The authentication of food products from the presence of non-allowed components for certain religion like lard is very important. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of butter adulterated with lard by simultaneously quantification of all proton bearing compounds, and consequently all relevant sample classes. Since the spectra obtained were too complex to be analyzed visually by the naked eyes, the classification of spectra was carried out.The multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) regression was used for modelling the relationship between actual value of lard and predicted value. The model yielded a highest regression coefficient (R2) of 0.998 and the lowest root mean square error calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0091% and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0090, respectively. Cross validation testing evaluates the predictive power of the model. PLS model was shown as good models as the intercept of R2Y and Q2Y were 0.0853 and –0.309, respectively.
The study involved synthesis of five novel amino acid derivatives of phosphatidylethanolamine isolated from egg yolk lecithin employing a three step procedure i) N-protection of L-amino acids with BOC anhydride in alkaline medium ii) condensation of - CO2H group of N-protected amino acid with free –NH2 of PE by a peptide linkage and iii) deprotection of N-protected group of amino acids to obtain phosphatidylethanolamine-N-amino acid derivatives in 60-75% yield. The five L-amino acids used were L glycine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-phenylalanine. The amino acid derivatives were screened for anti-baterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeroginosa and E. coli taking Streptomycin as reference compound and anti-fungal activity against C. albicans, S. cervisiae, A. niger taking AmphotericinB as reference compound. All the amino acid derivatives exhibited extraordinary anti-bacterial activities about 3 folds or comparable to Streptomycin and moderate or no anti-fungal activity against Amphotericin-B.
The aims of this study were to develop fish oil (FO) organogels with sunflower wax (SW) and monoglyceride (MG), and compare them with a commercial margarine (CM). The organogels were stored at 4 and 20°C for 90 days and their storage stability was investigated. The color values, oil binding capacity, crystal formation time, solid fat content, thermal properties and crystal structures of the organogels were measured. During storage, their textural properties and peroxide values were monitored. The melting temperature of the MG organogels was found similar to that of the CM sample. Otherwise, the melting points of the MG gels were lower than those of the SW gels. Crystal morphology of the CM sample was found similar to MG gels by X-ray measurements. The firmness values of the SW organogels were higher than those of the MG gels. The peroxide values of all gels were within the legal limits.
Tetracosahexaenoic acid (THA, 24:6n-3) has been shown to have the strongest ability to suppress accumulation of lipids in HepG2 cells among well-known n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids, such as EPA and DHA. In this study, a method for mass production of THA was investigated using distributions of THA and DHA in thirty-two marine organisms, such as starfishes, right-eyed flounders, shellfishes, and sharks. The fatty acid composition of the marine organisms was analyzed using GC-FID and THA was detected in starfish, right-eyed flounder, and shark. Furthermore, the ratio of DHA and THA (DHA/THA) in each sample was calculated using chromatogram peak area of GC-FID, and the value was found to be lower than 1 in some starfishes. As a result, THA was thought to be synthesized in the starfishes. In contrast, the value of DHA/THA for right-eyed flounder and sharks was greater than 1. The THA accumulation in right-eyed flounder was considered to be because of the starfishes that the flounder consumes as part of its diet. DHA is synthesized from THA by beta-oxidation in peroxisomes, in the Sprecher’s shunt. The high accumulation of THA observed in the flounder would be caused by the decreasing enzyme activation due to beta-oxidation in the peroxisomes of the starfishes. Understanding the differences in THA between aquatic species could also potentially allow us to understand why THA is generated in marine animals.
Stearidonic acid (SDA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), can be obtained from plant origin oils and it can be a good source of PUFA for vegetarians. SDA can be easily converted to longer PUFA such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Highly purified stearidonic acid (SDA) was prepared successfully from echium oil via an enzymatic method combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography. In the 1st step, SDA enrichment was accomplished using Candida rugosa lipase and 39.5% of SDA was obtained in the fatty acid fraction. Subsequently, the 1st reaction mixture was used for the 2nd enzymatic esterification without any separation process. The 2nd esterification was conducted for further SDA enrichment in a packed-bed reactor using Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei and the SDA content increased in a very short residence time. Ethanol was selected as an appropriate alcohol to react as an acyl receptor, and the other conditions for SDA enrichment were optimized at 20°C of temperature, and 1:4 of molar ratio (i.e., fatty acid to ethanol). Under these conditions, 51.6% of SDA was obtained in the fatty acid fraction after a residence time of 15 min. Finally, highly purified SDA (purity, >99%) was obtained by prep-HPLC using the SDA-rich fraction obtained from the two-step lipase-catalyzed esterification.
