An optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 (ω-6/ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the diet prevents the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize ternary oil blends with optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios using olive (OL), sunflower (SU), and cress (CR) oils. The oxidative stability, thermal profile, fatty acid (FA) and tocopherol compositions, and the physicochemical properties of the blends were used to determine their quality. Oil mixtures were prepared with 2, 3, 4, and 5 ω-6/ω-3 ratios. FA composition and tocopherol content were the most important factors affecting the oxidation and thermal stabilities of the oils. All oil mixtures showed good quality indices. Thus, synthetized oil blends with high oxidative stability, high antioxidant content, optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios, and recommended FA compositions can influence human health. The composition of healthy oil blends with optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios was expressed mathematically and depicted graphically in a ternary diagram.
New cultivars of Camellia oleifera have been developed and planted in southern China. However, lipid characteristics of their seed oils were still unclear. In this study, nine C. oleifera fruits were collected from different cultivars in different planting regions, and the lipid characteristics, such as oil content, fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, tocopherol content and sterol composition were investigated for their seed oils. The oil content in Yuekexia-2 was the lowest (11.6%), while those in other cultivars ranged from 22.3% to 29.6%. The major fatty acids of C. oleifera seed oils (COSOs) were palmitic acid (16:0, 8.4-11.5%), oleic acid (18:1, 76.3-80.5%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 7.9-12.2%), respectively. Trioleoylglycerol (OOO) was the most abundant triacylglycerol specie (more than 50%) in the COSOs. COSOs contained 21.2-36.4 mg/100 g of α-tocopherol. Seven sterols and squalene were found in all COSOs, while the COSOs showed significant differences in their contents of unsaponifiable matters. The planting region and the cultivar type significantly affected some of the lipid characteristics with the C. oleifera seeds.
In this study, some physico-chemical properties, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars and mineral contents of sorghum, millet and lupin seeds. Sorghum (red, white and yellow) and millet seeds were purchased from market in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh). Lupin seeds were provided from in Turkey (Konya). Protein contents of seed samples ranged from 8.6% (yellow sorghum) to 37.7% (lutop) (p < 0.05). The extractable phenolics contents for gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of grains ranged between 1.43 mgGAE/g (white sorghum) to 8.23 mgGAE/g (red sorghum), and hydrolysable phenolics contents for GAE of grains varied between 1.48 mgGAE/g (white sorghum) to 26.10 mgGAE/g (red sorghum (p < 0.05). Total phenol contents of seeds were found between 2769 mg GAE/g (bablon) to 6087 mgGAE/g (yellow sorghum) (p < 0.05). Amino acid contents of millet changed between 0.02% (ornithine) and 2.07% (glutamic acid), while amino acid contents of yellow sorghum range from 0.02% (hydroxyproline) to 1.71% (glutamic acid), amino acid values of white sorghum changed between 0.02% (hydroxyproline) and 2.21% (glutamic acid), amino acid values of lutop seed changed between 0.02% (ornithine) and 6.77% (glutamic acid) (p < 0.05).While the oleic acid contents change between 25.27% (white sorghum) and 53.50% (Bablone), linoleic acid contents ranged from 14.60% (Bablone) to 42.67% (Millet) (p < 0.05). However, the amount of potassium in the seeds varied between 1831.34 mg/kg (while sorghum) and 11895.8 mg/kg (Lutop). Generally, protein, oleic acid, amino acid and mineral contents of lupin varieties were higher as compared to those of millet phenol, anthocyanin and sorghum seeds.
Eucommia ulmoides is a traditional Chinese herb whose seeds can be used to produce edible oils. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (SyFS) spectra of Eucommia ulmoides seed oil (EUSO) are lacking. The relevant functional and fluorescent groups were determined by FTIR and SyFS techniques for discriminating adulteration of EUSO, respectively. FTIR and SyFS spectra of EUSO and six common-used vegetable oils were recorded from 4000–400 cm−1 and 250–700 nm at wavelength interval of 60 nm, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), cluster analysis (CA) and partial least square (PLS) regression was used for qualitative and quantitative calibration of EUSO adulteration. The FTIR spectral regions of 1429–1377 cm−1 and 1128–1110 cm−1 based on PCA, LDA, and CA, and the PCA of SyFS spectral regions of 600-700 nm and 300–500 nm were evaluated for qualitative differentiation of EUSO adulteration. The recognition rate of PCA validation was found to be 100% by FTIR regions. PLS calibration was optimal by the spectral normalization vector treatment in the two FTIR spectral regions and SyFS spectra were combined with characteristic absorption peak area, which can achieve quantitative detection of EUSO adulteration. The two techniques are useful for EUSO adulteration detection at levels down to 1% and 0.48% (w/w), respectively. The results indicated that spectral information obtained by FTIR and SyFS of EUSO can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of EUSO adulteration with the advantages of high sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidness.
