Preventive effect of silicone oil(SO)on the thermal deterioration of various frying oils was tested under the conditions of simulated deep-fat frying(SDFC)and of thermal oxidation(TTHC or THOC). Under the TTHC or the THOC, the effect differed obviously among the lot of oils. On the other hand, a considerable effect on all oils was observed under the SDFC. On the minimum effective concentration, it required at least 1 ppm under the SDFC, while 0.1ppm was enough under the TTHC. Atrace of SO in the oils was measured by the graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after concentration by means of low temperature separation. As a results, it was observed that the effect of SO under the THOC was not appeared any more in the oils which contains a trace of SO as small as 0.05 or 0.07ppm.
The influence of cultural conditions, especially C/N ratio of medium, growth temperature and nitrogen source, on the amounts of lipids formed from, glucose in the mycelium of two strains(IFO 7884 and 7824) of Mortierella isabellina was investigated. It was found that the contents of lipids in the mycelium of the strains increased with increasing C/N ratio. The highest content(83.5%) of lipids was obtained at a C/N ratio of 343 at 20°C by the strain when NH4NO3 was used as a nitrogen source. The maximum accumulation of lipids, 1.68g/400ml medium, occurred at a C/N ratio of 11.4at 20°C by using (NH4)2SO4. Ammonium nitrate was the best source of nitrogen for production of lipid by these strains. In this case, the totol intracellular lipids produced was 14.0g/100g of glucose. The fatty acid compositions of neutral and polar lipid fractions fractionated from lipid extracts by silicic acid column chromatography and the lipid compositions of both fractions were determined. The influence of the cultural conditions on these compositions was also investigated.
The influence of cultural conditions, especially C/N ratio of medium, growth temperature and nitrogen source, on the amounts of sterols and squalene farmed from glucose in the mycelium of two strains of Mortierella isabellina(IFO 7884, IFO 7824) was investigated. The contents of sterols in the mycelium of the strains varied between 0.20.8% of the dry cell weight by cultural conditions. The greatest amount of sterols, 43.1mg/400ml medium, was observed in M.isabellina IFO 7884 grown at a C/N ratio of 11.4at 30°C by using urea as a nitrogen source. The greatest amount of squalene, 5.9mg/400 ml medium, was obtained at a C/N ratio of 11.4 at 3O°Cin M. isabellina IFO 7884 by using ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen source. The influence of the cultural conditions on the qualitative and quantitative compositions of sterols, was investigated. Ergosterol, ergosta-5, 7-dienol, and 24-methylenedihydrolanosterol were major sterols in the strains.
N-alkylpyridinium-3-carboxylate (3) and N-alkylpyridinium-4-carboxylate (6), where alkyl groups are n-C8H17, n-C10H21, and n-C12H25, were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by IR and NMR spectra. Krafft point (Kp), critical micelle concentration (cmc), area/molecule at air/water interface, dye solubilizatian, and catalitic activity on the reaction of octyl bromide with saturated aqueous potassium iodide were determined for (3) and (6). The Kp of (3) was much lower than that of (6), and the cmc of (3) was slightly higher than that of (6). The relation between the logarithm of cmc and the number(n) of carbon atons in the alkyl chain of (3) was as follows; log cmc=-0.50n+3.20 by surface tension at 30°C. The slope of log cmc plotted against(n) was nearly equal to that obtained for other amphoteric surfactants such as alkylthiobetaine and N-alkylbetaine. The area/molecule of (3) was quite equal to that of (6), and the solubilizing power of (3) for orange OT was slightly lower than that of (6). The catalitic efficiency of (3) and (6) were fairly good and increased with the increasing alkyl chain length.
Fate of linear alkylbenzene [14C] sulfonates (LAS-Ca, LAS-Na) were investigated in two kinds of soil under upland condition in a biometric flask and 14C-LAS-Ca showed as same fate as 14C-LAS-Na. Although there was a remarkable difference in the amount of unextractable residue between tested soils, the patterns of 14CO2 evolution were similar, reaching 3045% of the applied 14C at 60d after treatment. It was cleared that the benzene ring of LAS was inorganized in unsatured soils. Nomovements of 14C-LAS-Ca and 14C-LAS-Na in peanuts were recognized even at 30d after foliar application.
Phase behavior of water-oil systems containing mixed nonionic surfactant or commercial surfactants, such as nonylphenylpoly (oxyethylene) ether, Tween 20 has been studied. In these systems, a three-phase region consisted of a water, a surfactant and an oil phases moves toward higher temperature with the decrease in a surfactant content. Accordingly, O/W-type emulsion can be inverted by not only the rise in temperature but increasing the surfactant content. The effect of added ionic surfactant on the phase behavior of a nonionic surfactant/water/oil system has been also studied. The three-phase region moves toward higher temperature and diminishes by adding a small amount of ionic surfactant to a nonionic surfactant/water/oil system. Moreover, the solubilization of water and oil in a surfactant phase is abruptly increased.
The surface tension of aqueous solutions of mixed surfactant system was measured;sodium 3, 6, 9-trioxaicosanoate(ECL) -hexadecyl poly (oxyethylene) ether (POE), and ECL-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In the case of ECL-POE system, the surface tension was considerably changed with increasing molar fraction of ECL at a given concentration above the cmc. However, in the case of ECL-SDS system, the surface tension was nearly equal to that of ECL alone in spite of increase of molar fraction of SDS. From the surface tension values given, the compositions in the bulk phase and in the micellar phase were obtained. In the case of ECL-POE system, ECL molecules were easy to migrate from the bulk phase to the micellar phase. On the other hand, in the case of ECL-SDS system, ECL molecules were easy to migrate from the micellar phase to the bulk phase. This effect may be attributed to the presence bath of nonionic and anionic properties in ECL molecules.
For the determination of calcium stearoyl lactate (CSL) in bread, standard methyl esters of acylated lactic acids were prepared. The column and operating conditions of gas chromatographic (GC) analyses were studied and suitable GC conditions were obtained. The extraction of CSL from bread was followed by De Stefanis et al.(reference No.5) and Thewlis (reference No.6). The compositions of CSL were found to change through bread making against Thewlis's report, but the sum of acylated mono-lactates was almost unchangeable. So, it was possible to determine CSL in bread after changing it to methyl esters.
Four kinds of butyl alcohols were alkylated by dialkyl sulfates at 4045°C to prepare alkyl butyl ethers using phase transfer catalysts. Experiments were carried aut for pursuing the optimum reaction conditions in the presence of tetrabutylammonium salt, which proved to be most effective among the catalysts tested. It has been found that alkyl n-butyl and isobutyl ethers can be obtained in good yields over 93%, but alkyl s-butyl ethers in about 50% and alkyl t-butyl ethers only in less than 20%.