The 2-ethylhexyl stearate is used as a bio-lubricant in various cosmetic products. The present study was focused on the biocatalyzed esterification of 2-ethylhexanol and stearic acid to form 2-ethylhexyl stearate catalyzed by Fermase CALB 10000 in the presence of ultrasound treatment. The maximum conversion (95.87%) was obtained at molar ratio of 2-ethylhexanol to stearic acid 2:1, enzyme amount of 2 % (w/w), power 80 W, duty cycle 50 % and temperature 50°C in comparatively short reaction time (3 h) in the presence of Fermase as a catalyst. In optimum conditions, it is observed that in the presence of ultrasound; the reaction time minimizes up to 4 h as compared to mechanical stirring method (7 h). The physiochemical properties for the 2-ethylhexyl palmitate were evaluated.
China has taken olive cultivation as a significant part of its agricultural development. Longnan city of Gansu province was marked into the world olive distribution map by International Olive Oil Council in 1998. However, so far, little research has been done on the growth and development stages of Chinese olives. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics changes of several quality characteristics of olive oil at different sampling times. Olive fruit of ‘Chenggu-32’ grown in Longnan were harvested at twenty-four time periods and used for determination of phenotypic traits and oil quality characteristics: total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, as well as fatty acid composition by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and analysed by using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Towards maturation, fruit moisture content decreased while oil content increased. Levels of both total flavonoids and total polyphenols contents slightly decreased first then increased. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids was close to three. The ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)/ polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was from 2.28 to 4.05. The oleic acid (C18:1)/linoleic acid (C18:2) ratio was varied between 5.23 and 10.67 according to different sampling dates. The olive oil had lower oleic acid (C18:1) levels, higher linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) levels compared to Codex values (2017) in some periods, which is the characteristics fatty acid composition of ‘Chenggu-32’ variety in Longnan, China.
To accelerate the fermentation rate and reduce the adverse effects of undesirable microorganism contamination on rice noodle quality, the pure inoculum fermentation method was used to produce fermented rice noodles. The results indicated that the pure inoculum fermented rice slurry required 10 h to reach a stable pH value. While, the pH value of the natural, pure and natural inoculum fermented rice slurries required 54, 18 and 20 h to stabilize, respectively. Free amino acids and lactic acid concentrations of the pure inoculum fermented rice slurry were higher than those of the natural and natural inoculum fermented rice slurries. The pure inoculum fermentation modified the proximate composition and lowered the pasting viscosities of the rice flour. The texture, cooking and eating qualities of the pure inoculum fermented rice noodles were similar to those of the natural fermented ones. In addition, the pure inoculum fermented rice noodles had higher relative contents of aldehydes than other fermented rice noodles and thus had a better flavor. Therefore, pure inoculum fermentation accelerated the fermentation rate and improved the rice noodle flavor while maintaining the texture, cooking and eating qualities of the rice noodles.
A novel jellyfish-shaped triazine hexamer quaternary ammonium chloride surfactant (TH12QC) was synthesized, which consisted of one triazine spacer group and six long flexible hydrophobic chains. The molecular structure and aggregation behavior of TH12QC was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), surface tension, electrical conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), etc. The results show that the jellyfish-shaped TH12QC has better surface activity and lower surface tension than traditional ionic and Gemini surfactants in aqueous solution. There are two inflection points in the curve of conductivity versus concentration of the TH12QC aqueous solution, which correspond to the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) respectively. The existence of CAC indicates that there is a pre-aggregation process before TH12QC forms micelles. The results of DLS and TEM show that network pre-aggregation, spherical aggregation and dense spherical aggregation were observed in different concentration of TH12QC aqueous solution, and the electrostatic equilibrium of the system subtly depends on the concentration of the solution. In addition, intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding is also an important factor. This study provides a method for studying the aggregation behavior and morphology of oligomeric surfactants with rigid spacer groups.
To identify antioxidants for improving rough skin, we aimed to analyze the amino acid composition of fish mucus and antioxidant activity of the mucus component. Specifically, we aimed to examine the antioxidant properties of dialyzed mucus components secreted from mackerel, which can be used as raw materials for producing cosmetics. The amino acid composition of hydrolyzed mucus was examined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography after dialyzing mucus. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the mucus was evaluated via oxygen radical absorption capacity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays. The amino acid composition differed between the low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight fractions. Moreover, the low-molecular-weight fraction of farmed mackerel mucus exhibited antioxidant activity with high specificity. The results suggest that antioxidant peptides or free amino acids are present in the low-molecular-weight fraction of farmed mackerel mucus.
