Journal of Oleo Science
Online ISSN : 1347-3352
Print ISSN : 1345-8957
67 巻 , 10 号
選択された号の論文の22件中1~22を表示しています
Symposium on the Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics (TEAC)
Oils and Fats
  • Tsuyoshi Kato, Mami Nishimiya, Akiko Kawata, Kyoko Kishida, Kounosuke ...
    2018 年 67 巻 10 号 p. 1279-1289
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/10/11
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/09/13
    ジャーナル フリー

    Herein, to achieve individual and concomitant quantifications of phospholipid classes, an absolute quantification 31P NMR method using an internal standard was examined. Phospholipid standards and dietary foods were dispersed to prepare test solutions in an anionic surfactant (sodium cholate) solution containing EDTA, as a modification based on a reported method. Each phospholipid class showed a reproducible chemical shift at a near-neutral test solution pH of 6.90±0.04 and temperature of 30.0±0.1°C. The quantity of synthetic phosphatidylcholine measured using 31P NMR was consistent with that measured by 1H NMR using an internal standard. As the principal phospholipid class of soybean and egg yolk lecithin is phosphatidylcholine, the measurement conditions of 31P NMR (pulse interval time and number of scans) were optimized such that minor phospholipids, including lysophospholipids, also present in lecithin could be quantified simultaneously. Phospholipid classes in commercial polar lipid samples derived from porcine brain, yeast, and soybean were individually quantified using the above conditions. Using phosphoserine as the internal standard material allowed the absolute molar quantity of the phospholipid class to be precisely determined with traceability to the SI. The determined molar amounts of phospholipid classes were then translated to the weight amount by assuming that each phospholipid class contained two stearic acid molecules as the constituent fatty acid. The calculated total contents of each phospholipid class by 31P NMR were in good agreement with those obtained by molybdenum blue colorimetry. Furthermore, the quantitative values of the principal phospholipid classes in the polar lipid samples obtained by 31P NMR corresponded in a broad view, however, was more informative for the separation of individual phospholipid species rather than the quantitative 2D thin-layer chromatography.

  • Li-Xia Hou, Cui-Cui Li, Xue-De Wang
    2018 年 67 巻 10 号 p. 1291-1298
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/10/11
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/09/13
    ジャーナル フリー

    The chemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory evaluation of nine different brands of the sesame pastes were investigated. The sesame pastes showed a significant difference for the crude fat, protein, crude fibre, total sugars, total ash, moisture content, and acid values (p < 0.05). The fat content ranged from 51.80% to 61.56%, and the protein content varied between 16.08% and 18.97%. All sesame paste samples are pseudoplastic materials. The flow indexes lied between 0.67 and 0.81 for the tested sesame pastes (p > 0.05). The consistency coefficient of the different sesame paste brands varied significantly (p < 0.05), ranging from 4.48 to 24.21 Pa・sn, indicating that the consistency coefficient is a more sensitive parameter for measuring the flow behaviour of foodstuff. The areas of the hysteresis loops of the white-sesame paste of “Haoweisi” brand and the black-sesame paste of “A Yimeng couple” brand were higher than the other sesame pastes, indicating that these two samples were difficult to be restored to their original structures and such restoration required a longer time. Both Storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of the sesame pastes increased with increasing frequency, and G′ values were greater than the G″ values, exhibiting the typical properties of the viscoelastic solid, the results may provide the valuable reference for choosing the sesame pastes as the spreadable butters or salad dressings, and for further processing.

Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  • Patchara Kosiyanant, Garima Pande, Wanna Tungjaroenchai, Casimir C. Ak ...
    2018 年 67 巻 10 号 p. 1299-1306
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/10/11
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/09/13
    ジャーナル フリー

