We have reported that oil thermally processed with protein promoted safe and steady weight loss in animal experiments. In the present study, an oil for use in weight control was prepared by heating fresh oil with wheat gluten or soybean protein to determine the influence of protein differences on the weight loss-promotion effect. The 2 kinds of oil obtained, which differed neither from commercial fresh oil (starting oil) nor from one another in appearance, chemical properties, and aroma, were mixed (7%) with powdered AIN93G no-fat, defined standard diet and fed to 10-week-old Wistar rats ad libitum. After a 12-week feeding period, the rats were sacrificed to obtain blood and organs. There were no differences in amounts ingested, body weight increases, fecal excretion, organ weights, serum biochemical analyses, contents and fatty acid compositions of lipids of retroperitoneal fat tissue, or organ observations. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (AST), and histological analysis supported the safety of the oil. In conclusion, the differences between wheat gluten and soybean protein in amino acid composition, both of the proteins and as free amino acids, were unrelated to the weight loss-promoting effect of the oil. Minor components in the vegetable proteins may have contributed to the effect on body weight.
The incorporation behaviors of some N-dodecanoyl amino acid-type surfactants into L-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles in aqueous solution were investigated. From the leakage measurements of a vesicle-entrapped fluorescence probe, it was found that these surfactants did not affect the DPPC vesicle so much at a very low concentration less than a one-tenth of the critical micelle concentration (CMC), but caused a significant release of the probe form the vesicles even at just below the CMC. The leakage induced by amino acid-type surfactants was promoted by increasing hydrophobicity of the amino acid. However the polarization of DPH embedded in the DPPC membrane was almost unchanged by incorporation of the surfactants at the concentration below the CMC except for the N-dodecanoylphenylalanine system. The binding enthalpy and the binding constant of the surfactant to DPPC vesicles were estimated by isothermal titration calorimetry. While the binding enthalpy was independent of the kind of surfactant, the binding constant increases with increasing hydrophobicity of the amino acid species in the surfactants. The molar ratio of bound surfactant to DPPC molecule in the saturated state was much greater than that for sodium dodecyl sulfate system. Further the ratio was not influenced by the structure of the amino acid side chain.
Mahua Oil (MO) is an underutilized non-edible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in India. In the present work, biodiesel was derived from the MO by the transesterification process. The fuel properties of the MO biodiesel were found to be within the limits of biodiesel specifications of many countries. The chemical nature of biodiesel makes it more susceptible to oxidation during long-term storage which leads to degradation of fuel properties that can compromise fuel quality. The effect of long storage condition on the stability of the MO biodiesel was studied in the present work. The biodiesel samples were stored in plastic containers at room temperature. The study was conducted for a period of 12 months and the test sample was kept in the darkness. From the experimental results, it was observed that the acid value and viscosity increases with the storage time, but the iodine value decreased with increasing storage time. This is due to the presence of the double bond in the molecule of the biodiesel which produce a high level of reactivity. This high level reactivity produces formation of hydroperoxides, soluble polymers and other secondary products. From the experimental results, a slight difference in the acid value, iodine value and viscosity of the MO biodiesel stored for a period of 30 days was observed. But after this period, the differences were significant.
The effects of carbon sources, seawater concentration and seawater component in a culture medium were investigated to optimize culture conditions for growth by a marine thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium limacinum strain mh0186. Strain mh0186 could utilize D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannose as carbon sources. Seawater concentrations between 12.5 — 200% were required for good growth, and a single omission of magnesium sulfate from the seawater reduced the growth of the cells. Jar fermentor trials were carried out for the purpose of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production by strain mh0186. The total fatty acid content of the cell was 466.5 mg/g dry cells, and biomass and DHA yield were estimated as 23.1 g/L and 4.3 g/L, respectively, at 26 h. The daily production of DHA by the strain was 4.0 g/L/d, suggesting that the higher DHA production rate of our strain mh0186 should be appropriate for industrial production of DHA.
Adipic acid and glutaric acid were obtained from 1-hydroxy-2- acetoxycyclohexane by oxidation cleavage using molecular oxygen in the presence of cobalt acetate, manganese acetate and hydrobromic acid in acetic acid solution. Applying this method to prepare dicarboxylic acids from unsaturated fatty acids, we proposed an efficient method where reaction mixture of unsaturated fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide - formic acid can be oxidative cleaved to produce dicarboxylic acids and monocarboxylic acids in acetic acid solution with molecular oxygen / Co-Mn-Br system. For example, azelaic acid, suberic acid and other dicarboxylic acid as dicarboxylic acids were obtained from industrial oleic acid, which contained oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid. As a result of investigation for reaction condition, increase of partial pressure of molecular oxygen or elevation of temperature accelerated oxidative cleavage, but total yields of azelaic acid and suberic acid were slightly decreased. Besides, effect of hydrohalic acids in liquid phase air oxidation in the presence of cobalt and manganese acetates was investigated to show that HBr was the most effective. Soybean acid and tall acid containing higher amounts of linoleic acid and linolenic acid than industrial oleic acid were also oxidatively cleaved to dicarboxylic acids.
Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are produced in large amounts from renewable vegetable oils by Pseudozyma antarctica, and are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, the skin care property of MEL-A, the major component of MELs, was investigated using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution of 1 wt%, and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were then evaluated on the basis of the cell viability. The viability of the damaged cells was markedly recovered by the addition of MEL-A in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control, MEL-A solutions of 5 wt% and 10 wt% gave the recovery rate of 73% and 91%, respectively, while ceramide solution of 1 wt% gave the rate of over 100%. This revealed that MEL-A shows a ceramide-like moisturizing activity toward the skin cells. Considering the drawbacks of natural ceramides, namely limited amount and high production cost, the yeast biosurfactants should have a great potential as a novel moisturizer for treating the damaged skin.
Aloe vela leaf gel extract (AGE) are widely used as cosmetic and pharmaceutical ingredients because of its versatile skin care properties. In order to enhance the bioavailability of AGE, liposomes encapsulating AGE were prepared and examined for their interfacial and biochemical properties. The liposomes prepared from a soybean lecithin (SLP-WHITE, 1.0 wt%) by the Bangham method gave relatively a good trapping efficiency up to the AGE concentration of 0.5 wt%. The stable liposomes were then prepared from 1.0 wt% of SLP-WHITE and different concentrations of AGE by the mechanochemical method using a homogenizer and microfluidizer. The liposomes obtained from 0.25 wt% of AGE were confirmed to be small unilamellar vesicles with a diameter of less than 200 nm, and remained well dispersed for at least two weeks. The obtained liposomes encapsulating AGE were further examined for the effects on proliferation and type I collagen synthesis in normal human neonatal skin fibroblasts, NB1RGB cells. Liposomal AGE clearly showed higher proliferation rate than that of AGE alone. In addition, compared to the control, liposomal AGE significantly increased the collagen synthesis by 23%, while AGE alone showed a small effect. Liposomal AGE was also assayed for the effect on proliferation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, NHEK(F) cells. Interestingly, liposomal AGE fractions containing 4 and 20μg/mL of the extract considerably increased the proliferation rate by 77% and 101%, respectively. In contrast, AGE alone fractions containing 4 and 20μg/mL of the extract increased the rate by 41% and 60%, respectively. Accordingly, the bioavailability and skin care properties of AGE will be significantly enhanced by liposome encapsulation, and the present liposomal AGE should have a great potential as an effective skin care formulation.