The compositional characteristics and oxidative stability of rice bran oil were determined by observing the formation of oxidative products and alteration in chemical composition of oils during microwave or oven heating. The values of oxidative indicators such as free acidity, peroxide, p-anisidine, total oxidation, thiobarbituric acid and color values, increased faster in refined oils compared to crude ones during heating. In gas chromatography analysis, the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the studied oils such as lab extracted crude rice bran oil, lab extracted and refined rice bran oil, crude rice bran oil from commercial mill and refined rice bran oil from commercial mill were: 23.07 to 23.56, 41.15 to 42.38 and 34.38 to 35.88, respectively. The heating caused the reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids content with increasing saturated fatty acids content, and these changes were greater in refined rice bran oil indicating extensive lipid oxidation occurred in refined oil. The change in triacylglycerol species content as determined by High-performance liquid chromatography, was lower in crude oil; the higher stability of these species in crude oil could have contribution to reduce oxidation. During thermal treatment, the generation of hydroperoxides, their degradation and formation of secondary oxidative products evaluated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, were lower in crude oils. However, the rate of formation of oxidative products in lab prepared samples was lower compared to that in the samples collected from commercial mill. Under extreme thermal condition, the order of oxidative stability: lab extracted crude rice bran oil > crude rice bran oil from commercial mill>lab extracted and refined rice bran oil > refined rice bran oil from commercial mill. The present results will be useful to oil seed processing mills in refining of rice bran oil for economic feasibility and better marketability.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different extraction solvents (petroleum benzene, hexane, diethyl ether and acetone) and extraction methods (hot and cold) on oil yield of safflower seeds and its fatty acid compositions. Oil contents of safflower seeds extracted by hot extraction system were changed between 37.40% (acetone) and 39.53% (petroleum benzene), while that of cold extraction was varied between 39.96% (petroleum benzene) and 39.40% (diethyl ether). Regarding the extraction solvents, the highest oil yield (39.53%) was obtained with petroleum benzene, while the minimum value (37.40%) was found with acetone under hot extraction condition. The main fatty acids observed in all extracted oil samples were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids. Oleic acid contents of safflower oils extracted by hot extraction system was ranged between 41.20% (acetone) and 42.54% (hexane), its content in oils obtained by cold extraction method was varied between 40.58% (acetone) and 42.10% (hexane and diethyl ether). Linoleic content of safflower oil extracted by hot extraction system was found between 48.23% (acetone) and 49.62% (hexane), while that oil extracted by cold method range from 48.07 (hexane) to 49.09% (acetone). The fatty acid composition of safflower seeds oil showed significant (p < 0.05) differences depending on solvent type and extraction method. The results of this study provide relevant information that can be used to improve organic solvent extraction processes of vegetable oil.
We recently observed that the weak near-infrared (NIR) band near 5260 cm–1 was relatively more intense for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) than for refined olive oil (ROO). We also observed that its intensity was diminished upon heating and erroneously presumed that it may be attributed to volatile carbonyl components in EVOO. In the present study we demonstrate for the first time that this band is primarily attributed to a water O-H combination band. To accurately determine the intensity of this weak band, observed on a shifted and sloping baseline, we measured the peak-to-peak (p-p) height of its first derivative. An exponential calibration curve for p-p height versus gravimetrically-determined concentration of spiked water was satisfactorily generated. The calibration curve was first evaluated by using independent sets of gravimetrically prepared test samples. Subsequently, it was used to determine the moisture content, a quality parameter, for a limited set of authenticated reference olive oils whose quality and purity were confirmed by official methods. These concentrations, 0.098-0.12% H2O (w/w) for EVOO, 0.022-0.030% H2O (w/w) for ROO, and 0.028-0.054% H2O (w/w) for pomace olive oil (POO), were consistent with those reported in the literature. For 88 commercial products investigated, the moisture levels fell in the range from 0.026% to 0.13% (w/w). The correlation between moisture content and other olive oil quality parameters has been reported in the literature and has yet to be further investigated.
