The nutritional composition and chemical properties of the Chinese highland barley bran oil were characterized in this study. The barley bran oil extracted with solvent possessed relatively high acid value and peroxide value, indicating that the oil should be further refined before using. The fatty acid composition of the oil showed that the content of unsaturated fatty acids was 80.12 g/100 g, in which the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was as high as 60.41 g/100 g. The overall triacylglycerol profile showed that the oil contained 27 TAGs including 21 regioisomers. Major TAGs included LLL (21.08 g/100 g), PLL (19.27 g/100 g), LLO (12.24 g/100 g), and LLLn (12.17 g/100 g). The total unsaponifiable matter of the oil reached up to 10.74 g/100 g oil. The total phytosterol content reached 7.90 g/100 g oil, in which β-sitosterol was the most predominant, with the content of 5.69 g/100 g oil. Other important sterols included campesterol (1.32 g/100 g oil), lanosterol (0.70 g/100 g oil) and stigmasterol (0.19 g/100 g oil).
According to CODEX, moisture and volatile matter are olive oil quality parameters and the development of a rapid screening method for the determination of moisture is of interest. We recently demonstrated for the first time that the weak near-infrared (NIR) band near 5260 cm–1 is primarily attributed to a water O-H combination band. To determine the intensity of this band, we measured the peak-to-peak (p-p) height of its first derivative and generated exponential calibration curves for p-p height versus gravimetrically determined concentrations of spiked water in olive oils that had been purged of their initial moisture contents. To further optimize this univariate calibration method, calibration curves were generated in the present study based on plotting the moisture band first derivative p-p heights for neat olive oils (that were neither purged nor spiked) versus the moisture concentrations obtained by the Karl-Fischer (KF) primary reference method. To enhance the speed of FT-NIR data collection, measurements were carried in the transmission mode using disposable glass tubes. We also developed and compared a multivariate partial least squares approach to the univariate one. All the spectra were collected in two separate laboratories using two FT-NIR spectrometers of the same brand and model and no significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between the two laboratory determinations and the KF reference values at a 95% confidence interval. High accuracies were found with the two FT-NIR instruments used, as indicated by the low root mean squared error (RMSE, %) for predicted values obtained with the univariate procedure (RMSE = 0.008% and 0.010%) and the multivariate one, which yielded an even lower value (RMSE= 0.007% for both instruments). These results suggest that, once validated, the FT-NIR approach could potentially be a rapid substitute for the KF method.
Sargassum brown seaweed is known to have many health benefits and therapeutic effects. Preliminary chemical characterization of this seaweed is important as a bioprospecting strategy for seaweed industry development. This study aimed to evaluate chemical composition differences, both water and lipid-soluble component, of Sargassum cristaefolium from four different coastal areas in Indonesia, namely Pari Island/PI, Awur Bay/AB, Ujung Genteng Beach/UGB, and Sayang Heulang Beach/SHB. Principal component analysis (PCA) on water-soluble component made samples from different origins to be clearly distinguished (variance: 80.37%). SHB and UGB samples were characterized by a high content of ash, alginate, fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs), and fucose content of FCSPs, while samples of AB and PI had a high amount of total sugar and crude fiber. PCA result on lipid-soluble components showed a different tendency that SHB and AB samples were located at close proximity and characterized by larger blade size, higher content of chlorophyll, fucoxanthin, carotenoid, PUFA, total n-3 fatty acids, total n-6 fatty acids, and also a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 (variance: 75.42%). The overview of each samples’ chemical characteristics can be valuable knowledge for further development, especially for developing functional ingredients.
