To overcome the problems of incomplete flavor components from Piper nigrum extract and the Piper nigrum product easy deterioration in the storage process, microcapsules of the whole Piper nigrum were prepared by spray-drying combined with enzymatic hydrolysis. Under the best conditions for the microencapsulation obtained by the response surface methodology, which have been determined as the ratio of core and wall material (1:0.2, w/w), proportion of wall materials (starch sodium octenyl succinate : maltodextrin : xanthan gum) (1:1:0.2, w/w/w), wall material concentration (11%, w/v) and inlet air temperature (180°C), the embedding rate of the prepared Piper nigrum microcapsules reached 90.21%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and particle size distribution studies established that the Piper nigrum powder was entrapped within the microcapsules, which had intact morphology and uniform particle size distribution. Besides, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that the prepared Piper nigrum microcapsules could preserve the major of the volatile aroma components of Piper nigrum, carene, D-limonene, α-phellandrene, and (-)-β-pinene. The obtained results showed that the microcapsules might contribute to the development of preserving original flavor from Piper nigrum and have potential applications in the commodity market.
We investigated the fatty acid composition and regiospecific distribution of triacylglycerol in Juglans mandshurica Maxim. var. sachalinensis (Komatsu) Kitam and Juglans regia L. oils. Significant differences are observed in the fatty acid compositions and regiospecific distribution of triacylglycerol in both oils. In addition, we measured volatile compounds and tocopherol content in two walnut oils. In results of volatile compound analysis, vanillin is specifically detected from J. mandshurica var. sachalinensis oil, and was not detected in J. regia L. oil. Notably, γ-tocopherol content in the J. mandshurica var. sachalinensis oil was significantly higher than J. regia L. oil.
In recent years, scientists and technologists have become increasingly interested in producing modified lipids with enhanced nutritional and functional properties. The application and functional properties of fats and oil depend on the composition and structure of triacylglycerols (TAG). As a result, lipid TAG changes can be used to synthesize tailored lipids with a broader range of applications. However, no natural edible oil is available with appropriate dietary and functional properties to meet the human recommended dietary allowances (RDA). On the other hand, the arising health concern is the transfat consumption produced during the chemical modification of vegetable oil through the partial hydrogenation process. Therefore, innovative technologies are shifting toward modifying fat and oil to improve their functionality. Enzymatic interesterification (EIE) is one of the emerging and novel technology to modify the technological traits of naturally available edible oil. It helps in modifying physicochemical, functional, oxidative, and nutritional characteristics of fats and oil due to the rearrangement of the fatty acid positions in the glycerol backbone after interesterification. Enzymatic interesterification utilizes lipase as a biocatalyst with specificity and selectivity to produce desired lipids. Alternation in the molecular structure of triacylglycerol results in changes in melting/dropping point, thermal properties, crystallization behavior, solid fat content, and oxidative stability. Because of its high acyl exchange reaction efficiency, simple reaction process, flexibility, eco-friendly, and generation of fewer by-products, (EIE) is gaining more attention as a substitute lipid modification approach. This review paper discusses the uses of EIE in developing modified fat with desirable physicochemical and nutritional properties. EIE is one of the potential techniques to modify vegetable oil’s physicochemical, functional, and nutritional characteristics without producing any undesirable reaction products. EIE produces different modified lipids such as trans fat-free margarine, plastic fat, bakery, confectionery fat, therapeutic oil, infant food, cocoa butter substitute, and equivalent.