    This study used a rice bran oil solid fat fraction (RBOSF) to produce cocoa butter alternatives via interesterification reaction catalyzed by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme® RM IM) in hexane. Effects of reaction time (6, 12, and 18 h), temperature (55, 60, and 65°C), mole ratios of 3 substrates [RBOSF:palm olein:C18:0 donors (1:1:2, 1:2:3, and 1:2:6)] were determined. The substrate system was dissolved in 3 mL of hexane and 10% of lipase was added. Two sources of C18:0 donors, stearic acid (SAd) and ethyl stearate (ESd) were used. Pancreatic lipase – catalyzed sn-2 positional analysis was also performed on both substrates and structured lipids (interesterification products). Structured lipids (SL) were analyzed by gas – liquid chromatography (G40.35LC) for fatty acid composition. Major fatty acids of RBOSF were C18:1, oleic acid (OA, 41.15±0.01%), C18:2, linoleic acid (LA, 30.05±0.01%) and C16:0, palmitic acid (PA, 22.64±0.01%), respectively. A commercial raw cocoa butter (CB) contained C18:0, stearic acid (SA, 33.13±0.04%), OA (32.52±0.03%), and PA (28.90±0.01%), respectively. Fatty acids at sn-2 position of RBOSF were OA (46.52±0.63%) and LA (42.98±1.1%), while major fatty acid at sn-2 position of CB was OA (85.24±1.22%). The RBOSF had low SA (2.40±0.01%) compared to CB (33.13±0.04%). The content of OA (46.52±0.63%) at sn-2 position in RBOSF was half of that found in CB (85.24±1.22%). Optimal reaction was 1:2:6 mole ratio of the substrate (RBOSF:PO:SAd), at 65°C for 12 h. Fatty acid compositions of the SL were 31.72±0.99% SA, 30.91±0.53% LA, 23.18±0.32% OA, and 13.26±0.34% PA, respectively. Fatty acids at sn-2 position of the SL were 53.72±4.21% OA, 25.11±3.69% LA, 14.18±1.58% PA, and 6.99±0.02% SA, respectively. DSC curves showed the melting point of CB at 20.94°C, while those of the SL were 14.15 and 40.35°C, respectively. The melting completion temperature (Tmc) of CB was 25.5°C while that of SL was 43.9°C, respectively.

  • Hiroshi Habe, Toshiaki Taira, Tomohiro Imura
    2018 年 67 巻 10 号 p. 1307-1313
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/10/11
    ジャーナル フリー

    Bacillus licheniformis NBRC 104464 produces a cyclic lipopeptide different from surfactin. After we performed liquid chromatography fractionation and purification, we used structural analyses to identify the cyclic lipopeptide as lichenysin. Surface tension measurements of lichenysin sodium salt in water yielded a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 1.0×10–5 M. The surface tension at the CMC was 28.9 mN/m. Comparative analysis of Ca2+-influenced micellar aggregation of lichenysin and surfactin revealed that the formation rate of the lichenysin-Ca2+ complex aggregate remained low up to a [Ca2+]/[lichenysin] molar ratio of 80, whereas the surfactin-Ca2+ complex formed micellar aggregates at the same molar ratio. Further excessive addition of Ca2+ to the micellar solution of lichenysin induced higher turbidity than surfactin.

Nutrition and Health Function
  • Ileana Terruzzi, Fernanda Vacante, Pamela Senesi, Anna Montesano, Robe ...
    2018 年 67 巻 10 号 p. 1315-1326
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/10/11
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/09/13
    ジャーナル フリー

    Nuts-enriched diets were shown to bear beneficial effects for human’s health. Among nuts, hazelnut plays a major role in human nutrition and health because of its unique fatty acid composition (predominantly MUFA), fat soluble bioactives (tocopherols and phytosterols), vitamins (vitamin E), essential minerals (selenium), essential amino acids, antioxidant phenolics (caffeic acid), dietary fiber (soluble form), and bioactive phtytochemicals. The current study was designed to explore the cellular effects of two particular hazelnut strains (Ordu and Tonda).

    Four hazelnut oils were obtained from 2 common strains (Ordu hazelnut oil, Ordu cuticle oil, Tonda “gentile” hazelnut oil, Tonda “gentile” cuticle oil). The metabolic and nutritional effects of the four hazelnut oils were assessed using an in vitro model of mouse myoblasts, identifying the intracellular mechanisms involved in muscle differentiation and in the modulation of specific muscle genes.

    We demonstrated that hazelnut oils induced morphological changes in neo-formed myotubes increasing myotubes size. In particular, the diversified effects of the hazelnuts and cuticle oils on muscle fibres shape (on length and diameter respectively) determine a diversified pattern of action on elongation or hypertrophy of the muscle fibres. Furthermore, hazelnut oils regulate different pathways associated with myoblasts growth and development, stimulate signal transduction, and activate cell commitment and differentiation. The present results provide evidence that hazelnut oils may affect skeletal muscle growth and differentiation, constituting the proof of principle for the future development of novel foods and integrators.