We studied the structures and properties of gel samples prepared by mixtures of N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]docosanamide (APA-22) acid salt (APA-22 L-lactic acid), 1-octadecanol (C18OH), and water. The gel samples prepared at the mole ratios [APA-22 L-lactic acid]:C18OH = 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5 yielded two phases; one being the α-gel (α-form hydrated crystal) phase, incorporating a significant quantity of water between lamellar bilayers, and the other being the excess water phase. The lamellar d-spacing remained practically unaltered at these mole ratios, thus maintaining the quantity of water incorporated between the lamellar bilayers relatively constant. Starting at 30℃, the gel samples transformed into a lamellar liquid crystal phase at high temperatures (85℃) and a β-gel phase at low temperatures (5℃). Interestingly, following dilution by pure water, the viscosity of the gel samples decreased with increasing C18OH content. We expect that the viscosity change affects the performance of the gel samples as hair conditioners.
In this study, a new way to produce tofu with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei L. casei) and salt coagulant (magnesium sulfate) has been developed and optimized in order to improve the quality characteristics and the storage stability. Processing parameters (bean-water ratio, inoculation amount, magnesium sulfate concentration and pressing time) of tofu were studied. Yield, water holding capacity (WHC), texture and sensory were measured for evaluating quality characteristics of tofu. Based on the single factor and response surface methodology (RSM), the optimized conditions of tofu were determined as follows: bean-water ratio was 1:4 g/mL, fermentation time was 5 h at 37°C when the inoculation amount was 4.0%, magnesium sulfate concentration was 2.0 mol/L and pressing time was 1 h. Under the optimum conditions, the yield of the tofu was 140.45 g, the WHC was 87.25 %, the hardness was 420.36 g, and the tofu had better sensory characteristics, soft, uniform texture, as well as good flavor. The shelf life and stability of tofu during storage were also evaluated under the optimum conditions. The results showed that fermented tofu had a longer shelf life than unfermented tofu at room temperature. Compared with the “pasteurization + low temperature” group and “low temperature” group, the fermented tofu in the “microwave + low temperature” group had a longer shelf life and better-quality properties during storage. Tofu, prepared by the lactic acid bacteria fermentation and salt coagulant, would be accepted as a new type of tofu according to its quality characteristics and storage stability.
We report the synthesis of bolaamphiphilic alkenyl phosphonic acid (BPC12) through the olefin cross-metathesis reaction of vinylphosphonic acid with 1,11-dodecadiene in the presence of a Ru-carbene catalyst. BPC12 possesses two trans-P-C=C moieties and is thus readily soluble in D2O up to 3.4 g L–1, as confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Surface tension measurements revealed that BPC12 reduced the surface tension of water from 72.0 to 47.0 mN m‒1. The occupied area per molecule (A) of BPC12 (216 Å2) was ten times larger than that of dodecenyl phosphonic acid PC12 (23 Å2). Moreover, dynamic light scattering measurement of an aqueous BPC12 solution (5 mM) revealed the formation of large aggregates with an average estimated diameter of 81.8±27.0 nm.
The barrier function of the skin protects it from external stresses to which it is constantly exposed, such as dryness, ultraviolet rays, and chemicals. Lipids, in particular a type of sphingolipid known as ceramides, play a central role in the barrier function of the skin by preventing dryness. The number of ceramides in the skin is known to decrease with age, which has led to the development of a large number of anti-aging cosmetic products that contain ceramides. Recently, it has become evident that oral intake of ceramides can also improve the quality of the skin. To elucidate the effects of oral ceramide intake on skin moisture content, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel comparative study in which males and females between 20 and 60 years of age who were worried about dry skin ingested a food with acetic acid bacteria containing 0.8 mg of dihydroceramide or a placebo for 12 weeks. Concurrently, we investigated the safety of continuous ingestion of the ceramide-containing food over 12 weeks. Oral intake of ceramide over the 12 weeks significantly improved stratum corneum hydration, i.e. the moisture content of the skin, and did not result in harmful effects in any of the participants.
