Large quantities of oils and proteins are demanded per year while their production needs environmentally friendly (green), safe, low cost, efficient and sustainable methods. Hydration method for producing Pinus armandi seed kernel oil and defatted meal rich in proteins was therefore developed, which had the following optimal conditions: baking kernels at 130 °C for 10 min, grinding them to pass through a 80-mesh sieve, mixing the ground kernel (10.00 g) with 1.00 mL of 8% brine or water and agitating at room temperature for 30 min. This method recovered 96.71% edible oil with vitamin E and K, phytosterols, carotenoids and squalene concentrated and de-oiled meal containing 57.98% proteins and 4.17% oils with ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folate, total phenolic and flavonoids concentrated. It had higher recovery rate and other physicochemical indices of edible oil and was found to be more sustainable as compared with cold pressing, enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction and solvent extraction.
Precision nutrition, also referred to as personalized nutrition, focuses on the individual to determine the individual’s most effective eating plan to prevent or treat disease. A precision nutrition for infants requires the determination of the profile of human milk. We compared the lipid profiles of the foremilk (i.e., the initial milk of a breastfeed) and hindmilk (the last milk) of six Japanese subjects and evaluated whether a human milk lipid profile is useful for precision nutrition even though the fat concentration fluctuates during lactation. We detected and quantified 527 species with a lipidome analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The fat concentration in hindmilk (120.6 ± 66.7 μmol/mL) was significantly higher than that in foremilk (68.6 ± 33.3 μmol/mL). While the total carbon number of fatty acids in triglyceride (TG) was highest in C52 for all subjects, the second or third number differed among the subjects. Both the distribution of total carbon number of fatty acids included in TG and the distribution of fatty acids in TG classified by the number of double bonds were almost the same in the foremilk and hindmilk in each subject. The lipids levels containing docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in total lipids of the foremilk and the hindmilk were almost the same in each subject. Among the sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids, the level of sphingomyelin was the highest in four subjects’ milk, and phosphatidylcholine was the highest in the other two subjects’ milk. The order of their major species was the same in each foremilk and hindmilk. A clustering heatmap revealed the differences between foremilk and hindmilk in the same subject were smaller than the differences among individuals. Our analyses indicate that a human-milk lipid profile reflects individual characteristics and is a worthwhile focus for precision nutrition.
Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a nonthermal technology resulting in the rupture of cell membranes and increasing the electrical conductivity and the permeability of intracellular material. There was little work about the safety of food treated by PEF. The acute, subacute oral, and genetic toxicities were investigated to explore the safety of canola oil extracted by aid of PEF treatment (PTCO). The results showed that no negative consequences were caused by PEF. PTCO was regarded as practically non-toxic with a LD50 higher than 40 g/kg bw. No oil intake-related mortality, clinical, weight gain and organ coefficient abnormalities were observed. The histopathological symptoms indicated a mild load but not obvious toxicities on liver and kidney. The 28-day subacute toxicity test confirmed that less than 10 g/kg·d bw of oil intake did not exhibit any intake-related changes in physical, physiological, biochemical, hematological, and histopathological signs. The less than 4 of atherosclerosis index suggested that no risk of cardiovascular disease caused by PTCO intake. It was speculated that the PEF treatment would not cause any safety issues to food products.
Tocopherols and phytosterols are generally considered to be nutritionally beneficial, and 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPD esters), glycidyl esters (GEs) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) are generally considered to be harmful. The high temperature deodorization step is when these harmful 3-MCPD esters, GEs and TFAs are generated. Knowing how deodorization conditions affect levels of these substances is essential for designing refining processes that will produce nutritious, high quality edible oils. This study analyzed the changes of these components of sunflower oil at different temperatures (210, 230, 250 and 270°C) and times (60, 80, 100 and 120 min) during deodorization. Our research found that during the whole deodorization process (including undeodorized sunflower oil), the contents of 3-MCPD esters, GEs and TFAs all progressively increased, from 0.47 to 11.18 mg/kg, 0.24 to 18.42 mg/kg and 0.062% to 0.698%, respectively. However, the deodorization process significantly decreased the levels of tocopherols (from 535.94 to 240.26 mg/kg) and phytosterols (from 2803.58 to 1864.34 mg/kg). Meanwhile, the retention ratios of total tocopherols and total phytosterols also decreased from 96.29% to 44.83% and 92.29% to 66.50%, respectively.