This study investigated the impact of ultrasonic modification at various ultrasonic power extents on the freeze-thaw stability of soy protein isolate (SPI) gel. The freeze-thaw stability of the gel was evaluated by examining the changes in texture, water holding capacity, microstructure and soluble protein content during the process of 5 freeze-thaw cycles. In addition, effects on particle size, surface hydrophobicity and structure were also explored. The results showed that within a certain range, the average particle size of the protein gradually decreased, and the particle size distribution was narrower with ultrasonic intensity, it may be due to the high shear and cavitation effects of sonication that reduce the degree of protein aggregation. Furthermore, we also detected that treated proteins had lower fluorescence intensity, higher surface hydrophobicity and more flexible molecular structure with the reduction of α-helical structure as well as the rise of random coil. In terms of gel freeze-thaw stability, moderate ultrasound treatment made the water holding capacity and soluble protein content of SPI gel reduce by 38.27% and 3.58%, whereas the hardness and elasticity increased by 510.23g and 0.06mm after 5 FTC. The corresponding changes of indexes of the control group were 75.05%, 51%, 1062.75g and 0.11mm, respectively. It can be observed that the change range of treated SPI gel properties was smaller than that of natural SPI gel, indicating that ultrasonic treatment can remarkably improve the freeze-thaw stability of the gel which might have something to do with changes of protein structure.
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the highly selective production of monolaurin via enzymatic transesterification of methyl laurate and glycerol. It was determined that a binary solvent system (tert-butanol/iso-propanol, 20:80, wt./wt.) was suitable for the enzymatic production of monolaurin, especially in the continuous process. The highest mass fraction of monolaurin in the product mixture (80.8 wt.%) was achieved in a batch mode under the following conditions: a methyl laurate-to-glycerol molar ratio of 1:6, a substrate concentration (methyl laurate in the binary solvent) of 15 wt.%, an enzyme dosage of 6 wt.% of the amount of methyl laurate, and a reaction time of 1.5 h at 50°C. Compared with the results under the batch conditions, a slightly higher yield of monolaurin (82.5 ± 2.5 wt.%) was obtained in a continuous flow system at a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min, while the mass fraction of dilaurin in the product mixture was only 0.7 ± 0.6 wt.%. In addition, the yield of monolaurin remained almost unchanged during the 18 tested days of the continuous experiment.
Numerous studies have evaluated the composition of gut microbiota in experimental animals fed high-fat or low-fiber diets. However, few reports have focused on the effects of different fatty acid (FA) compositions on the diversity of gut microbiota and its metabolites. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the effects of different dietary fats on liver mRNA expression levels of genes related to cholesterol and bile acid (BA) metabolism, as well as to investigate cecal microbiota composition and bacterial metabolites composition in rats. Four-week-old male Wistar/ST rats were fed a 15% fat diet for 30 days, including from different sources (soybean oil, lard, menhaden oil, or tuna oil). Then, the rats’ cecal microbiota composition was determined by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene using next-generation sequencing. Lard diet drastically decreased the expression level of liver ATP-binding cassette subfamily G genes (Abcg5 and Abcg8 genes) compared with other diets. Menhaden oil diet increased the fecal BA excretion compared with soybean oil and lard diets. Fecal BA excretion tended to be positively correlated with the relative abundance of Firmicutes, and negatively correlated with the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes. These results have shown that dietary fats with different FA compositions have a different effect on the relative composition of cecal microbiota, and in particular, menhaden oil may have very different effects compared to other experimental fats. The effects of fish oils on the cecal microbiota may differ greatly depending on the ratio of EPA to DHA and the composition of FA other than n-3 polyunsaturated FA. Our results provided new insights on the way different dietary fat sources affect sterol metabolism and alter cecal microbiota composition in rats.
The absorption efficacies and catabolic rates of fatty acids are affected by their binding position on triacylglycerol (TAG). However, the kind of effect calcium treatment has on the catabolism of fatty acids is unclear. In this study, the catabolic rates of 13C-labeled palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid bound to sn-1, 3 (α) and sn-2 (β) position of TAG in the presence of calcium were compared using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The catabolic rates of 13C-labeled fatty acids were evaluated using the ratio of 13C to 12C in the carbon dioxide expired by mice. The catabolic rate of palmitic acid bound to the α position was significantly lower than that of palmitic acid bound to the β position of TAG. The rates of 13CO2 formation from palmitic acid at the β position remained higher for a long time. In contrast, oleic and linoleic acids at the α position were as well catabolized as those at the β position. These results indicate that in the presence of calcium, the saturated fatty acid bound to the β position is highly catabolized, whereas that bound to the α position is not well catabolized. Saturated fatty acid at the α position is hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase to promptly form insoluble complexes with calcium, which are excreted from the body, and thereby reducing the catabolic rate of these fatty acids.
Bacillus subtilis RB14 produces the lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A by submerged and biofilm fermentation. In this study, we optimized the conditions for iturin A production in a jar fermentor. The maximum yield of iturin A was 932 mg L−1 after 120 h. The surface tension of water decreased from 72.0 to 39.0 mN m−1 as the concentrations of C14 iturin A increased, indicating that C14 iturin A behaves as a surfactant in water. The critical micellar concentration obtained from the intersection of two fitted lines was 1.2 × 10−4 M. Moreover, the surface tension of water decreased as the length of the alkyl chain of iturin A increased.