Eucalyptol is a major volatile constituent among well-known wound healing medicinal plants. The current study evaluated eucalyptol wound healing activity in the rat’s third-degree skin-burn model. The parameters, i.e., skin-healing, oxidative/antioxidant markers, pro-/anti-inflammatory markers, were evaluated after 1- and 2-weeks of treatment regimens with 5% eucalyptol ointment. Eucalyptol-loaded ointment base of 5% w/w strength was formulated using fusion method and physically evaluated for consistency, stability, and homogeneity. A 25-rats were divided randomly into intact, negative control (untreated), silver sulfadiazine (SS, positive control), 1-week, and 2-weeks treated eucalyptol groups. Using an aluminum cylinder (120°C, 10 second duration), 3rd-degree skin burns were created on the rat’s dorsum. Skin biopsies were collected at the end of the experiment for biochemical and histological investigations. Compared to the negative group; time-dependent wound size reduction and decreased edema were observed in eucalyptol-treated animals. Histopathological examinations demonstrated epidermis integrity, decreased neutrophil, and increased capillaries number in the 2-weeks and SS groups, compared to the negative and 1-week treated eucalyptol groups. Compared to the untreated animals, the 1- and 2-weeks eucalyptol treated groups’ demonstrated significantly increased antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD, p=0.002 and p=0.003, respectively) and reduced lipid peroxide (LP, p=0.005 and p=0.0006, respectively). However, a significant increment of catalase (CAT, p=0.0009) was found only in the 2-weeks of eucalyptol group at a level of 2.42 ± 0.39 ng/g compared to 1.14 ± 0.04 ng/g in the untreated animals. Also, significant reductions in the cytokines, IL-1b, IL-6, and TNF-α (p < 0.05); and increase in the pro-angiogenic marker, IL-10, were detected in the 2-weeks (p=0.001) and SS (p=0.002) treated animals compared to the negative and 1-week eucalyptol treated groups. The study concluded that eucalyptol induced significant duration-based wound healing properties attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
In this study, tigernut oil was extracted from tigernut meal by subcritical n-butane extraction with the assistance of microwave pretreatment. Effects of microwave pulse duration, particle size of tigernut meal, and subcritical extraction variables (temperature, time, solid-liquid ratio, number of extraction cycles) on extraction efficiency were examined by single-factor experiments and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) modeling. The results indicate that microwaving (560 W, 6 min) significantly increased the subcritical extraction efficiency. The variation of extraction yield could be interpreted as a nonlinear function of extraction time, temperature and liquid-solid ratio. Changing the independent variables could affect the oil extraction efficiency. The subcritical extraction of tigernut oil with a liquid-solid ratio of 3.62 kg/(kg of tigernut meal) at a temperature of 52℃ for 32 min after three extraction cycles produced the most oil, and a maximum yield (24.736%) of tigernut oil was achieved. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (4.68 UFA/SFA), low acid value (3.30 mg KOH/g oil), low peroxide value (0.28 meq.kg–1), and preponderance of oleic acid indicate a high-quality oil. To describe the extraction kinetics, a modified Brunner’s mathematical model was used. The model fit the experimental data well over the entire operating range, and the explanation coefficient exceeds 96%. Our results can be used to develop an optimized method for subcritical fluid extraction of tigernut oil and can move industry further toward implementing microwave-assisted subcritical extraction in oil processing.
Following a growing interest in the physiological effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), more cell culture experiments have begun to elucidate its mechanism of action. However, to our knowledge, no reports have used instrumental analysis, such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to study cellular uptake of PQQ. In addition, despite the propensity of PQQ to react with amino acids and other compounds, only a handful of cell culture experiments have been conducted on PQQ derivatives. In the present study, we prepared PQQ derivatives by reacting PQQ with various amino acids and used them as reference standards for optimizing the LC-MS/MS analysis conditions to detect PQQ and its derivatives. Using this method, we evaluated the uptake of PQQ into mouse 3T3-L1 cells and found that most PQQ added to the medium was taken up by the cells in its unchanged form, while some PQQ reacted with amino acids in the medium and was taken up by the cells as PQQ derivatives. These results suggest that PQQ derivatives may contribute to the physiological effects of PQQ. To further elucidate the function of PQQ, it is necessary for future studies to clarify the activity of PQQ derivatives and to evaluate the types of PQQ present in food, animal, and cell samples in more detail.