油化学
Online ISSN : 1884-2003
ISSN-L : 0513-398X
34 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の12件中1~12を表示しています
  • 石田 〓朗
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 241-250
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 佐々木 恒孝
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 251-256
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    これは昨年の夏の油化学セミナーで行った演示実験の講演要旨をフルペーパーに書きなおしたものである。セミナーでの演示実験はあまり例がないと思うが, それが八ケ岳山麓清里となると実験も大幅に制限される。これが何とかできたのは実験に使う道具が簡単なものばかりであったためである。器具は全部集めてもみかん箱 (~20×30×33cm) に収まる程度で, しかも約10種類, 40単位くらい実験ができる。それで今まで日本各地で7回, 今年は東京で日化の年会をはじめ中学, 高校で計5回実験を行ってきた。目的は化学人口を増やすためで, 主として高校, 中学の生徒や先生が対象である。これを油化学のセミナーで行ったのは油化学専門の諸氏に界面化学の原点に帰っていただこうというわけである。
    さてここで表面という言葉についてひとこと, われわれは物事を表面と内部に区別して考えるとき, とかく内部は見えにくく表面は見えやすいと思い勝ちであり, “内部事情” とか “表面化” とかいう。しかし果たしてそうであろうか。 “あなたの体重は?” と聞かれて答えられない人はないだろうが, “あなたの体の表面積は?” に答えられる人がいるだろうか。測定のしようもない。このように, わかったようでわからないのが表面の性質である。物の表面がいかにわかりにくいかはわれわれが通常測定する物性例えば溶液の濃度, 温度, pH, 電気伝導度, 粘度, 化学反応などの用語の前に “表面” の字を付けると, とたんに測定が難しくなることからもわかる。しかもこれらの表面物性は学問的にも工業的にも重要な特性であることは申すまでもない。このような表面の諸性質をいくつかの簡単な演示実験で示すことを試みる。
  • 長尾 昭彦, 魚住 純, 岩元 睦夫, 山崎 恵
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 257-261
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    肉の脂肪含量の測定法として近赤外線分光分析法を検討した。豚肉, 牛肉, 鶏肉の近赤外線スペクトルにおいて, 1208, 1726, 1762, 2306, 2346nmに5つの主要な脂肪の吸収ピークを, 1460, 1934nmに水の強い吸収ピークを認めた。吸光度 [log (1/reflectance)] と脂肪含量の相関性を直線回帰分析によって調べた。2つのパラメーターに関して最も高い相関関係が, 1208と1230nm, 1726と1738nmの吸光度の組み合わせで認められた。近赤外法は肉の脂肪含量を測定する方法としての高い可能性を持っていることが確かめられた。
  • 日下 兵爾, 加賀 靖, 斉木 康弘, 太田 静行
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 262-270
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The monthly change of the fatty acid composition of lipids in the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi was examined by GLC, before and after their fractionation into polar and nonpolar lipids. Lipids were extracted monthly from the edible parts and viscera of ascidian from April to March, and from the genital glands of ascidian from November to January.
    The lipid content in ascidian increased from September and decreased from January. The content in the genital glands was higher than in the edible parts and viscera.
    In ascidian lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acid (20 : 5 and 22 : 6) showed high value. The content of heptadecanoic acid was higher in lipids from the liver and genital glands than that of edible parts. The polar lipids contained much heptadecanoic acid while the neutral lipids, very little.
    The fatty acid composition of phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine, the main phospholipids, were, mainly composed of unsaturated acids, with polyunsaturated acid (20 : 5, 22 : 6) predominant.
    The compositional percentages of fatty acids somewhat fluctuated, but the variation according to season was not clear.
  • 藤谷 健, 安藤 久子
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 271-276
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Tocopherols (Tocs), dissolved in a mixture of trilaurin (Tri-La) and trilinolein (Tri-Li) in varying proportions, were oxidized with air at 180°C for a fixed period of time. The concentrations of the remaining Tocs and their dimers formed in the reaction mixture were determined by HPLC.
