油化学
Online ISSN : 1884-2003
ISSN-L : 0513-398X
39 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
  • 佐野 敏郎
    1990 年 39 巻 4 号 p. 220-226
    発行日: 1990/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 高津戸 秀, 二谷 文夫
    1990 年 39 巻 4 号 p. 227-235
    発行日: 1990/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Chemical, biological and practical aspects of brassinosteroids, a new class of plant hormones, have been reviewed with 70 references. Distribution of brassinosteroids in the plant kingdom, their microanalysis by GC/MS and HPLC methods, chemical syntheses of natural brassinosteroids and unnatural derivatives, their biological activities and physiological actions, and their practical applications in agricultural fields have been discussed. Brassinosteroids have been shown to possess the following characteristics : promotion of germination and plant growth, raising of ripening, thickening promotion, recovery from stresses under various conditions (temperature, soils, diseases, salt or pesticide injury and etc.), and effects on flowering or its differentiation. It is expected that brassinosteroids will contribute agricultural production in the near future.
  • 結城 明文, 松田 孝二, 西村 彰夫
    1990 年 39 巻 4 号 p. 236-244
    発行日: 1990/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    混合植物油の結晶調整に対する脂肪酸種の異なるショ糖脂肪酸ポリエステル (SPEs) の添加効果について検討した。
    パルミチン酸SPE (P-SPE) とステアリン酸SPE (S-SPE) の添加は固体脂の結晶化速度を促進させ, ラウリン酸SPE (L-SPE) の添加は結晶化速度を遅延させた.オレイン酸SPE (O-SPE) では結晶化に対し影響を及ぼさなかった。
    結晶の形は, P-SPEとS-SPEを添加した方が無添加, L-SPE, O-SPEに比較して細かかった。
    DSCを使用した等温結晶化の検討の結果, P-SPEは, その他の場合に発生する結晶化初期の不安定結晶の発現を阻止する事が判明した。
    固体脂の結晶化挙動に対して, 添加したSPEの構成脂肪酸は大きく影響する事が認められた.
  • 松村 秀一, 前田 秀一, 吉川 貞雄, 近角 信利
    1990 年 39 巻 4 号 p. 245-249
    発行日: 1990/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    ポリ [(アクリル酸ナトリウム) -co- (2-シクロヘキセン-1-オン)] [P (SA-CHO)] の生分解性について活性汚泥より単離したP (SA-CHO) -分解菌を用いて分析を行った。P (SA-CHO) -分解菌として単離されたカビの一菌株であるTrichoderma sp.KM802はP (SA-CHO) の低分子量部分から高分子量部分まで等しく分解した。さらにKM802は数平均分子量Mn500までのアクリル酸ナトリウムオリゴマー及びシクロヘキサノンを速やかに分解した。
  • 黒崎 富裕, 古垣 久和, 松永 明, 湯沢 正幸, 万羽 昭夫
    1990 年 39 巻 4 号 p. 250-258
    発行日: 1990/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The phosphorylation of alcohol with phosphorus pentoxide in the presence of water (ROH/ H2O/P2O5 phosphorylation system) was studied. To assess the influence of water on product composition, two phosphorylation methods were used : (a) ROH-H2O-P2O5 and (b) ROH-85% phosphoric acid (PA) -P2O5. Product composition was found not to depend on the reaction temperature, but on two parameters, A= (ROH+H2O) /P2O5 and B=ROH/H2O, which represent molar ratios. When alcohol was initially phosphorylated with phosphorus pentoxide in the absence of water and then in its presence, composition differed considerably from that determined by method (a). This indicates that phosphorylation is not an equilibrium reaction.
    The reactions of ROH/H2O/P2O5 phosphorylation system were followed by potentiometric titration (Silver nitrate method) and 31P-NMR spectroscopy after the solid phosphorus pentoxide had been dissolved. PA content was almost constant. There may thus possibly be the direct phosphorylation mechanism of alcohol with PA.
  • 黒崎 富裕, 古垣 久和, 武田 基, 万羽 昭夫, 若月 淳也
    1990 年 39 巻 4 号 p. 259-266
    発行日: 1990/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    To examine the mechanism of phosphorylation of alcohol (ROH) with phosphoric acid (PA), reaction of ROH with PA under azeotropical distillation was followed by measuring the amount of distilled water and 31P-NMR spectra of the reaction mixture. The results indicated that Direct-Phosphorylation of ROH with PA occurred.
    Under reduced pressure without a solvent, PA conversion increased linearly with time (h) in the range of about 20 to 50% conversion. The slop (k) was expressed by the equation (1) [ln k=r-10.6×103× (1/T) -7.85×10-4×P+28.05].Activation energy of the reaction was estimated as 21kcal/mol based on the above equation. Under dehydration conditions, the pyrolysis of MAP (Monoalkyl-phosphate) occurred spontaneously.
    Phosphorylation with highly concentrated phosphoric acid (polyphosphoric acid) at low temperature without dehydration was studied, and ROH was found to be converted almost quantitatively to MAP without pyrolysis.
  • 岡本 隆久, 知見 憲次, 丸山 武紀, 兼松 弘, 新谷 〓, 志村 光雄, 亀井 正治, 藤田 忠雄, 神戸 保, 佐々木 清司, 水谷 ...
    1990 年 39 巻 4 号 p. 267-270
    発行日: 1990/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effects of fish oils with different degrees of hardening on the biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid were investigated using rats fed diets containing as unhardened fish oil (FO), 4 kinds of hardened fish oil (HFO), and soybean oil (SO) as the control at the 20% (wt/wt) level. Urinary excretion and concentration of L-ascorbic acid in the liver and serum were measured.
    The urinary excretion of L-ascorbic acid from the FO and HFO groups increased significantly regardless of the degree of hardening of the oil. In general, the liver and serum levels of acid increased in the FO and HFO groups with duration of the feeding period.
    From these results, it follows that the biosynthesis of L-ascorbate in rats is stimulated not only by dietary HFO but by dietary FO as well.
  • 岡本 隆久, 丸山 武紀, 兼松 弘, 新谷 〓
    1990 年 39 巻 4 号 p. 271-279
    発行日: 1990/04/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The qualitative characteristics of recent household fat spreads, whose production is rapidly increasing, were investigated by measuring various chemical and physical parameters of 8 brands of fat spread (vegetable oil type 7; milk fat blend type 1) and 7 brands of seasoning fat spread (cheese containing type 5; spice containing type 2).
    1) From data on general and nutritional components, in fat spreads, a brand of a vegetable oil type was shown to contain 39.4% lipids, meeting the international standard of “minarine”, but most types commercially available contain 70% or more lipids. Thus, the energy of household fat spreads is 1550% less than that of household margarine. Also, all brands of fat spreads except 3 were fortified retinol at the same level as household margarine.
    2) Analytical results on sterols, tocopherols and fatty acids in the fat spreads showed the vegetable oil type to be made from a high linoleic acid blend of vegetable oils only, but the spice containing type to contain animal fat, probably hardened fish oil. Also, 4 brands of fat spreads appeared to contain palm oil at low levels since trace amounts of tocotrienols were detected. Furthermore, tocopherol content in the vegetable oil type was relatively high. The content of α-tocopherol was markedly higher than that in any other type.
    3) According to the curves of hardness index, oil-off values and solid fat content (SFC) for different types of fat spreads, the vegetable oil type tended to oil off with more difficulty and showed more SFC than high linoleic soft margarine, while the hardness was almost the same. A similar tendency was observed between each of the other types of fat spreads and the common soft margarine. Thus possibly household fat spread can be manufactured by directing more attention to its forming ability, since it contains more water than margarine.
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