Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common type of cancer in all types of cancers, globally. It is well known that the frequency of inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress increases during the HCC. The goal of this study was to see if decalactone could prevent rats against HCC caused by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Single intraperitoneal administration of DEN (200 mg/kg) used as inducer and weekly intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital (8 mg/kg) was used as promotor for induction the HCC in rats. Serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was used for the confirmation of HCC. Different doses of decalactone (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) were orally administered to the rats. The body weight was determined at regular time. The hepatic, non-hepatic, antioxidant markers and inflammatory mediators were scrutinized. All groups of animals were scarified and macroscopically examination of the liver tissue was performed and the weight of organ (hepatic tissue) were estimated. Decalactone increased body weight while also suppressing hepatic nodules and tissue weight. Decalactone treatment reduced AFP, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin levels while increasing albumin and total protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Decalactone reduced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increased catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels significantly (p < 0.001) (SOD). Decalactone lowered the levels of significantly (p < 0.001) inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory markers in the liver. Based on the findings, we may conclude that decalactone inhibited HCC in DEN-induced HCC animals via reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of extraction conditions (temperature, pressure, and entrainer content) on the total Z-isomer ratio and recovery of lycopene in the extracts obtained after supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction of lycopene from tomato powder, with a particular focus on high-temperature conditions (≥ 80°C). The results showed that high-temperature SC-CO2 extraction promoted the thermal isomerization of lycopene in a temperature-dependent manner up to 120°C. For example, when lycopene extraction was carried out at 80, 100, 120, and 140°C and a pressure of 30 MPa with an entrainer, ethanol, for 180 min, the total Z-isomer ratios obtained were 25.0, 57.2, 67.2, and 67.0%, respectively. The entrainer content also affected the Z-isomer ratio of lycopene, but the pressure had little effect. Interestingly, when SC-CO2 extraction was performed under high-temperature conditions (≥ 100°C), the extraction efficiency of lycopene was dramatically improved, e.g., when lycopene was extracted at 80, 100, 120, and 140℃ under the same other conditions as above, the recovery rates of lycopene were 4.6, 28.5, 79.9, 84.8%, respectively. In general, SC-CO2 extraction of fat-soluble components is performed at temperatures in the range of 40–80°C because the SC-CO2 density decreases with increasing temperature, and thus, their solubility (extraction efficiency) decreases. However, our results showed that the lycopene recovery increased in a temperature-dependent manner, which might be due to the solubility enhancement associated with thermal Z-isomerization of lycopene (i.e., lycopene Z-isomers have greater solubility than the naturally occurring all-E-isomer). The high-temperature SC-CO2 extraction of lycopene from tomato materials not only enhances the Z-isomer ratio of lycopene in the resulting extracts but also improves lycopene recovery. This new finding will greatly contribute to the value addition and cost reduction of natural lycopene sources obtained by SC-CO2 extraction.
Physiochemical properties, lipid breakdown, β-carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamins as well as amino and fatty acid profiles of Soxhlet-extracted oil from five different garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed genotypes (namely: CG8, CG7, CG17, CG4, and 207910) across Ethiopia regions were investigated. Results showed that despite the seeds’ proximate peak and least values, the extraction yield, viscosity, specific gravity, refractive index, lipid breakdown, and boiling point of garden cress seed oil across the genotypes noticeably varied with promising amino and fatty acid profiles. Further, the genotype CG17 obtained greater quantities of β-carotenoids, tocopherols and vitamin values compared to the other genotypes.
Probiotics frontier in depressing the clinical bacterial pathogens to avoid multidrug resistance phenomenon. The present study aimed to determine the antibacterial efficiency of chitosan encapsulated probiotics isolated from buffalo milk samples against clinical bacterial pathogens. The Agar well method was used for antibacterial activity. Lactococcus lactis (A) and Lactobacillus curvattus (B) were isolated from fresh buffalo milk samples, identified via culturing media, Gram’s staining, biochemical tests, and antibiogram analysis. Encapsulation of probiotics was carried out using chitosan and was characterized via a scanning electron microscope. Antibiogram analysis elicit that L. lactis culture (A1) was highly sensitive to chloramphenicol (17.66±0.47 mm), tobramycin (15.33±0.47 mm), and ciprofloxacin (12.33±0.47 mm) and resistant against tetracycline, Penicillin G, Erythromycin, Amoxycillin, Ceftriaxone, Cephalothin, and Cephradine, while L. curvattus culture (B1) was affected by Ceftriaxone (18.67±0.47 mm), Amoxycillin (14.33±0.94 mm), Cephalothin (13.67±0.47 mm), Erythromycin (13.33±0.47 mm), Penicillin G (12.67±0.47 mm), Cephradine (10.33±0.47 mm), and Chloramphenicol (9.67±0.47 mm) and resistant against tetracycline, Tobramycin, and Ciprofloxacin. Antibacterial efficacy of non-encapsulated probiotic cultures was significant and maximum inhibition of bacterial were recorded compared to their cellular components. SEM of encapsulated probiotics revealed that they were successfully covered with a chitosan protective layer and could be effective as bio-preservatives due to being slowly released at the target site. The current study concluded that L. lactis, L. curvattus, and their cellular components have a significant bactericidal effect against infectious pathogens and could be used as a potential therapeutic drug against infectious diseases.
The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis produces a mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL) homologue, a diastereomer type of MEL-B, from olive oil. In a previous study, MEL-B production was increased by the overexpression of lipase PaLIPAp in P. tsukubaensis 1E5, through the enhancement of oil consumption. In the present study, RNA sequence analysis was used to identify a promoter able to induce high-level PaLIPA expression. The recombinant strain, expressing PaLIPA via the translation elongation factor 1 alpha/Tu promoter, showed higher lipase activity, rates of oil degradation, and MEL-B production than the strain which generated in our previous study.