The oil content of both ‘raw’ and hazelnut kernels was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced as the microwave power increased from 180 W to 360 W. The contents of fatty acids flucuated for all varieties with microwave power, with a significant (p < 0.05) increment observed for ‘Sivri’ hazelnut at 180 and 720 W. The maximum linoleic acid contents for ‘Raw’, ‘Sivri’ and ‘Tombul’ hazelnuts were found as 11.87%, 12.61% and 17.68% for nuts roasted at 540 W, unroasted and those roasted at 720 W, respectively. It was observed that K (9735.1 mg/kg) and Mg (2343.7 mg/kg) contents of the investigated samples were found at the maximum levels in unroasted ‘Tombul’ hazelnut, while the highest P (2845.0 mg/kg) and S (1795.3 mg/kg) contents are determined for hazelnut roasted at 720 W (p < 0.05). The highest Ca content in hazelnut kernel was also observed at 360 W with 2400.9 mg/kg. However, roasting process did not dramatically affect the mineral contents of samples.
In this study, subcritical n-butane was adopted to extract oil from flaxseed. The extraction conditions i.e. extraction temperature, extraction time, and liquid-solid ratio were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology. The flaxseed oil obtained by subcritical n-butane were characterized and compared with those prepared by n-hexane and cold pressing. Results indicated that the optimal combination of parameters was 53.93℃, 56.82 min, and 19.98:1 mL/g. Subcritical n-butane had higher yield (28.75%) than n-hexane and cold pressing. GC analysis indicated that subcritical n-butane extraction had no obvious influence on the fatty acid composition. Nevertheless, the oil obtained by subcritical n-butane with higher contents of phytosterols (2.93 mg/g) and carotenoids (46.56 mg/kg), and presented a higher oxidation stability (9.27 h). Thus, it was suggested that subcritical n-butane extraction is a promising alternative to extract high quality flaxseed oil.
The oxidative stability of sunflower oil containing rosemary essential oil and extracts in the oil during frying were followed by measuring peroxide value. Variation in the values of L* of the frying oil containing extract was less than that of frying oil containing essential oil. a*-Value of the fried oil containing extract highly significant decreased. Increase in the value of b* of 1. and 2. frying oil with 0.5 % rosemary essential oil was less. b* Value of the frying oils containing rosemary extract increased compared to b* values of frying oils containing essential oil. b* Value of the frying oil that the essential oil of rosemary added showed less increase than b* value of the frying oil that extract of rosemary. The viscosity values of frying oils containing rosemary extract changed between 30.3 mPas (1. frying oil containing 0.5% extract) and 35.5 mPas (2. frying oil containing 0.5% extract). In addition, free fatty acidity values of frying oils containing essential oil at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% levels ranged from 0.160% (1. frying oil containing 0.5% essential oil) to 0.320% (1. frying oil containing 0.3% essential oil). Peroxide values of frying oils containing rosemary extracts were determined between 12.84 meq O2/kg (1. frying oil containing 0.1% extract) and 28.98 meq O2/kg (2. frying oil containing 0.1% extract). Peroxide value of frying made with 0.3 % the rosemary essential oil increased less than that of made with the raw sunflower oil (control) (p < 0.05). Whenever rosemary essential oil and rosemary extract compare, the essential oil seems to be more effective on the peroxide value of the frying oil. The essential oil of rosemary have been effected more from the extracts of rosemary on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil.
In this study, seed oils of Thladiantha nudiflora and Thladiantha dubia were found to contain 55.5 and 44.4% mole of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acids, respectively. The presence of moieties of conjugated fatty acids was confirmed by a series from physical methods: UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) isolated of the seed oils were studied by RP-HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detections. It was shown that all 15 TAGs of Thladiantha dubia contain moieties of conjugated fatty acids – punicic, (9Z,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid (35.6% mole) and 8.9% mole α-eleostearic, (9Z,11E,13E)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid. Meanwhile, 24 TAGs of Thladiantha nudiflora seed oil contain both acids in approximately equal proportions (27.4:28.2 % mole). The enrichment for polyunsaturated fatty acids of the hydrolysis product of the seed oils due to urea inclusion complex formation was discussed.
To determine the food potential of Paeonia ludlowii D.Y.Hong (P. ludlowii) kernel oil, in this study, we analysed the fatty acid composition and volatile components of this oil, compared the antioxidant effects of two natural antioxidants on it, and then predicted its shelf life at room temperature (25℃). The results showed that P. ludlowii kernel oil mainly contained 20 fatty acids, of which linoleic acid, oleic acid and other unsaturated fatty acid contents together made up 86.99%. The aromatic composition of the crude P. ludlowii kernel oil was analysed, and 34 aromatic compounds were obtained, including 5 lipids (2.30%), 9 alcohols (12.64%), 6 aldehydes (14.67%), 2 alkanes (1.30%), 5 acids (2.70%), 1 ketone (0.41), 2 alkenes (39.12%) and 4 other substances (26.85%). The effects of the antioxidants were ranked as follows: 0.04% tea polyphenols + crude oil > 0.04% bamboo flavonoids + crude oil > crude oil. In addition, the shelf lives at room temperature (25℃) of each kernel oil-antioxidant mixture were 200.73 d, 134.90 d and 131.61 d, respectively. Overall, these results reveal that P. ludlowii kernel oil is a potential candidate for a new high-grade edible oil, and its development has broad application prospects.
