fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers/silica composites-encapsulated fullerenes. Interestingly, these isolated fluorinated composites were found to afford nanometer size-controlled colloidal particles with a good dispersibility in a variety of organic solvents including water. More interestingly, these fluorinated silica nanocomposites-encapsulated fullerenes were applied to a new type of surface modification agent, and these nanocomposites were able to disperse well above the poly(methyl methacrylate) films to exhibit not only surface active property imparted by fluorine but also a unique characteristic related to fullerenes in the nanocomposites on the surface, effectively.