In this study, we report the successful preparation of reduced graphene oxide modified zinc oxide (rGO-ZnO) composites from cocoa shells. Synthesis of rGO-ZnO was carried out using the Hummer method and thermal reduction. The electrode material was comprehensively characterized using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy & Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the prepared composite electrodes was evaluated using various electrochemical techniques, including Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Multi Pulse Amperometry (MPA). The FTIR analysis of rGO-ZnO exhibited distinct bands corresponding to C-O at 1022 cm–1, C=C at 1600 cm–1, and Zn-O at 455 cm–1. The XRD analysis revealed characteristic peaks at 26.6º, 29.2º, 36.2º, 44.04º, 47.58º, and 64.4º, confirming the presence of key crystalline phases. SEM-EDX analysis of rGO-ZnO revealed a rough surface morphology with bright white and black regions, signifying the coexistence of ZnO and rGO with carbon, oxygen, and zinc contents of 78.98%, 17.46%, and 3.56%, respectively. The investigations involved the photoelectrochemical profiles of methylene blue organic dyes at different concentrations, ranging from 0.5 ppm to 3.0 ppm. The acquired findings offer valuable understanding into the photoelectrocatalytic effectiveness of the composite electrodes containing rGO-ZnO, suggesting their potential use in potential scenarios involving the revitalization of the environment in industrial water systems.
The objective of the present study was to increase the frying stability of refined safflower oil (RSO) by blending it with refined olive pomace oil (ROPO) during deep fat frying. For this purpose; RSO, ROPO and their blends were utilized for frying of potato sticks at 180°C for 3 consecutive days. The frying stability of the oils was monitored by analyzing them for their free fatty acids, peroxide values, total polar contents, ultraviolet spectrophotometric indices at 232 and 270 nm, fatty acid profiles, p-anisidine values, α-tocopherol contents and photometric color indices. 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and glycidyl ester (GE) levels of oils before and after frying were measured as well. The results have shown that thermooxidative degradation products increased as the frying progressed for all oils, however the decomposition rate was found to slow down in blend oils by stabilizing with ROPO. Blending RSO with ROPO decreased linoleic and linolenic; but increased the oleic and palmitic acid percentages of the blends. C18:2/C16:0 ratio was found to decrease by frying for RSO and the blend oils, however ROPO was not affected significantly. 3-MCPD-E levels of the blends increased as the ratio of ROPO increased. Principal component analysis enabled a clear discrimination between oils with different composition throughout the frying process.
Essential oil (EO) is widely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agriculture, and food industries because of its aromatic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties. However, the weak interactions caused by small contact area with various substrates pose significant challenges to experimental detection and molecular simulation. In this study, the main components and contents of compound essential oil (CEO) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. As a result, 11 components were screened out from CEO and their contents were measured. And synthetic essential oil (SEO) was deployed as a simplified CEO model for subsequent research according to the above result. In addition, a porous cyclodextrin metal-organic framework (CD-MOF) was used to load SEO, and the detailed process of experimental determination and molecular simulation prediction of the content of volatile oil components in CD-MOF was shown. The results of experiments and molecular simulations have consistently proved that CD-MOF had a selective absorption effect on SEO components. Furthermore, the interaction mechanism and release characteristics of these components in CD-MOF were investigated. The results of the release kinetics analysis provided references for the identification of the diffusion type of each component. In conclusion, the strategies established in this article provide ideas for the experimental detection and molecular simulation of multi-component competitive existence in carriers under weak interactions.
Nervonic acid (NA) is a very-long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid with great application values. It plays a vital role in the development of brain nervous system and the treatment of neurological diseases, so it has attracted much attention from all walks of life. Although NA has a wide range of sources, its current acquisition methods are still mainly relied on chemical synthesis and plant extraction, which are challenging to meet the market and green industry demands, limiting its development and application. In recent years, with the rapid development of synthetic biology technology, NA biosynthesis has become an alternative production strategy. In this study, we summarize the physicochemical properties, pharmacological activities, resources, biosynthetic pathways and heterologous biosynthesis of NA, and discuss the challenges and prospects of NA biosynthesis. The application prospects of cell-free systems and retrobiosynthesis in NA synthesis were also reviewed.