There is growing research interest in the hypocholesterolemic effect of various food components such as polyphenols. In this study, we examined the effects of oligonol—a low-molecular weight polyphenol extracted from lychee fruit—on cholesterol metabolism in rats under short-term administration. Administration of oligonol for 3 days significantly increased cecum weight and decreased cecal n-butyric acid concentrations in rats. Oligonol also significantly lowered the levels of hepatic cholesterol and increased the levels of total neutral steroids excreted in the feces. It also increased fecal β-muricholic acid significantly, whereas the levels of total acidic steroids remained unchanged. Gene expression of hepatic CYP7A1 (cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1) significantly increased following the administration of oligonol. This increase could be ascribed to changes in the expression of farnesoid X receptor, small heterodimer partner, and fibroblast growth factor 15 in ileum. Our data suggest that oligonol induces hypocholesterolemic effects through the inhibition of biliary cholesterol absorption from the intestine and the upregulation of cholesterol catabolism in rats even following short-term administration. Therefore, oligonol may be an important food component for reducing cholesterol level.
Controlling the size of nanoparticles is important for drug delivery methods such as pulmonary administration, transdermal administration, and intravenous administration. In this study, we have investigated the effect of polymer conformation in organic solvents on the size of the nanoparticles. Poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLLGA), a promising nanoparticle carrier, was used as the polymer. A mixed solution of dichloromethane, which is a good solvent, and a lower alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol), which is a poor solvent, was used as the solvent for dissolving PLLGA. An oil-in-water emulsion was prepared by sonication using the mixed solution of organic solvents in which PLLGA was dissolved as a dispersed phase and an amino acid aqueous solution as a continuous phase. Nanocomposite particles were prepared from the emulsion using a spray dryer and redispersed in purified water to obtain the PLLGA nanoparticles. The conformation of PLLGA molecules in the organic solvents was evaluated by analyzing the results of the viscosity measurements. The polymer coil radius and the volume per polymer coil were observed to decrease with the increase in the ratio of the lower alcohol in the solvent, whereas these values tended to decrease with the use of more hydrophilic lower alcohols. In addition, based on the results of the calculated entanglement index, it was found that when the hydrophobicity of the dispersed phase is reduced, the polymers were hardly entangled with each other. These results were significant, specifically when the ratio of the lower alcohol in the solvent was low. Estimation of the Pearson’s correlation coefficients indicated that there were positive correlations between these indices and the mean volume diameter of PLLGA nanoparticles. This study shows that changing the composition of the dispersed phase, in which the PLLGA is dissolved, can change the conformation of the PLLGA molecules and control the size of the PLLGA nanoparticles.
Previously, we reported that the polar lipid fraction from the golden oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, suppresses colon injuries which result from apoptosis induced by inflammatory stresses in vivo and in vitro (Yamashita et al., J. Oleo Sci., in press). Here, we investigated the use of lipid classes in mushroom polar lipid fraction in alleviating colon injury using differentiated Caco-2 cells as an intestinal tract model. The mushroom polar lipid fraction was separated into four fractions using silica thin layer chromatography. Each mushroom polar lipid fraction suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decreases in the viability of intestinal cells, and the effects of sphingolipid fractions were significantly stronger than those of fraction that did not contain sphingolipids. Addition of sphingolipid fractions suppressed the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (e.g., death receptors and caspases) in the LPS-treated cells. Mushroom polar lipids, especially sphingolipids suppress intestinal apoptosis induced by inflammatory stress, and highly polar sphingolipids may exert stronger suppressive effects.
Ayu sweetfish (Plecoglossus altivelis) is a diurnal freshwater fish that are surface swimmers and active under broad and short wavelength-dominated light. Biochemical analyses have shown that the ayu fish have abundant carotenoids including zeaxanthin in their integuments. Although zeaxanthin plays an important role in the physiological function of the retina, the amount and location of zeaxanthin in the ayu eye have not been accurately determined. In this study, circular dichroism spectral data and chiral high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that zeaxanthin was the primary carotenoid in the ayu eye, and the eye had the highest carotenoid content compared to those in the integuments, subcutaneous fat, and digestive tract. Interestingly, zeaxanthin in the ayu eyeball was expressed in the photoreceptor layer and near the retinal pigmented epithelium. In vitro assays showed that zeaxanthin could protect photoreceptors and retinal pigmented epithelial cell lines against the oxidative stress induced by exposure to L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine/glutamate. These findings indicate that zeaxanthin plays protective roles against oxidative stress in the vision of wild ayu.
We compared the cytotoxic effects and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production induced by 13 trans-octadecenoic acid positional isomers (trans-4-C18:1 to trans-16-C18:1) in RAW264.7 cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the cytotoxic effects among the 13 trans-C18:1 positional isomers and control on RAW264.7 cells. TNF-α production significantly decreased by treatment of trans-4-C18:1 as compared to control, but no significant differences in TNF-α production were observed among other trans-C18:1 positional isomers and control. These results suggest that the double bond position in trans-C18:1 may affect TNF-α production in cells.