Olive growing in Palestine plays an important role at social and economic levels. Nevertheless, the quality of olive oil produced in the country has not been fully addressed. This study examined oil content, peroxide values, acid values, fatty acid profile, and total phenolic content for old olive trees located in different climatic regions in Palestine during the years 2008-2010. Oil content was determined using both Soxhlet and Abencor systems. Acid and peroxide values were determined using standard methods. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-spectrophotometric method. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the main fatty acids found in olive oil e.g., palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic. Different ratios indicating olive oil quality were also determined e.g., sum ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to the sum of saturated fatty acids; ratio between the sum of monounsaturated fatty acids to the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio between the oleic to linoleic fatty acids. Significant differences were found between geographic regions for the overall studied oil parameters. Wide variation ranges were obtained for fatty acids in the different West Bank locations in the three years. The major fatty acids in the olive oil samples were found to be oleic, palmitic, stearic, linoleic, and palmitoleic acids. The oil samples were found to contain more oleic acid and less linoleic and linolenic acids that is, more monounsaturated than polyunsaturated fatty acids. Total phenolic content was found to range from 125.0-978.0, 207.4-763.8, and 103.0-747.6 mg/kg in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. The acidity percentage was in the range of 0.10%-1.05%, 0.11%-1.29%, and 0.10%-1.91% in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Peroxide values ranged from 2.26-13.1, 2.94-14.95, and 2.49-17.21 in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively.
Physicochemical properties and chemical composition of Chinese perilla seed oil has been characterized in this study. The result showed that both the cold press oil and the solvent extracted oil possessed low acid value and peroxide value. The fatty acid composition result showed that the oil has high content of linolenic acid (C18:3) up to 66.4 g/100 g, followed by linoleic acid (C18:2) of 15.3 g/100 g. The total triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles results showed that the oil contained 20 TAGs including 17 regioisomers, including LnLnLn (35.8 g/100 g), LLnLn (20.2 g/100 g), LLLn (17.7 g/100 g) and PLnLn (14.9 g/100 g) (Ln, linolenic acid; L, linoleic acid; P, palmitic acid). With content of only 0.57 g/100 g oil, the unsaponifiable matters were mainly composed of phytosterols, squalene, tocopherol, alcohols and hydrocarbons. The total phytosterols content was 0.39 g/100 g oil, in which β-sitosterol has high content of 0.31 g/100 g oil.
In this study, we synthesize hydrophilic amine-based protic ionic liquids (PILs) with hydroxy groups in a cation and different anions. Subsequently, we evaluate the kinetic friction coefficients of iron oxide in aqueous solutions of the PILs under different sliding conditions. Ditriethanolamine malate, triethanolamine lactate, triethanolamine methoxyacetate, and triethanolamine acetate are used as PIL samples in this study. Among them, ditriethanolamine malate exhibits the lowest kinetic friction coefficient. As the number of sliding cycles increases, the excellent lubrication capability remains. Subsequently, we characterize the adsorption of the PILs on an iron oxide surface to investigate the lubrication behavior on the basis of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and force curve data. We expect hydrophilic PILs to be excellent water-soluble lubricants and additives for use in metal surface treatments.
Reducing the quantity of wax in lipstick can improve the properties of the lipstick, including the glossiness, moisturizing capability, and longevity. However, lipsticks with less wax tend to break more easily. Therefore, to prevent breakage while reducing the wax content, we focused on the crystal structure of the wax gel and strain generated during the cooling and solidification processes as they are structural factors that affect fragility. Generally, if the crystals and strain are small, the structure is less easily broken. However, because the tip of the lipstick cools more rapidly from below than the root, the strain of the root against the tip increases owing to poor heat transmission. This creates large shrink holes in the root. While reheating from above can suppress the generation of shrink holes, it also causes the crystals to grow larger and the structure to become weak owing to slow cooling. Therefore, we adopted a rubber-molding technology generally used to form logos and complicated shapes as a strategy to mitigate these issues. This successfully reduced the strain generated inside the lipstick during the cooling process, as the rubber mold shrunk along with the lipstick, making it possible to quench the root. Therefore, we were able to realize a small crystal structure and low strain on the root of the lipstick. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to realize a lipstick with excellent features by reducing the quantity of wax.
