A method for determining phospholipid composition was developed by ten laboratories working in collaboration. Commercially available soybean lecithin and egg yolk lecithin were used. Phospholipids were separated by high performance liquid chromatography using with a stainless steel column (φ 3 mm × 150250 mm) packed with silica gel (particle size 5 μ m) and UV detector (206 nm). Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid in soybean lecithin could be clearly separated with the mobile phase of hexane/isopropyl alcohol/0.2 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2) =8/8/1 (vol/vol). Sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine were also separated from the above four major phospholipids. The detector responce of these phospholipids for lipid phosphorus content showed good linearity. Repeatability and reproducibility shown by statistical analysis of the results indicated the present method to provide highly accurate results for major phospholipids of commercial lecithin.
Samples at various steps of refining for 2 kinds of animal fats and 10 kinds of vegetable oils and fats were collected from 20 oil refineries, and was determined decrease in trace metals in the crude oils during refining process. 1) For animal fats, iron, magnesium, and zinc, respectively 2.1, 0.6 and 0.4 ppm in crude samples of beef tallow and lard, decreased markedly by deacidifying, and decreased further by bleaching and deodorizing. 2) For vegetable oils and fats, many kinds of crude contained magnesium exceeding 10 ppm, iron exceeding 2 ppm, zinc exceeding 0.5 ppm, and manganese exceeding 0.1 ppm, on the average. As in the case of animal fats, metal content decreased remarkably by deacidifying, and indicated further decrease by bleaching and deodorizing. 3) Nickel content in all animal and vegetable oils and fats showed no decrease by deacidifying, bleaching or deodorizing, owing to the markedly low levels even in the crude. This was also observed for copper content in the oils and fats except rice oil, and for manganese content in animal fats. Arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and chromium could not be detected in any samples. 4) These results suggest that trace metals including heavy metals, present in crude oil are removable not only by deacidifying and deodorizing, but also by bleaching.
The thermal oxidation of thin film (thickness 1318 μm) of trilinolenoylglycerol (TLNG) under air and under oxygen was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The weight of TLNG increased from of 20°C to 190°C and decreased from 190°C to 600°C. The relationship between a maximum weight-increased sample (Y) (mg·cm-2) and film thickness of TLNG (X) (μm) at a heating rate of 1 °C/min was found to be expressed by the following equations. Film thickness of TLNG Equations Atomospheres <30μm Y=14.4X under air 30218μm Y=4.4X+290 under air <30μm Y=15.0X under oxygen 3085μm Y=9.0X+180 under oxygen The relationship between the thickness of a layer degradated by thermal oxidation (Y') (μ m) and film thickness of TLNG (X') (μm) could be obtained from the following equations. Film thickness of TLNG Equations Atomospheres <30μm Y'=0.50X' under air 30168μm Y'=0.25X'+7 under air <30μm Y'=0.83X' under oxygen 30168μm Y'=0.14X'+21 under oxygen
Vesicle formation of poly (oxyethylene) hydrogenated castor oil derivatives was studied by polarized microscopy, freeze-fractured electron microscopy, particle size analysis, ESR spin labelling, and small angle X-ray diffraction. It comes to conclusions that poly (oxyethylene) (10) hydrogenated castor oil (HCO-10), in to which 10 moles of oxyethylene moieties of are incorporated, has liquid crystals at 560 wt % of concentration below 40°C. A multilamellar vesicle with ca. 400 nm of an average diameter of was formed at a HCO-10 concentration below 20 wt%. The properties of the HCO-10 vesicle membrane are discussed in terms of anistropy in the ESR spectra and long spacing observed by X-ray diffraction.
The temperature dependence of particle size and properties on HCO-10 vesicle dispersion were studied by particle size analysis, ESR spin labelling, 1H-NMR and NIR spectra. The dehydration of oxyethylene groups in HCO-10 was found to occur with increase in temperature (above 40°C), with consequent reduction in the hydrophilicity of HCO-10. HCO-10 membranes in MLV vesicles easily coalesced each other between partiallly dehydrated polar head, finally giving rise to a large and unstable droplets by thermal agitation.
The present study indicated the liquid phase air oxidation of technical n-paraffins (C12C14), as a raw material, using dehydrated boric acids catalyst with an effective co-catalyst to give secondary alcohols with high selectivity. This catalyst system consists of dehydrated boric acids with a highly degree of dispersion property, and ammoniac base co-catalyst. This system prevents the inhibitory effect of aromatic compounds in n-paraffins on oxidation. Present boroxine (metaboric acid ester of alcohol) retards the auto-oxidation of n-paraffins, but the ammoniac base co-catalysts lessen this effect. Thus, we have been able to employ adequate dehydrated boric acids. The authors have thus devised a highly selective oxidation method of n-paraffins to secondary alcohols. Clarification of the ammoniac base co-catalyst should be further studied for catalysis mechanisms.
The Hydration of longicyclene (1), longipinene (2), and ledene (3) with water or formic acid in the presence of several synthetic zeolites was investigated. The hydration of (1) with water-formic acid (pH=1) in the presence of 2020 AH zeolite gave longicamphene hydrate (6) and longiborneol (8) as the main products. The hydration of (2) with weter in the presence of HSZ-600 HOA zeolite and alkari ion [Al(OH)3 or Cu(OH)3] afforded predominantly longiverbenone (9). The hydration of (3) with Ni(OH)2 in the presence of several synthetic zeolites gave 3-iso-propyl-6, 10-dimethyl bicyclo [5.3.0] deca-6-en-5-one (12) with high selectivity.
Soil deposition on fibers was investigated from the standpoint of the waste water treatment. Polyethylene, poly (vinylidene chloride), poly (vinylidene fluoride), polyethylene terephthalate and nylon 6 fibers were used as soil collectors. Following immersion of the fibers in water from Sarusawa pond, water turbidity was measured. Turbidity decreased due to the deposition of soil onto the fiber surfaces. Poly (vinylidene chloride) fibers were more effective as a soil collector than any other fibers. Particle deposition from an aqueous solution was investigated using a model system consisting of spherical polyethylene or nylon particles and a polymeric plate. The plate was perpendicularly immersed in an aqueous suspension. The number of particles deposited on the plate appeared related to the polar components of surface free energies of the particle and plate. The results of particle deposition in the model system were in good agreement with those in systems using water from a pond.