The present research evaluated some chemical composition in tissues from the leaves, seed, and fruits P. amygdaliformis. In leaf samples, phenolics compounds are predominated, whereas, in fruit samples, sugars, organic acid predominated. Among phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and fumaric acid were found in the highest amount in leaf tissue. In addition, the amounts of minerals in the fruit tissue had high values. In the P. Amigdaliformis seed oil, oleic and linoleic acid were the primary fatty acids. This study shows that these wild pears have beneficial natural compounds and can also be used as a new source of natural oil.
Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) is a plant commonly used in diabetic therapy in China. GP having potent antioxidant effect against various free radicals. The purpose of the current investigation to identify the cardioprotective effect of GP against streptozotocin (STZ)/ high fat diet (HFD) induced cardiac dysfunction in rats via alteration of AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Wistar rats were used for the current protocol. The rats were received the intraperitoneal injection of STZ and HFD to induce the cardiac remodelling. Blood glucose level, insulin and lipid parameters were estimated. Blood pressure and heart rate were also estimated. Cardiac parameters, antioxidant, cytokines, total protein and inflammatory mediators were analysed. The mRNA expression was detected using the RT-qPCR, respectively. GP significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the BGL and improved the insulin level. GP altered the ratio of heart/BW, liver/BW, and lung/BW. GP treatment significantly (p < 0.001) suppressed the heart rate and blood pressure (diastolic, systolic and mean pressure). GP significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the level of TC, LDL, TG, VLDL and increased the level of HDL. DCM induced rats received the GP administration exhibited reduction in the level of CK and LDH. GP significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the levels of MDA, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, ROS and increased the level of GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx. GP significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) and inflammatory parameters (COX-2 and NFκB). GP significantly (p < 0.001) suppressed the NLRP3 and NF-κB expression. GP also boosted mitochondrial biogenesis by boosting the PGC-1α, HO-1 and Nrf2 expression in cardiac tissue. GP treatment showed the cardioprotective effects against STZ induced diabetic cardiac dysfunction via alteration of AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
This study evaluated the chemoprotective effect of scutellarin (SC) in vitro and in vivo against gastric carcinogenesis in rats and celllines and examined the underlying mechanism. Gastric cancer celllines (AGS) was used for the in vitro study and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) profile, histone deacetylase (HDAC) assay, cell cycle & apoptosis ratio and antioxidant parameters were measured. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was used to induce gastric carcinogenesis in rats and the rats received the different doses of SC (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg). The body weight and tumor incidence were measured at regular time intervals. The antioxidant and pro-inflammatory cytokines were estimated. The finding of data showed that the drug was effective against AGS cell line. Supplementation of scutellarin revealed an upregulation in body weight compared with the MNNG group rats. Moreover, it also reduced the incidence of tumor. It also altered the significant DNA density, LDH content, mucus content and acidity. Scutellarin treated rats showed improved activity in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant profile and reversed the content of cytokines compared with MNNG induced gastric cancer group rats. This research reveals the chemoprotective property of the scutellarin and highlights the promising role of drug by alteration of inflammatory pathway by minimizing its adverse effect.
This study aimed to synthesize α-Glycerol Monolaurate from protected glycerol (glycerol 1,2-acetonide) using Lipozym TL IM as a catalyst. In the first step, transesterification of methyl laurate and glycerol 1,2-acetonide with Lipozyme TL IM produced 1,2-acetonide-3-lauryl glycerol. In the second step, deprotection of 1,2-acetonide-3-lauryl glycerol with Amberlyst-15 produced α-Glycerol Monolaurate. Furthermore, the optimum yield (82.1%) of 1,2-acetonide-3-lauryl glycerol (light yellow liquid, purity of 92%) was achieved at a reactant mole ratio of 1, n-hexane (4 mL) with a reaction time of 12 hours, and total Lipozyme TL IM of 5% (w/w of the total weight of reactants) at a temperature of 35°C. Deprotection of 1,2-acetonide-3-lauryl glycerol with Amberlyst-15 was conducted at room temperature for 24 hours. At a melting point of 62.8°C, and purity of 100% α-Glycerol Monolaurate in the form of a white solid was obtained with a yield of 74.6% after the recrystallization of the crude product. This α-glycerol monolaurate synthesis reaction pathway can be referred to as a green α-monoacylglyceride synthesis method.