Essential Oils and Natural Products
  • Bing Liu, Jihong Fu, Yan Zhu, Ping Chen
    2018 年 67 巻 10 号 p. 1327-1337
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/10/11
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/09/13
    ジャーナル フリー

    A microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) method was investigated for extraction of essential oils from lavender. The essential oil extracts at optimized MAHD conditions was compared with hydrodistillation (HD). Response surface methodology coupled with Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize the parameters for MAHD. The optimized MAHD conditions were 500 W microwave power, 17 mL/g liquid-to-solid ratio and 40 min microwave time. The ANOVA results revealed that microwave time had the greatest impact on the essential oil yield followed by liquid-to-solid ratio and microwave power. Under the MAHD optimized conditions, the essential oil yield was 3.19%, approximating the predicted yield (3.20%). MAHD was superior in terms of saving energy and extraction time (40 min, compared to 120 min in HD). The essential oil analyzed by GC-MS, presented 39 compounds constituting 98.37% and 97.51% of the essential oils obtained through MAHD and HD, respectively. No obvious differences were found in composition between MAHD oil and HD oil. Antimicrobial study showed that the lavender essential oil exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and the MAHD oil showed a higher antimicrobial activity than the HD oil. This study revealed that MAHD could be a good method for extracting essential oil in lavender and other aromatic plants.

  • Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi, Oluwabamise Lekan Faboya, Awonegan Ayodeji Pau ...
    2018 年 67 巻 10 号 p. 1339-1345
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/10/11
    ジャーナル フリー

    Several studies have shown that cadmium (Cd) induces nephrotoxicity and many plant foods phytochemicals have been found useful but their possible mechanism of action still remains unexplored. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the nephroprotective effect of essential oils from Nigeria ginger and turmeric rhizomes in cadmium-treated rats by examining their effect on renal function biomarkers (creatinine, urea and BUN), inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-Alpha) and renal adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity. The result revealed that essential oils from ginger and turmeric rhizomes exert anti-inflammatory effect by preventing alterations of renal function markers and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-Alpha) levels in Cd-treated rats. In addition, the essential oils inhibited renal ADA activity in Cdtreated rats. In conclusion, inhibition of ADA activity and modulation of inflammatory cytokines could be suggested as the possible mechanism of action by which essential oils from ginger and turmeric rhizomes exert their nephroprotective activities.

General Subjects
  • Kouichi Nakagawa, Wipawadee Yooin, Chalermpong Saenjum
    2018 年 67 巻 10 号 p. 1347-1353
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/10/11
    ジャーナル フリー

    We investigated the pigments in Thai purple rice using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-band (9 GHz) EPR imaging (EPRI), and HPLC. The location and spatial distribution of the paramagnetic species in purple and white rice were determined by EPR and EPRI. EPR primarily detected three paramagnetic species in purple rice, which were identified as stable radicals, Mn2+, and Fe3+ based on the gvalues and hyperfine components of the EPR signals. Subsequent noninvasive two-dimensional (2D) EPRI revealed that these stable radicals are primarily located in the pigmented region of purple rice, while very few radicals were observed in the interior of the rice. HPLC revealed that the major compounds were cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside. Scavenging activities, EPR, and EPR imaging results indicate that the stable radicals contain the radical state of anthocyanins and are mostly found within the pigmented embryo region of purple rice. They could be either associated with scavenging activities or could be one of the products of their oxidative decomposition.

  • Hiroki Tanaka, Kazunori Inuzuka, Yasunori Iida, Hideyuki Shimizu, Naok ...
    2018 年 67 巻 10 号 p. 1355-1360
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/10/11
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/09/13
    ジャーナル フリー

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease among the elderly. Recently, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have been indicated as useful therapeutic tools for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of PCSK9 in the pathogenesis of AAA. We used fluorescence immunohistochemistry to assess the expression of PCSK9 in aortic tissues resected from 24 patients with AAA. Histological examination showed that PCSK9 expression in the adventitia region of the aneurysms was decreased in AAA samples. In the same region, the expression of CD36 increased. We hypothesized that CD36 expression might upregulate the transport of fatty acids into cells such as the adipocytes, and subsequently cause degradation of the adventitia in the aortic wall, contributing to AAA development.

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