The ripening degree of camellia fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of camellia seed oil. In this study, taking Camellia semiserrata as the research object, the oil content, physicochemical indexes, nutritional indexes, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds of camellia seed oils from various harvest dates (from September to October) were determined. The results showed that with the increase of the ripening degree of camellia fruit, the oil content of camellia seed increased at first and then decreased and reached the highest (58.74%) on September 30, while the acid value, peroxide value, β-sitosterol, α-tocopherol, and polyphenols of camellia seed oil showed a downward trend. Among them, the highest contents of β-sitosterol, α-tocopherol, and polyphenols were observed on September 2, which were 6881.60, 311.34, and 78.08 mg/kg, respectively. In terms of the fatty acid composition of camellia seed oils, the content of oleic acid increased at first and then decreased, the content of linoleic acid and palmitic acid decreased gradually, while the content of stearic acid increased gradually. A total of 37 volatile compounds were identified in different samples, including 12 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 12 alcohols, 2 acids, 5 esters, and 1 other. With the increase of the ripening degree, the concentration of aldehydes and alcohols increased at first and then decreased, the concentration of ketones and esters decreased gradually, but the concentration of acid compounds had no obvious rule. In addition, the camellia seed oils from various harvest dates were classified and comprehensively evaluated by principal component analysis and grey relation analysis. The results showed that different camellia seed oils could be divided into three groups, and the comprehensive score of camellia seed oils on September 30 was the highest. In general, this work can provide theoretical guidance for the harvest date of Camellia semiserrata.
d-Allulose (d-psicose) is a rare sugar, that contains no calories and exhibits 70% relative sweetness when compared with sucrose. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the anti-obesity effect of d-allulose, mediated by suppressing lipogenesis and increasing energy expenditure. Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) are lipids formed by 3 medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) with 6–12 carbon atoms attached to glycerol. MCTs have been expensively studied to reduce body fat accumulation in rats and humans. The anti-obesity effect of MCTs was not confirmed depending on the nutritional conditions because MCT might promote lipogenesis. In the present study, we examined the effects of simultaneous intake of diets containing low (5%) or high (13%) MCTs, with or without 5% d-allulose, on body fat accumulation in rats (Experiment 1). Furthermore, we assessed the interaction between 5% MCT and 5% d-allulose in the diet (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight was significantly greater in the high MCT diet groups than in the commercial diet (control) group. d-Allulose significantly decreased weights of intra-abdominal adipose tissue, carcass fat, and total body fat, however, these weights increased as the amount of MCT added increased. In Experiment 2, d-allulose significantly decreased almost all body fat indicators, and these values were not influenced by the presence or absence of MCT addition. The antiobesity effect of d-allulose was observed with or without dietary MCT, and no synergistic effect was detected between d-allulose and MCT. These results suggest that d-allulose is a beneficial food ingredient in diets aimed at reducing body fat accumulation. However, further research is required on the synergistic effects between d-allulose and MCTs.
Self-propelled droplets are of considerable interest as an appropriate model for understanding the self-propulsion of objects in the fields of nonequilibrium physics and nonlinear science. Several research groups have reported the monodirectional motion of droplets, that is, chemotaxis, using stimuli-responsive materials. However, the precise control of chemotaxis remains challenging from the perspective of synthetic chemistry because chemotactic motion is primarily induced by the consumption of reactive oil or surfactants. Herein, we report a chemical system containing pH-responsive fumaric acid derivatives, in which the oil droplet exhibited positive chemotaxis over a wide pH range–from basic to acidic conditions. From the measurements of the interfacial tension between the oil and aqueous phases, it was deduced that the positive chemotaxis was due to heterogeneity in the interfacial tension of the droplet surface, which was accompanied by the production of surface-active compounds in the pH gradient in a linear-type channel.
Green tea is a popular refreshing drink with several functional properties attributed to its bioactive compounds. The bioactive content and composition vary with several factors. Several advances in chromatographic studies have facilitated the study of chemical composition of green tea leaves; however, the content of organic acids, particularly quinic acid, has not been explored fully. Therefore, changes in the content of organic acids, including quinic acid, in green tea leaves, were investigated in this study. All the studied varieties contained large amounts of quinic and oxalic acids. Kukicha and Matcha contained the highest and lowest amounts of quinic acid, respectively. Furthermore, high-grade Matcha had a significantly lower quinic acid content than low-grade Matcha. The Asatsuyu sample had the lowest quinic acid content in 2018 and 2019 compared with the other green tea varieties. The content of quinic acid increased with maturity, but that of oxalic, malic, succinic, and citric acids decreased after a slight increase. Shading cultivation in Saeakari significantly lowered the quinic acid content and slightly increased the content of malic, citric, and oxalic acids. Malic acid and citric acid content in Yabukita changed with sunrise and sunset, but that of other organic acids did not show any considerable change. These results show that using an appropriate plucking time could lead to further improvement in the quality of green tea leaves. Overall, green tea is a good source of quinic acid, which will attract attention in future functional research on this drink.
Ceramide prepared from glucosylceramide (GlcCer) with Gluceribacter canis NATH-2371T was administrated to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model mice. Dietary ceramide significantly suppressed the decrease in final body weight, and the increase in the disease activity index and myeloperoxidase activity more greatly than GlcCer in IBD mice. Intestinal microbiome profiles were found to be altered in IBD mice, but ceramide counteracted the changes. These results suggest that dietary plant-based ceramide may alleviate symptoms of IBD in mice.