In many developed countries, colorectal cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and its etiology is familiar to be a grouping of nutritional and environmental factors, less physical activity and hereditary factors. Lycoperoside H (LH) is a steroidal alkaloid saponin commonly found in the tomato and exhibited the various pharmacological effects. The aim of the current study was to scrutinized the anticancer effect of LH against 1,2‑Dimethyl Hydrazine (DMH) induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. Subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg) was used for induction the CRC and rats were received the oral administration of LH (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. At the end of the investigation, the tumor incidence, weight, and body weight were calculated. Antioxidant enzymes (phase I and II), inflammatory cytokines, lipids and inflammatory markers were all examined. DMH induced rats exhibited the increased tumor incidence, reduced body weight and LH treatment significantly (p < 0.001) suppressed the tumor incidence, and enhanced the body weight. LH treatment significantly (p < 0.001) boosted the level of SOD, GPx, GSH, CAT and suppressed the MDA level. LH treatment suppressed the level cytochrome b5 (Cyto b5), cytochrome P450 (Cyto P450) and boosted the level of glutathione S‑transferase (GST), uridine diphosphoglucuronyltransferase (UDP‑GT) in the liver and colon tissue. LH also decreased the level of cytokines includes interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); inflammatory mediators like Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin (PGE2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatic and colon tissue. We can conclude that LH revealed the anticancer effect against the DMH induced CRC via suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress.
5-Pentylresorcinol is a type of the group of resorcinol compounds that is resorcinol in that has hydrogen atom at position 5 is replaced by a pentyl group. It has a role as a lichen metabolite. This compound showed excellent to good inhibitory activities against studied these enzymes with IC50 values of 65.96 µM for urease and 34.81 µM for tyrosinase. Standard compounds for enzymes had IC50 values of 1.94±0.24 µM against urease and 84.36±5.17 µM against tyrosinase. The IC50 of 5-pentylresorcinol against MCF7 cell line was 165.72 µg/mL; against Hs 578Bst cell line was 102.14 µg/mL; against Hs 319.T cell line was 12.34 µg/mL; and against UACC-3133 cell line was 73.07 µg/mL, respectively. The chemical activities of 5-pentylresorcinol against urease and tyrosinase were evaluated using the molecular modeling study. The anti-cancer activity of 5-pentylresorcinol was also investigated by treating the compound on the BRCT repeat region from the breast cancer-associated protein (BRCA1), and their interactions were assessed utilizing the molecular docking calculations. The results revealed the probable interactions and their characteristics at an atomic level. The docking scores of 5-pentylresorcinol against urease, tyrosinase, and BRCA1 are -3.073, -5.262, and -3.238 (kcal/mol), respectively.
Hyperlipidemia is a condition where the blood shows an elevated level of lipid, such as cholesterol and triglyceride. It is considered a risk factor for all coronary artery death globally. Association of microbiome with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including hyperlipidemia has been reportedly associated. In this study, we hypothesize that the change in microbiome is correlated to the change in serum lipid level, which resulted by increasing dietary fat consumption. The 32 male, 14-week-old, C57BL/6N were divided into 4 groups, each group received control diet, 10%, 20%, and 40% kcal fat diet prepared from purified pork lard, respectively for 28 days. Fasting serum lipids and fecal microbiome were then analyzed. The group of animals assigned to 40% kcal fat showed significantly increased serum cholesterol, LDL, and HDL (p < 0.05). Microbiome analysis revealed the abundance of Muribaculaceae and Saccharimonadaceae were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the abundance of Clostridia_UCG014, Akkermansiaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Oscillospiraceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae were significantly increased (p < 0.05). Spearman correlation indicated that the abundance of Akkermansiaceae and Bacteroidaceae were positively associated with the increased of serum cholesterol and LDL (p < 0.05), while the abundance of Muribaculaceae, Clostridia_UCG-014, and Saccharimonadaceae were negatively associated (p < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary fat have ability to manipulated microbiome with relative to elevation of serum lipid profile.
Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) derived from vegetable oils and ethanol are promising bio-based chemicals for various applications such as biofuel, monomers for polyesters, and fine chemicals. However, the limited conversion and yield are obtained in the conventional methods due to low boiling point of ethanol that thus requires conducting the reaction at low temperature. This work demonstrates high yield of FAEEs from soybean, rice bran and palm oil with ethanol by performing the transesterification at high temperatures of 150-200°C by using CaO catalyst in a high pressure reactor. The results demonstrate the complete reaction for all vegetable oils with low ethanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 and 1 wt.% CaO catalyst. Higher reaction temperature results in faster reaction while keeping high conversion of ≥ 99.0%. The unsaturated components in FAEE products are consistent with their original fatty acid chain. Moreover, the high conversion can be achieved even in the reaction conducted with low ethanol to oil molar ratio of 4.5:1 and 0.5 wt.% CaO catalyst at 180 °C in the palm oil transesterification. The catalyst can be reused for at least 3 times with the conversion higher than 94.0%. In addition, the activation energy (Ea), enthalpy of activation (ΔH‡), entropy of activation (ΔS‡) and Gibbs free energy of activation (ΔG‡) are also obtained.