The effects of dietary plant-origin glucosylceramide (GlcCer) on symptoms similar to those of inflammatory bowel diseasewere investigated in dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-treated mice. Dietary GlcCer suppressed decreases in body weight due to DSS administration. To determine its effects on the colon, we examined its surface under a microscope following toluidine blue staining. Dietary GlcCer decreased DSS-induced chorionic crypt injury and elevated myeloperoxidase levels. Moreover, dietary GlcCer significantly suppressed the production of cytokines by the intestinal mucosa. These results provide evidence for the suppression of DSS-induced inflammation by dietary GlcCer.
We investigated the protective effects of mannitol on corneal damage caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops, using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constant (kH), as well as cell viability, were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.5% mannitol than in the case BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without mannitol. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.5% mannitol was significantly higher than that for eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without mannitol, and the addition of mannitol did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of the timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and mannitol may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term treatment with anti-glaucoma agents.
Astaxanthin is a kind of important carotenoids with powerful antioxidation capacity and other health functions. Extracting from Adonis amurensis is a promising way to obtain natural astaxanthin. However, how to ensure the high purity and to investigate related substances in astaxanthin crystals are necessary issues. In this study, to identify possible impurities, astaxanthin crystal was first extracted from Adonis amurensis, then purified by saponification and separation. The concentration of total carotenoids in purified astaxanthin crystals was as high as 97% by weight when analyzed by UV-visible absorption spectra. After identified with TLC, HPLC and MS, besides free astaxanthin as main ingredient in the crystals, there existed four other unknown related substances, which were further investigated by HPLC/ESI/MS with the positive ion mode combining with other auxiliary reference data obtained in stress tests, at last it was confirmed that four related carotenoids substances were three structural isomers of semi-astacene and adonirubin.
Possible approaches to the synthesis of functionalized, pyrazole, isoxazole, pyrimidine, pyridine and fused pyridine derivatives The sequence involves the heterocyclization of ethyl 3-oxo-2-(4-stearamidobenzoyl)butanoate (3) with appropriate reagents. Propoxylated of these heterocycles using propylene oxide to produce nonionic surface active agents having a long alkyl chain with molecular weight suitable for becoming an amphiphilic molecule with correct hydrophilic-lypophilic balance which enhances solubility, biodegradability and hence lowers the toxicity to human beings and becomes environmentally friendly. The antimicrobial activity of the newly synthesized was examined and it was found that some of these compounds have similar or higher activity compared with commercial antibiotic drugs (sulphadiazine), which make them suitable for diverse applications like the manufacturing of drugs, pesticides, emulsifiers, cosmetics, etc.
The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 ml/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 ml/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe2+ and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe2+- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe2+-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes.
The addition of plant sterols/stanols (sterols or stanols) can reduce the solubilization of cholesterol in a model intestinal solution system. We studied the molecular structure of seven different sterols/stanols and the effect they had on the solubilization of cholesterol or cholesterol ester in a model intestinal solution. The differences in the molecular structures of the sterol/stanol species influenced their abilities to reduce the solubility of cholesterol in the competitive solubilization experiments. Cholestanol whose molecular structure resembled cholesterol was the most effective at reducing the solubilization of cholesterol and cholesterol ester, with the solubilities of cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate being 41% and 39% respectively of the values observed for the single solubilizate systems. β-Sitosterol was also able to reduce the solubilities of cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate to 43% and 45% of those observed in a single solubilizate system. Both, stigmasterol and brassicasterol have an unsaturated double bond in a steroid side chain and did not exhibit major cholesterol-lowering effects. These results were reflected by the Gibbs free energy change values (ΔG0) for solubilization, where the sterol/stanol species with cholesterol-lowering effects had similar or larger negative ΔG0 values than those observed for cholesterol.
Olive leaf has great potential as a natural antioxidant, and one of its major phenolic components is oleuropein. In this study, the antioxidant activity of oleuropein against oxygen-centered radicals was measured by examining its sparing effects on the peroxyl radical-induced decay of fluorescein and pyrogallol red, in comparison with related compounds. The antioxidant capacity of oleuropein against lipid peroxidation was also assessed through its effect on the free radical-induced oxidation of methyl linoleate in a micelle system. On a molar basis, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibited the decay of fluorescein for longer than both homovanillic alcohol and the vitamin-E mimic 2-carboxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-6-chromanol (Trolox), but did not suppress pyrogallol red decay in a concentration-dependent manner. Measurement of the fluorescein decay period revealed that the stoichiometric number of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol against peroxyl radicals was twice that of Trolox, which is substantially higher than expectations based on chemical structure. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were also more effective than Trolox and homovanillic alcohol at suppressing the oxidation of methyl linoleate in the micelle system. Thus, both oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol exhibit high antioxidative activity against lipid peroxidation induced by oxygen-centered radicals, but the high reactivity of phenolic/catecholic radicals makes their mechanism of action complex.