For the very first time, the nutritional and physicochemical properties of the oil extracted from hackberry Celtis australis fruit were investigated with the aim of possible applications of such wild fruit oil. The physicochemical properties such as peroxide value, acidity, saponification, iodine value and total fat content of the extracted oil were examined extensively. The obtained results showed that peroxide value, acidity, saponification, iodine value and total fat content of the extracted oil were found to be 4.9 meq O2/kg fat, 0.9 mg KOH/g fat, 193.6 mg KOH/g fat, 141.52 mg I2/g fat and ~5%, respectively. The predominant fatty acid found in this wild fruit is linoleic acid which was calculated to be 73.38%±1.24. In addition, gamma-tocopherol (87%) and β-sitosterol (81.2±1.08)% were the major tocopherol and sterol compositions found in Celtis australis seed oil. Moreover, equivalent carbon number (ECN) analysis has indicated that the three linoleic acids are the main composition of the tridgrycerids extracted from Celtis australis. Also, the high value of omega 6 and β-sitosterol make this oil applicable in cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications.
Photoaged skin is characterized by the appearance of pigmented spots such as solar lentigos, deep wrinkles and sags, and progresses due to chronic sun exposure. Among the wavelengths of sunlight, UVA is responsible for the appearance of wrinkles and sags that originate from structural alterations in the dermis of photoaged skin such as the depletion of collagen fibers. Thus, improving and restoring collagen fibers is an effective approach to reduce skin photoaging and maintain a youthful appearance. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of an extract of Ocimum basilicum (OC), which contains rosmarinic acid (RA), as an anti-photoaging material focusing on the capacity to restore collagen fibers that are disrupted due to intracellular oxidative stress. In spite of their relatively low capacities for chemical scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both OC and RA showed efficient removal of biological oxidative stress by reducing levels of intracellular ROS and carbonylated proteins (CPs) in fibroblasts following exposure to single or repetitive UVA irradiations. Fibroblasts irradiated with repetitive UVA as a model for chronic sunexposed cells showed significant increases in matrix metalloproteinase-1 and decreases in type I collagen synthesis and formed reduced numbers of collagen fibers. Since both OC and RA restored the adverse phenomena caused by repetitive UVA irradiation, we conclude that OC containing RA is an effective antiphotoaging material.
This paper presents the results of a kinetic study performed between ninhydrin and a Ni(II) dipeptide complex under various conditions. The rate of formation of the imine adduct was measured spectrophotometrically both in plain aqueous media and in aqueous micellar media in which CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) is used as the surfactant. These studies were carried out at pH 5 and over a temperature a range of 50 to 70℃. Studies were also conducted to elucidate the effect of some organic sodium salts on the rate of this reaction. In these studies, it was found that the formation of imine adduct followed a first-order kinetics with respect to [Ni(II)-Gly-Leu]+ in both aqueous and micellar medium. A fractional-order kinetics was observed with respect to ninhydrin, again in both aqueous and micellar media. Increase in the total concentration of CTAB from 0 to 40×10−3 mol·dm−3 resulted in approximately two folds increase in the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kψ). The rate constant (kΨ) in micellar medium first increased with increase in CTAB concentration, reached a maximum value, and finally, with further increase in CTAB concentration, a decreasing effect was observed. Quantitative kinetic analysis of kψ−[CTAB] data was performed on the basis of the pseudo-phase model of the micelles. The rate profile in presence of CTAB suggests a cooperative effect in the enhanced formation of the imine adduct as is commonly found in enzyme catalyzed reactions. Addition of organic sodium salts (such as benzoate, salicylate and tosylate) enhanced the rate at lower concentrations but rates start to decrease at higher concentrations. This suggests that tightly binding organic counter-anions were the most effective. Viscosity of the reaction media seems to affect the kinetic behavior in micellar media.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) a native to Southern Europe, Mediterranean region and Western Asia has been used as a spice all over the world to increase the sensory quality to the food. It is also known for its medicinal properties such as anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic and immunological activities and can also be used as a food stabilizer and emulsifying agent. The ash, protein, moisture and fiber content of defatted fenugreek seed powder obtained were 9%, 23.04%, 3.8%, 25.47% respectively. So, this study is systematically intended to determine the fatty acid composition, to be best among the different solvents used are the ethanol, petroleum ether, acetone and hexane for the extraction of the fenugreek seed oil and to analyze its susceptibility to oxidation. This study was carried out to investigate and examine the results such as acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value and the physical properties such as the color value and the refractive index of the seed oil. The results stipulate that the oil extracted using the solvent hexane had better quality and yield. Linoleic acid (41.97%) followed by alpha-linolenic acid (29.33%) and cis-9 oleic acid (12.95%) was found as the primary fatty acids present in the oil extracted using hexane. Along with these fatty acids, the PUFA content of hexane oil (71.30%) was also observed to be in a good range. So, on comparing these results with codex standards, it revealed that it can be considered as edible oil with further purifications.