In this paper, we investigated the sedative-hypnotic effect of Cinnamomum camphora chvar. Borneol essential oil (BEO, 16.4% borneol), a by-product of steam distillation of Cinnamomum camphora chvar. Borneol, from which natural crystalline borneol (NCB, 98.4% borneol) is obtained. Using locomotor activity tests and pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep test, it was found that BEO significantly reduced locomotor activity (p < 0.05), shortened sleep latency (p < 0.0001), prolonged sleep duration (p < 0.05), and had a sedative-hypnotic effect. We constructed the “components-targets-signaling pathways” and “proteinprotein interaction” (PPI) network of BEO using network pharmacology. The results show that the 24 active components of BEO acted on 17 targets, mainly through response to alkaloid and catecholamine transport, and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. The PPI network identified 12 key proteins, mainly dopamine receptor (DR)D2, opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1), and opioid receptor kappa 1 (OPRK1), and we further analyzed the active components and targets of BEO through molecular docking. The results showed that the active components and targets obtained by network pharmacology analyses had good binding activity, which reflected their multi-component, multi-target, multi-pathway action characteristics. This paper provides a theoretical basis for further study of the mechanism of action of BEO in the treatment of insomnia.
In recent years, secondary metabolites of plants have attracted researchers’ interest as a substitute for synthetic insecticides with many advantages. Elsholtzia kachinensis is an annual herb with medicinal and edible value. In this study, the essential oil (EO) of the aerial part of E. kachinensis was extracted by hydrodistillation, and GC-MS analysed essential oil components. The results show that carvone and dehydroelsholtzia ketone are the main components of the essential oil, accounting for 32.298% and 31.540%, respectively. EO, carvone and dehydroelsholtzia ketone are used to determine the effects against stored-product insects Lasioderma serricorne, Tribolium castaneum, Sitophilus oryzae and Liposcelis bostrychophila. The essential oil showed the most vital contact and fumigation toxicity to L. serricorne, of which LD50 and LC50 values were 3.85 μg/adult and 7.74 mg/L air, respectively. S. oryzae did not show repellent activity, but the repellent rate of the other three species reached 90% under EO treatment at a concentration of 78.63 nL/cm2. Therefore, the essential oil of E. kachinensis has an insecticidal effect and has the potential to be developed as a new eco-friendly insecticide.
Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) has been used to promote hair growth for decades. In this study, dried PE fruit powder was extracted, tested for biological activities, and loaded into transfersomes for hair follicle targeting. Before lyophilization, PE fruit powder was extracted using 2 solvent systems, water and 30% ethanol. The PE 30% ethanolic extract had higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic content than the PE aqueous extract. However, the cytotoxicity of the PE 30% ethanolic extract was higher than that of PE aqueous extract. As a result, the PE aqueous extract was analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and found that the major component of the PE aqueous extract was gallic acid. Afterward, the PE aqueous extract was tested for its potential to activate the expression of genes involved in hair growth promotion in human keratinocytes. At a non-toxic concentration (10 µg/mL), this extract promoted various growth factors comparable to 1% minoxidil. PE-loaded transfersomes were prepared to deliver the PE aqueous extract to the hair follicle. The particle size and polydispersity index of PE-loaded transfersomes were 228 nm and 0.25, respectively. After 3 months of storage, the particle size at 4°C and 30°C was 218 nm and 241 nm, respectively, which was comparable to its initial size. However, at 40°C, the particle size dramatically increased (315 nm). The fluorescent agent, rhodamine B, was used to evaluate the potential of transfersomes to target hair follicles. Rhodamine B transfersomes had better penetration and accumulation in hair follicles than rhodamine B solution. To conclude, the PE aqueous extract, mainly composed of gallic acid, can activate hair growth gene expression. The extract can be loaded into hair follicles targeting transfersomes. Thus, PE-loaded transfersomes are a promising delivery system for hair follicle targeting to promote hair growth.