Authors investigated the determination of copper and zinc in refined soybean oils by neutron activation analysisfollowed by radiochemical purification of the resulting radioactive copper and zinc. After neutron irradiation of the oils in aTRIGA-II small reactor, copper and zinc were chemically separated Cu-salicylaldoxime precipitation method and Zn quinaldate precipitation method. The sensitivity limit of detection of this method is ×10-9 gram for copper and 10-8 gram for zinc when sample weghing 1 to 3 grams is irradiated for maximum 30 hoursin a thermal neutron flux about1011n/cm2/sec.
In order to examine the correlation between open-tube melting point and polymorphism in the raw material oils and fats, measurement were made on seven samples of palm oil, coconut oil, hardened soybean oil, beef tallow, lard (bak and abdomen), and hardened whale oil after standing at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40°C for 1, 5, 24, 120 and 480 hours. 1) The higher the standing temperature, polymorphism progressed more, approaching to the stable form, with rise in the melting point. When left at a low temperature, polymorphism did not progress and the melting point tended to be lower. 2) Fatty oils and hardened oils of high melting point showed slow polymorphism, and the modification starts from the unstable form. Consequently, the melting point tends to be lower. 3) Glycerides of high melting point, of symmetric type, exhibit fast polymorphism but those with complex composition of fatty acids or with a long molecular chain exhibit polymorphism. From this reason, transition occurred in the descending order of lard, palm oil, and beef tallow, and the difference in the melting point according to the standing temperature was greatest in the case of beef tallow. 4) Scattering of the melting point seemed to differ according to the kind of the fats and oils used as the raw material but it became smaller as the standing temperature became higher and as the time of standing longer. 5) When the SFI values are smaller, there is smaller degree of twinning of the molecules themselves and the form of the molecule tends to become straight, and the molecule becomes easier to line up when growing from the nucleus. Consequently, transition rate becomes faster and the melting point tends to be higher than those left at lower temperatures.
A series of N-acyl-amino-acids have been heretofore synthesized and used in cosmetics, washing agents and similar fields. With respect to the salts of N-acyl-β-alanines, many references are available but they reveal that the salts have no excellent surfactant properties. The authors, however, synthesized various salts of N-acyl-N-alkyl-β-alanines, for investigation of their physical and surface active properties, and found that these compounds have much more excellent surface active properties than their precursor compounds and N-acyl sarcosinates. They are new surfactants. N-acyl-N-alkyl-β-alanines and salts thereof were prepared by acylating N-alkyl-β-alanines and N-alkyl-β-alanine methyl esters in water or in an organic solvent in the presence of an organic alkali or caustic soda as a catalyst, wherein N-alkyl radical is a straight-chain or branched-chain of one to four carbon atoms with a fatty acid chloride or fatty acid, and acyl group is a saturated or unsaturated straight-chain radical of 10 to 18 carbon atoms. N-acyl-N-alkyl-β-alanine salts thus obtained were purified by recrystallization and examined for their solubility in water and for surface active properties. It was found they exhibit various excel-lent properties including foaming, wetting and resisting to hard water. Of these compounds, N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives, lauroyl and myristoyl derivatives exhibited most excellent surf ace activities in pH 67.
Sodium sulfo-propyl celluloses (Na-SPC's) have been prepared from cellulose and propane sultone. Effect of the concentration, temperature, pH, and electrolytes on the viscosity of aqueous solutions of Na-SPC's were examined. Their compatibility with heavy duty liquid detergent, anti-redeposition and soil removing characteristics were also investigated. In comparison with sodium carboxy-methyl cellulose (Na-CMC), aqueous solutions of Na-SPC's exhibited lower viscosity which was rather insensitive to the concentration, temperature, and pH. The synergistic effect of Na-SPC's in built detergents was slightly inferior to that of Na-CMC, however, their marked solubility suggested their utilizable advantage in heavy duty liquid detergents.
Tests on the biochemical and pharmacological properties of n-α-C1518 olefin sulfonates (AOS) including acute toxicities by various routes, rabbit eye irritation, primary skin irritation by patch test, skin mildness by repeated immersion test, and so forth were carried out comparing with linear alkylate sulfonates (LAS), tetrapropylbenzene sulfonates (ABS), or dodecyl sulfate (DAS). AOS showed the mildest response in all of those tests.
Methylene blue active substance (MBAS), COD, Cl- and NH3-N concentrations in the water of the Tama River were measured at 4 points along the river and 1 point at the Nogawa (the branch of the Tama River). The results show that the MBAS concentration has been increasing continuously, and the correlations are found between MBAS and Cl-, and MBAS and NH3-N concentrations. The existence ratio of linear alkylate sulfonate (LAS) to branched chain alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS) was measured using infrared spectroscopy. This ratio was found to be 15 : 85 and 20 : 80 at 2 points of the Tama River, and 25 : 75 at the Nogawa.