As factors cantrolling the transition rate of 1-monoglycerides from meta-stable to stable type, temperature and time of heat treatment, length of molecular chain, granularity of crystals, and cantamination of impurities can be cited. Therefore, relationship between the transition rate and the length of a molecular chain was examined with odd-and even-acid monoglycerides (C14, C15, C16, C17, C18). 1) In all the glycerides examined, heat treatment in the α-type region of 45°C resulted in the slowing of the transition rate with lengthening of the molecular chain, although the difference between C14 and C15 or C16 and C17 was very slight. In even-acid monoglycerides (C14, C16, C18), this relationship was in a straight line while that in odd-acid monoglycerides (C15, C17) was parallel. 2) Heat treatment of C14, C15, C16 and C17 monoglycerides in the sub-α-type region of 20°C showed that transition rate of C15 was faster than that of C14, and that of C17 was faster than C16, indicating an alternation between odd-and even-acid glycerides. 3) Heat treatment of C14 and C16 monoglycerides in the sub-α-type region and C15 and C17 mono glycerides in the α-type region of 30°C gave results similar to that obtained by heat treatment at 20°C, but the alternation became more slightly than that of 20°C. 4) These experimental results suggested that, as factor controlling the transition rate of mono glycerides, route of transition (sub-α→β and α→β) and the difference in the packing structure of the molecular chain in the meta-stable type (especially in odd-and even-acid) were also important, besides the molecular chain length.
The catalytic addition reaction of maleic anhydride to safflower fatty acids or their methyl esters was investigated. It is found that the synthetic silica-alumina composed of 70% of SiO2 and 29% of Al2O3 has high catalytic activity for the addition reaction of maleic anhydride to safflower fatty acid methyl esters and that the addition to safflower fatty acids is also easily carried out by continuously passing the mixed solution of maleic anhydride and safflower fatty acids over a catalyst having phosphoric acid deposited on the silica-alumina as a carrier. In the addition reaction by using the silica-alumina, it is observed that maleic anhydride is added mainly to octadecadienoic acids, being main component of safflower fatty acids and hardly to octadecenoic acids. Moreover, the adduct separated by column chromatography was known to be predominantly consisted of the fatty acids and maleic anhydride at a proportion of 1 : 1 and to have a cyclohexene ring structure by IR, NMR and MS spectral analysis. Then, the addition reaction was considered to be based on the Diels-Alder addition reaction of maleic anhydride to conjugated octadecadienoic acids produced with the isomerization of linoleic acid by the catalyst.
On purpose of obtaining a dyeing assistant which can be decomposed rapidly and deposit a dyestuff in waste water, sodium N- (4'-n-alkylaminosulfonylphenyl) benzylimine-3-sulfonate (3-n) [alkyl; n-butyl (3-4), n-hexyl (3-6), n-octyl (3-8), (3-10), n-dodecyl (3-12)] were prepared from sodium benzaldehyde-m-sulfonate and corresponding p-alkylaminobenzenesulfonylamides. It was proved that (3-n) decomposed easily under the acidic and neutral aqueous solutions. It is decomposed little under the alkaline conditions. (3-6), (3-8) and (3-10) were more stable than (3-4) and (3-12) for decomposition. (3-n) decreases surface tension of water to 4045dyn/cm except for (3-12). (3-8), (3-10) and (3-12) are excellent in abilities of the solubilization of dyestuff and the emulsification of liquid paraffin.
When eggs containing foods are fried several times, with same frying oil, such small foams are seen in the frying oil that are hardly vanish away after the foods have been teken out. This foaming is assumed to be due to the phosphatides in egg yolk. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of each phosphatide to the foam-forming of frying oils. Soybean phosphatides were fractionated by mainly column chromatography into phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylserine (PS) etc. Oils containing each phosphatide being heated at 160°C, a chip of potato was dipped in the oil for 30 s, and the amount and duration of forming were measured. Acid value, surface tension, viscosity, and color of the oils were mesured after measurement of the foaming of the oils was over. The results showed that there were large variations in the foam-forming properties of each phosphatide. The foam-forming properties of PC was weaker than those of PE and PS. The development of red color during heating of oils containing PE and PS was remarkable. Each phosphatide did not have an effect on such physical properties of the oils as surface tension and viscosity except the changes in color.
2- [N- (2-hydroxyethyl) amino] fatty acid and 2- [N, N-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) amino] fatty acid were prepared by a reaction of 2-bromo methyl ester of fatty acid with monoethanolamine or diethanolamine. Where fatty acids employed were decanoic lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids. The cmc, the pH-dependence of surface tension and the isoelectric point were measured. The cmc of 2- [N- (2-hydroxyethyl) amino] fatty acid was lower in the order of C10>C12>C14. On the other hand, one of 2- [N, N-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) amino] fatty acid was in the order of C10>C12>C14>C16>C18 and was presented by the formula of log cmc=0.52-0.266 N. Where N was a total carbon number. From the result of surface tension measurement against different pH, 2- [N, N-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) amino] fatty acids with C14 and C16 alkyl chain length had the most steady surface activities in all pH. All these amphoteric surfactants were found to have a wide expanded isoelectric zone and these surface ranges. tensions did not lower even in the isoelectric point probably owing to the effect of the hydroxyl group.
Oxidation of longifolene with trilead tetraoxide in a mixture of acetic anhydride and glacial acetic acid was found to afford several products; longicamphenilone , longi-β-camphenilan aldehyde , longi-α-nozigiku alcohol , longiisohomocamphenilone , longihomocamphenilone , longi-β-nozigiku alcohol , and longi-β-camphenyllyl alcohol . Their structures were assigned on the basis of their IR, NMR, and MS spectra.
Lead and cadmium in vegetable oils were determined by differential pulse polarography. The oils were dissolved into 1 : 1 (vol/vol) ethanol-benzene mixture containing 0.01M LiCl. Heavy metals added to the above solution at concentrations of ppm order showed peak currents proportional to the concentration. The peak potentials of the metal remained constant to the addition of different salts of the metals. This method is rapid and simple in sample preparation, but in some cases it is necessary to destroy the peroxides which interfere the metal peak current measurement.