Degradation of the peanut cell wall is a critical step in the aqueous enzymatic extraction process to extract proteins and oil bodies. Viscozyme® L, a compound cell wall degrading enzyme, has been applied as an alternative to protease in the process of aqueous enzymatic extraction, but the mechanism of cell wall enzymolysis remains unclear. The present study aims to investigate the changes in cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin content of the peanut cell wall hydrolyzed by Viscozyme® L. The degree to which the main components of the peanut cell wall, such as trans-1, 2-cyclohexanediamine-N,N,N',N'-acetic acid-soluble pectin (CDTA-soluble pectin), Na2CO3-soluble pectin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, are degraded is closely related to the extraction of oil bodies and peanut protein at different solid-liquid ratio of powered peanut seed in distilled water, enzyme concentration, enzyme hydrolysis temperature, and enzyme hydrolysis time. The key sites of Viscozyme® L activity on cell wall polysaccharides were explored by comparing the changes in chemical bonds under different extraction conditions using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) absorption bands and principal component analysis (PCA). Viscozyme® L acted on the C-O stretching, C-C stretching, and CH2 symmetrical bending of cellulose, the C-O stretching and O-C-O asymmetrical bending of hemicellulose, and the C-O stretching and C-C stretching of pectin.
In this study, bioactive lipid components such as fatty acid composition, tocopherol and total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of few wild plant seed extracts were determined. The oil contents of seed samples changed between 3.75 g/100 g (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop) and 17.94 g/100 g (Pimpinella saxifrage L.). While oleic acid contents of seed oils change between 10.4% (Trifolium repens) and 29.5% (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop), linoleic acid contents of oil samples varied from 16.3% (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop) and 64.2% (Trifolium repens) (p < 0.05). While α-tocopherol contents of oil samples change between 2.112 (Pimpinella saxifrage L.) and 228.279 mg/100 g (Trifolium pratense), ɣ-tocopherol contents ranged from 0.466 (Phleum pratense) to 67.128 mg/100 g (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop). Also, α-tocotrienol contents of Onobrychis viciifolia Scop and Phleum pratense were 30.815 and 23.787 mg/100 g, respectively. Results showed some differences in total phenol contents and antioxidant activity values of extracts depending on plant species. The present study indicates that this seed oils are rich in fatty acid and tocopherol.
Coacervates formed by cationic polyelectrolytes and anionic surfactants are utilized to improve the user’s tactile perception of shampooing hair during washing and after drying. In this study, we investigated the formation and structure of coacervates in aqueous systems containing anionic amino acid surfactants. The phase behaviors at constant temperature were investigated in aqueous systems combining cationic polyelectrolyte JR-400 with potassium cocoyl glutamate (CoGluK) or potassium cocoyl glycinate (CoGlyK) for a qualitative depiction of coacervate formation. The composition range of coacervate formation varied with the hydrophilic group of the surfactant. The surface tension was measured at different surfactant concentrations and constant polyelectrolyte concentration. The surface tension behavior revealed the critical association concentrations and critical micelle concentrations, indicating that coacervate was produced via complex formation through electrostatic interaction between opposite charges. Optical microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements revealed that the coacervates were composed of fibrous aggregates, a few microns thick, and those formed in the CoGlyK system had thicker fibers.