    The oxidative stability of Tocs decreased with increasing concentration of Tri-Li in a triglyceride mixture. When phosphatidyl choline (PC) was added to the triglyceride mixture at a concentration of 0.1%, the Tocs were stabilized remarkably even in a triglyceride mixture containing a large amount of Tri-Li. (Figs.-2, 3 and 4)
    The amounts of dimers formed from Tocs changed with the ratio of Tri-La to Tri-Li. The changes to diphenyl ether type dimers from r-and 5-Tocs was particularly great. These dimers attained maximum amounts when the proportion of Tri-Li in a triglyceride mixture was 510%. The amount of biphenyl type dimers changed little (Figs.5-, 6 and 8).
    In the presence of PC, very small amounts of the diphenyl ether type dimers were formed in relatively constant quantities during the thermal oxidation of γ-and δ-Tocs, regardless of the proportion of Tri-Li in the triglyceride mixture (Figs.-7 and 9).
  • 鈴木 裕二, 塘 久夫, 篠田 耕三
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 277-282
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The wetting phenomena of various surfactant solutions using the felt disc were studied in relation to hydrophile-lipophile (H/L) balance. In the case of the nonionic surfactants of a series of POE nonylphenyl ethers, the wetting ability of surfactants depend on HLB number, for which there was an optimum range. Since a surfactant with an HLB number in this range gave a cloud point in aqueous solution in the vicinity of the temperature of wetting test, the balance of surfactant H/L properties may be important in achieving maximum wetting ability.
    Ionic surfactants containing branched, or two long-chain alkyl goups such as Aerosol OT usually exhibit high wetting ability. In the pseudo three component system, brine/n-decan/Aerosol OT, the increase in concentration of NaC1 caused the H/L balance of Aerosol OT to shift lipophilically and the three phase region appeared at 0.640.75 wt% of NaCl. Wetting ability improved by the addition of NaCl, and the highest was attained at a certain concentration of NaCl. However, further addition caused it to decrease. Thus the wetting properties of a surfactant can be explained from the standpoint of H/L balance ; that is, the surfactant whose H/L properties are exactly balanced easily gives a three phase region containing the surfactant phase, and lowers considerably the O/W interfacial tention to attain high wetting ability.
  • 原 節子, 長谷川 誠司, 鈴木 裕史, 戸谷 洋一郎
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 283-287
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    It was reported in a previous paper that the peroxide value (POV) of a small amount of lipid can be determined by potentiometry in the JOCS tentative method for POV. The previous method was further modified in the present work to reduce the required amount of saturated potassium iodide aq. solution used for iodometry. Consequently, the time for titration was less, and the end point of titraion clearer, thus giving more reliable results.
    By the present method, it was possible to determine accurately the POV of a lipid extract from ca. 3 ml of human serum.
    Moreover, by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test for measuring peroxides indirectly, detection of peroxides in serum was possible at levels of less than 20% of the value by the present method. The present method makes possible the direct determination of a small amount of hydro-peroxide in serum lipid and thus makes it easier to understand the influence of lipid peroxidesin vivo on cancer, strokes, atheriosclerosis, the aging process etc.
  • 日下 兵爾, 滝川 光広, 坪内 寿彦, 太田 静行, 上村 俊一
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 288-293
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The fatty acid composition of lipids in the dorsal muscle of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus Keta, was examined by GLC, before and after fractionation into polar and nonpolar lipids.
    The contents of fatty acids, 16 : 0, 18 : 1, 20 : 5, and 22 : 6 in chum salmon dorsal muscle were high.
    The tendency for compositional percentage to vary with time, place and sex could not be clarified in the present experiment.
  • 日下 兵爾, 滝川 光広, 坪内 寿彦, 太田 静行
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 294-295
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The fatty acid composition of lipids in the viscera of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta was examined by GLC, before and after fractionation into polar and nonpolar lipids.
    The contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid, such as 20 : 5 and 22 : 6, were high in chum salmon viscera lipids.
    The compositional percentages of the fatty acids of lipids in the examined viscera, liver, heart, kidney, genital gland, digestive organs differed somewhat.
  • 田中 満
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 296-306
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 長倉 稔, 吉富 和彦
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 307-314
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鍵 譲
    1985 年 34 巻 4 号 p. 315
    発行日: 1985/04/20
    公開日: 2009/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
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