Laggera pterodonta, known in China as ‘Choulingdan’ for its stimulous odor, has long been used as traditional herbal medicine. The essential oil of L. pterodonta, which exhibits various pharmacological activities, is a rich resource of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. To date, however, the terpene synthases responsible for their production remain unknown. In present study, a new terpene synthase gene (LpNES1) was identified from L. pterodonta, transcript level of which was significantly upregulated in response to methyl jasmonate treatment. Recombinant LpNES1 could synthesize (E)-nerolidol and minor β-farnesene from farnesyl diphosphate and linalool from geranyl diphosphate in vitro. Whereas, only sesquiterpenes including (E)-nerolidol and minor β-farnesene were released when LpNES1 was reconstituted in yeast, even coexpressed with a geranyl diphosphate synthase (ERG20WW). Combined with subcellular localization experiment, the result indicated that the cytosol-targeted LpNES1 was responsible for (E)-nerolidol biosynthesis exclusively in L. pterodonta. Additionally, the expression level of LpNES1 gene was more prominent in floral buds than that in other tissues. LpNES1 characterized in present study not only lays the molecular foundation for sesquiterpene biosynthesis of L. pterodonta, but provides a key element for further biosynthesis of bioactive compound in microbes.
Women are more resistant than men to the development of vascular diseases. However, menopause is a factor leading to deterioration of female vascular integrity, and it is reported that the risk of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm is increased in postmenopausal women. Although it is suggested that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is deeply involved in the increased risk of vascular disease development, the effect of menopause on PVAT integrity is unknown. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of menopause on PVAT in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. PVAT was divided into 4 regions based on characteristics. Hypertrophy and increased inflammation of adipocytes in the PVAT were observed in the OVX group, but the effects of OVX were different for each region. OVX induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 which degrade extracellular matrix such as elastin and collagen fibers in PVAT. Degeneration of the arterial fibers of the thoracic and abdominal aorta were observed in the OVX group. These results indicate that OVX can cause dysfunction of PVAT which can cause degradation of arterial fibers. Appropriate management of PVAT may play an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases originating from ovarian hypofunction.
Water-glycerol as one promising alternative for mineral oil can be applied as a green lubricant but has poor lubricity and strong corrosivity. It is desirable to design multifunctional water soluble lubricant additives. Protic ionic liquids (PILs) show considerable potential due to their facile preparation and environmental friendliness. Herein, an eco-friendly PIL ([osar][mea]) was facilely prepared from an amino acid derivate and investigated its anticorrosion and lubrication performances in the glycerol solution. Furthermore, the wear traces were measured using SEM/EDS and XPS for exploring the lubrication mechanism. The prepared PIL can rapidly increase the corrosion inhibition ability of water-glycerol as its concentration increases over CMC, and the anion playing a key role in the light of DFT calculations. Furthermore, [osar][mea] can greatly enhance the lubrication capability especially of water-glycerol while its concentration in the glycerol solution exceed 3%. The lubricity reduced with the increasing load. By the means of using SEM/EDS and XPS evaluation of the wear traces, we can speculate the possible lubrication mechanism may be the presence of the [osar][mea] adsorption film and the tribofilm containing complex nitrogen compounds.
Rice bran is a by-product of the rice milling process, which refers to the processing of brown rice into polished rice. It contains a considerable amount of functional bioactive compounds. However, the utilization of these compounds is limited and calls for an effort to ferment rice bran. One of the methods that can significantly increase the added value of rice bran as well as its bioactivity is the solid-state fermentation. It can also be one of the strategies that help in the production of rice bran as a functional ingredient with higher bioactivity for health promotion.
Oil contents of seeds changed between 15.89 g/100 g (purslane) and 38.97 g/100 g (black radish). Palmitic acid contents of oil samples were found between 2.2 g/100 g (turnip) and 15.0 g/100 g (purslane). While oleic acid contents of oil samples change between 12.1% (turnip) and 69.8% (purple carrot), linoleic acid contents of oils were determined between 8.9% (black radish) and 57.0% (onion). The highest linolenic acid was found in purslane oil (26.7%). While α-tocopherol contents of oil samples range from 2.01 mg/kg (purple carrot) to 903.01 mg/kg (onion), γ-tocopherol contents of vegetable seed oils changed between 1.14 mg/kg (curly lettuce) and 557.22 mg/kg (purslane). While campesterin contents of seed oils change between 203.2 mg/kg (purple carrot) and 2808.5 mg/kg (cabbage Yalova), stosterin contents of oil samples varied from 981.5 (curly lettuce) to 4843.3 mg/kg (purslane). The highest brassicasterin and δ5-avenasterin were found in red cabbage oil (894.5 mg/kg) and purslane seed oils (971.3 mg/kg), respectively. Total sterol contents of seed oils changed between 2960.4 mg/kg (purple carrot) and 9185.1 mg/kg (purslane). According to the results, vegetable seeds have different bioactive compound such as fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol.