The butane extraction products from newly harvested soybeans have a good quality. The conclusions drawn from comparative data on butane and hexane extractions of newly harvested soybeans are briefly summarized as follows. 1. Butane extraction oil is light-colored and has low acid value and lecithin content. The refined, bleached and deodorized oil has a good stability showing little reversion tendency of the color and flavor. The fatty acid composition of butane extraction oil is practically same with that of hexane extraction oil, indicating that neither extraction solvent nor extraction temperature affects the fatty acid composition of oil. 2. Lecithin from the butane extraction oil is light-colored. 3. Butane extraction meal contains soluble proteins in a proportion of about 9093% of the total proteins. Manufacturing Tofu (bean-curds) from butane extraction meal, they are obtained in a high yield and have a high score in a laboratory panel flavor test. The extraction products from dehulled soybeans and the products obtained at a lower extraction temperature are generally superior in their quality to the products from non-dehulled soybeans and those obtained at a higher extraction temperature, respectively. The superiority of the quality of butane extraction oil to that of hexane extraction oil is attributable to the preferential extraction of neutral glycerides in addition to the low extraction temperature in the case of butane extraction.
The higher the temperature reises the more the deterioration of oil by oxidation become active, hence a proper temperature is necessary for frying. This paper reports that the deterioration of oil was more accelerated at higher frying temperature. Potato chips and wheat flour doughs were fried in corn oil containing no antioxidants or synergists. Frying has been carried out at exact temperature of 170 or 200°C to investigate deterioration and AOM stability of the fried oils by measuring color, viscosity, refractor, peroxide value, iodine value, carbonyl value and conjugated dienoic acid contents. Deterioration indicated by the above value has not changed so markedly in the frying test made at lower temperature, but a considerable change was observed at higher temperature. The degree of deterioration after 3hr's frying at 200°C corresponded closely with that of 5hr at 170°C. As a result, higher temperature in the frying had a great influence upon the deterioration of oil. Regarding the oxidation stability of fried oil under AOM condition, the fried oil at 200°C proved to be more stable than that at 170°C. A complicate relationship exists between frying and AOM test.
Volatile products of soybean oil by open air heating at 240°C were identified mainly by gas chromatography. As a result, the following substances were found in the volatile products of soybean oil; normal hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, ethylene, propylene, α-butylene, α-pentene, α-hexene, α-heptene, α-octene and two unknown octenes; methyl-cyclopentane; cyclohexane; benzene; aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, propionic aldehyde, butyric aldehyde, n-valeric aldehyde, n-capronic aldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde; and ketones such as acetone and methyl ethyl ketone.
The effect of processing and extracting soybean on the color of lecithin as the criterion of quality has been studied. Browning of soybean lecithin in the miscella desolventizing process was investigated. Considerable coloring of lecithin occurred in the miscella concentrating process followed by further browning in the stripping process. It was found to improve the color of lecithin by dehulling soybean before extraction and to increase the yield of lecithin at the elevated extraction temperature, resulting the color to be darker.
The dilatometric method proposed by Fulton et al. was followed by the author and its detailed procedure was reported in this paper. The method was recognized to be preferable to the FAC method of the AOCS on several merits of using mercury instead of water. Data of solid fat index on American margarine and shortening goods were illustrated and relations between SFI and customers' requirements were discussed. A typical change of SFI during hydrogenation of cottonseed oil was observed and it was pointed out that capillary melting points were inadequate and incomplete to review consistency. Refined beef tallow was fractionated by solvent fractional crystallization method and the fractions were combined to obtain specimens containing different combination of tri, di, mono-saturated, and tri-unsaturated glycerides. SFI and glyceride composition were compared and tri-saturated and tri-unsaturated glyceride were found to be very causative for SFI.
Several discussions have been made about the titration methods of water numbers of non-ionic surfactants, reported by Greenwald et al. Author applied the methods to some sorbitan fatty acid esters and their polyoxyethylene derivatives. Conditions of testing methods were defined as follow : 1) Mixed solvents of dioxane and benzene, containing 4 vol. % (DB-4) or 10 vol. % of benzen (DB-10) were most adequate. 2) In cases of sorbitan fatty acid derivatives, 1g of sample dissolved in 30cc of DB-4 was available. 3) Accuracy of weighing had to be kept within 1.0±0.02g. 4) Temperature of titrations at the end point was checked at 25.0°±0.3°C. Water numbers of sorbitan fatty acid esters became lower in the following order; laurate>oleate>stearate, or mono->sesqui->tri-esters. It was found that there were rectilinear relationships between water numbers of polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters and amounts of added ethyleneoxides, and their slopes were affected by mol-ratio of fatty acids to sorbitol in the sorbitan fatty acid esters used as raw materials, reaction temperature of additional polymerization of ethyleneoxide, type and amount of metallic ions from catalysts.
Antistatic effect of surfactants on poly-propylene fibres was studied by the method, measuring the electric resistance of the fibres lubricated with several typical surfactants. Alkyl-phosphates, quaternary ammonium type cationics and betain type amphoterics were superior to any other nonionics in the antistatic effect, i.e., in practical effects such as stability for change of temperature and humidity, and in the heat-setting property and others.
Detergency of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and coconut fatty acid diethanol amide mixture, the representative components of liquid hand dishwashing detergents, was tested by several formulations; using oily soil and applying three testing methods, dynamic foam test, emulsifying test and practical hand dishwashing test. Test results obtained by these three methods resembled with each other, however the result by emulsifying test had closer correlation to the result obtained by practical hand dishwashing test than that by dynamic foam test. As a result it was recognized that emulsifying effect closely related to dishwashing detergency, and that, as the proportion of fatty diethanol amide increased the detergency at 30°C increased, but at 20°C it increased at first and then decreased after reaching maximum. Some of the commercial dishwashing detergents were tested by emulsifying test and practical hand dishwashing test, which showed good coincidence.
The authors contemplated to find optimum conditions to manufacture ethylene oxide and glycol by the chlorohydrine method. It was found that high yield of ethylenechlorohydrine was obtainable in circulating type reaction column, whereby violenter agitation promotes higher yield when 20% excess of ethylene was introduced. Further investigations were made to establish direct chlorination condition with result in high yield, by using untreated gaseous chlorine generated by electrolysis of brine. When a horizontal type reactor and same type of providing nets at the bottom were employed, by using calcium hydroxide as dehydrochloric acid, optimum conditions on holding time, amount of blow-in steam and temperature at the outlet of dephlegmeter were also investigated and decided. Both catalytic and high pressure process manufacturing ethylene glycol were investigated and optimum conditions for molecular ratio of water to ethylene oxide, temperature, time, pressure and neutralization of catalyst were decided.
The unsaturated acyloin corresponding to oleoin was prepared from methyl oleate by the reductive condensation reaction with metallic sodium. Oleoin could be reduced by lithium aluminium hydride or aluminium iso-propoxide, giving unsaturated α-glycol which corresponds to sym-diheptadecenyl-ethyleneglycol. The properties of both compounds compared with saturated products were discussed.
An experiment has been made on the hydrogenation of acetylene contained in a small amount in ethylene with the copper-chromium-manganese oxide catalyst. It was proved that the catalyst has good selectivity, as follows : Hydrogenation of ethylene has scarcely occurred until almost all the acetylene contained in ethylene has been hydrogenated to ethylene. But, when ethylene contains absolutely no acetylene, hydrogenation of ethylene occurs quite easily. Optimum operation conditions are as follows : Temperature : 200°C; S.V. : 1000; Ratio of hydrogen to acetylene : 2 : 1
38 samples of margarine including 11 control ones were prepared from 3 kinds of margarine-standard margarine, the margarine with skim milk and the margarine with antioxidant-each having A formulation (containing lauric oil) and B formulation (containing soft oil) to which 10, 100, 500 and 1, 000 (ppm) of iron were added in the form of metallic soap. These samples were observed in P.O.V. and A.V. every 2 weeks and appearance every 4 weeks, for 16 weeks. Iron had drastic effects on rancidity and increased P.O.V. in proportion to the added quantity. Hydrolysis was effected little, but there could be seen a trend for acceleration of hydrolysis, as the substantial trend, in case no mould came out. Addition of skim milk showed excellent antioxidant property for margarine, and oxidation of margarine was halted completely even with samples containing 1, 000ppm of iron in the case of A formulation. With A formulation, mould came out easily and it was apt to produce strong ester odor in the presence of skim milk. But with B formulation mould hardly came out and ester odor was not produced. Hydrolysis occurred in proportion to the extent of mould, but it was halted by a strong oxidation trend. The effect of antioxidant was observed a little with A formulation, but hardly with B.