Mono-(5Z)-, -(9Z)-, and -(13Z)-lycopenes are found in food containing processed tomato products, while tetra-Z-(7Z, 9Z, 7′Z, 9′Z)-lycopene (prolycopene) is found in tangerine-strain tomatoes. We prepared pure mono-Z-lycopenes from all-E-lycopene via chemical reaction (heating in CH2Cl2 at 80℃ for 1 h) followed by purification using preparative silica gel HPLC, while prolycopene was isolated from tangerine tomatoes by partitioning with n-hexane and 90% MeOH followed by silica gel column chromatography. A simple method of distinguishing the mono-Z-lycopenes using the 13C NMR chemical shifts of their Z-methyl carbons is proposed. Additionally, the 1O2 quenching and 3T3-L1 cell differentiation activities of the compounds were then compared with all-E-lycopene for the first time. All the evaluated Z-isomers showed 1O2 quenching activities that were equal to or slightly lower than that of all-E-lycopene, with the IC50 values for the 1O2 quenching activities of (all-E)-, (5Z)-, (9Z)-, (13Z)-, and (7Z, 9Z, 7′Z, 9′Z)-lycopene being 4.4±0.36, 4.0±1.44, 5.3±1.08, 6.9±1.67, and 8.7±0.34 µM, respectively. The mouse 3T3-L1 cell differentiation activities followed the order: (all-E) > (9Z) > (5Z) ≈ (9Z) ≈ (13Z) ≈ (7Z, 9Z, 7′Z, 9′Z).
Effects of comminution on peanut particle size and yield of peanut oil and protein were analyzed. Additionally, the emulsion properties (surface protein concentration, particle size, and ξ-potential) were compared. Moreover, different demulsification methods were used to investigate the emulsion stability. Results showed that the yield of peanut oil and protein was highest (87.23% and 82.05%, respectively) after dry comminution for 72 s. Upon wet comminution for 120 s, the yields of peanut oil and protein were 89.91% and 84.70%, respectively, which were both significantly higher than that obtained after dry comminution (p < 0.05). The surface protein concentration and ξ-potential of emulsion made by dry comminution (DCE) were 7.02 mg/m2 and 12.08 mV, respectively, and those of emulsion made by wet comminution (WCE) were 10.71 mg/m2 and 15.25 mV, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of DCE (p < 0.05). The volume average particle size of DCE was 3.41 µm, which was significantly higher than that of WCE (3.18 µm, p < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicated that WCE was more stable than DCE. Further, the demulsification rate of DCE was significantly higher than that of WCE when treated by freeze-thawing, pH, Papain, and Phospholipase A2 (p < 0.05). Demulsification effect of Alcalase 2.4L was the best among these five demulsification methods treated, and the demulsification rate of DCE reached 92.77%, which was slightly higher than that of WCE (92.67%), further illustrating the higher stability of WCE.
The oil content and the fatty acid composition of roasted and unroasted melon seed and oils were determined. The oil contents of roasted melon seeds changed between 26.4% (Type 12) and 38.7% (Type 4). In general, oil contents of roasted melon seeds were found higher than that of unroasted seeds that could be due to the evaporation of water during roasting processes which consequently lead to increased concentrations of other seed components including oils. Saturated fatty acid contents of unroasted melon seed samples change between 13.5% (Type 6) and 17.1% (Type 20). In addition, polyunsaturated fatty acids of unroasted melon seed oils ranged from 51.9% (Type 13) to 70.2% (Type 6). Palmitic acid contents of roasted seed oils varied between 7.8% (Type 5) and 15.1% (Type 17). In addition, the oleic acid contents ranged from 15.4% (Type 10) to 37.7% (Type17). Also, linoleic acid contents were found between 34.7% (Type 17) and 70.3% (Type 6). Saturated fatty acid contents of roasted melon seed oils ranged from 13.5% (Type 6) to 16.7% (Type 13). The major tocopherols in both roasted and unroasted melon seed oils were α-tocopherol, ɣ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherols. Melon seed oils are rich in linoleic, oleic acids and ɣ-tocopherol.