Hemp seed, the dried fruit of Cannabis sativa L. (Moraceae), has been extensively documented as a folk source of food due to its nutritional and functional value. This study evaluated the antidepressant effect of hemp seed oil (HSO) during its estrogen-like effect in Perimenopausal depression (PMD) rats induced by ovariectomy combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress (OVX-CUMS). Female SD rats (SPF, 10 weeks, sham operated group, ovariectomy (OVX) model group, ovariectomy - chronic unpredictable mild stress (OVX-CUMS) group, HSO + OVX-CUMS group, fluoxetine (FLU) + OVX-CUMS group, n=8) were subjected to treatment with HSO (4.32 g/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) for 28 days (20 mL/kg by ig). Sucrose preference test (SPT), forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression, estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), cortisol (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels are measured to evaluate the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The results showed that OVX-CUMS significantly decrease sucrose preference rate in SPT, increase immobility time in FST and OFT, and decrease movement distance and stand-up times in OFT. HSO treatment significantly improves depression-like behaviors, upregulates the expression of ERα and ERβ, improves HPO axis function by increasing E2 levels and decreasing FSH and LH levels, reverses HPA axis hyperactivation by decreasing CORT, ACTH, and CRH levels, and upregulates NE, 5-HT, and 5HIAA levels in model rats. The findings suggested that HSO could improve depression-like behavior in OVX-CUMS rats by regulating HPO/HPA axis function and neurotransmitter disturbance.
Selenium-enriched polysaccharides from Pyracantha fortuneana (SePFP) has many beneficial physiological activities, but how it improves the aging associated abnormal lipid metabolism is still unclear. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms of the regulatory role of SePFP on liver lipid accumulation in aging mice. Methods: 60 naturally aged C57BL/6J male mice were divided into 6 groups: adult group, aging group (21-month-old mice), aging mice treated with low-, medium- and high-doses of SePFP (SePFP-L, SePFP-M, SePFP-H), and aging mice treated with resveratrol (RSV). SePFP and RSV were administrated daily via oral gavage from 16 to 21 months old. The parameters of energy metabolism were measured in all mice before sacrifice, and liver tissues were collected to determine the levels of metabolism-related enzymes by real-time PCR and Western blot. Results: We found that SePFP significantly reduced the body weight, liver to bodyweight ratio, and white fat to body weight ratio in aging mice. SePFP also down-regulated the triglycerides and cholesterol levels in liver and serum, and decreased respiratory quotient in aging mice. The mechanism of SePFP regulating lipid metabolism was mainly through promoting fatty acid transportation to mitochondria and enhancing mitochondrial β-oxidation and ketone body production. Conclusion: SePFP attenuates liver lipid deposition in aging mice by enhancing hepatic mitochondrial β-oxidation.
In this work, the adsorption dynamics of mixed aqueous solutions of tetraethyleneglycol monoocthyl ether (C8E4) – dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) were studied using sessile bubble surface tensiometry. When C8E4 was added to the DTAB solution, the dynamic surface tension exhibited a unique oscillation decay pattern. In contrast, the addition of DTAB to the C8E4 solution resulted in a simple monotonic decay of the surface tension. The same trend was observed for mixtures of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) and DTAB. The occurrence of two distinguishable dynamic surface tension behaviors showed reasonable similarity with the theory of the adsorption kinetics of polymer solutions, where the surface tension oscillation was caused by the delayed desorption of polymers due to the conformational change at the solution surface. We compared the dynamic surface tension of binary surfactant systems and the polymer solution theory, and discussed the origin of surface tension oscillations based on the difference in the surface activity of the surfactants.
In this study, we analyzed the properties of amphiphilic alkyldi(methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MePEG)350-lactate) phosphates based on ethyl lactate, the monomethyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol)350, and alkyldichloro phosphates. Interestingly, these triesters combine two biodegradable bonds, –P(O)-O-C and –C(O)-O-C-, and include hydrophilic (MePEG350-lactate) and hydrophobic (R-aliphatic chain of alcohols) moieties. The properties of these esters resemble those of phospholipids. After being placed in an aqueous solution, they self-assembled. We also determined the effects of ester composition on micelle formation, stability, and size using dynamic light scattering. Solubilization tests using Sudan III or doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox·HCl) revealed that they could be incorporated into the hydrophobic cores of dodecyl di(MePEG350-lactate) phosphate and hexadecyl di(MePEG350-lactate) phosphate. Notably, dodecyl di(MePEG350-lactate) phosphate was stable for five days, whereas hexadecyl di(MePEG350- lactate) phosphate was stable for seven days in phosphate-buffered saline. Moreover, Dox·HCl release rates from the micelles were approximately 30–40, 70–80, and 90–100% after 1, 5, and 28 d, respectively.