油化学
Online ISSN : 1884-2003
ISSN-L : 0513-398X
41 巻 , 12 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
  • 坪根 和幸, 内田 良一, 米谷 融
    1992 年 41 巻 12 号 p. 1163-1170
    発行日: 1992/12/20
    公開日: 2010/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    リン酸基含有両性界面活性剤の抗微生物活性と構造の関係を明らかにするために, 溶血活性を調べた。その結果, リン酸水素2- (ヘキサデシルジメチルアンモニオ) エチル (I) は他の類縁体と比べて溶血活性が強いことが分かった。
    さらに, リン酸水素 (トリアルキルアンモニオ) アルキルの溶血活性-構造相関から次のことが分かった。第1 に, (1) はその同族体の中でも大きな溶血活性を持つ。 第 2 に, 極性基間のメチレン基数が 2 のとき溶血活性が最大で, それ以上のメチレン基数が増すと活性は低下する。この傾向は, 前者 (1) のリン酸基がフリーであるのに対し, 後者の場合, 分子内あるいは分子間で極性基間相互作用することに起因する。 第 3 に, リン酸水素2- (ジアルキルヘキサデシルアンモニオ) エチルの短鎖アルキル基の炭素数が増すと溶血活性が強くなった。この傾向は抗微生物活性の場合と対照的で, 溶血活性と抗微生物活性が生じるときの細胞膜上の分子識別部位が異なることを意味する。しかし, K. pneumoniae に対する抗微生物活性と溶血活性の間に有意な相関が認められ, 細胞膜への高い親和性が抗微生物活性の発現因子として重要であることが分かった。
    なお, 静菌作用を有するリン酸水素 2- [N-メチル (2-ヒドロキシテトラデシル) アミノ] エチル= ナトリウムも比較的高い溶血活性を示した。
  • 伊藤 俊洋, 無類井 建夫, 浅野 貞彦, 荒川 彰子, 牛草 寿昭, 佐熊 利江, 園 良治, 登藤 博文, 平田 芳明, 西出 勤, 山 ...
    1992 年 41 巻 12 号 p. 1171-1179
    発行日: 1992/12/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    A method for determining phospholipid composition was developed by ten laboratories working in collaboration. Commercially available soybean lecithin and egg yolk lecithin were used. Phospholipids were separated by high performance liquid chromatography using with a stainless steel column (φ 3 mm × 150250 mm) packed with silica gel (particle size 5 μ m) and UV detector (206 nm).
    Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid in soybean lecithin could be clearly separated with the mobile phase of hexane/isopropyl alcohol/0.2 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2) =8/8/1 (vol/vol).
    Sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine were also separated from the above four major phospholipids. The detector responce of these phospholipids for lipid phosphorus content showed good linearity.
    Repeatability and reproducibility shown by statistical analysis of the results indicated the present method to provide highly accurate results for major phospholipids of commercial lecithin.
  • 小日山 正剛, 兼松 弘, 新谷 〓
    1992 年 41 巻 12 号 p. 1180-1184
    発行日: 1992/12/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Samples at various steps of refining for 2 kinds of animal fats and 10 kinds of vegetable oils and fats were collected from 20 oil refineries, and was determined decrease in trace metals in the crude oils during refining process.
    1) For animal fats, iron, magnesium, and zinc, respectively 2.1, 0.6 and 0.4 ppm in crude samples of beef tallow and lard, decreased markedly by deacidifying, and decreased further by bleaching and deodorizing.
    2) For vegetable oils and fats, many kinds of crude contained magnesium exceeding 10 ppm, iron exceeding 2 ppm, zinc exceeding 0.5 ppm, and manganese exceeding 0.1 ppm, on the average. As in the case of animal fats, metal content decreased remarkably by deacidifying, and indicated further decrease by bleaching and deodorizing.
    3) Nickel content in all animal and vegetable oils and fats showed no decrease by deacidifying, bleaching or deodorizing, owing to the markedly low levels even in the crude. This was also observed for copper content in the oils and fats except rice oil, and for manganese content in animal fats. Arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and chromium could not be detected in any samples.
    4) These results suggest that trace metals including heavy metals, present in crude oil are removable not only by deacidifying and deodorizing, but also by bleaching.
  • 高岡 京, 高砂子 昌久, 小林 光一, 多留 康矩
    1992 年 41 巻 12 号 p. 1185-1190
    発行日: 1992/12/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The thermal oxidation of thin film (thickness 1318 μm) of trilinolenoylglycerol (TLNG) under air and under oxygen was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis.
    The weight of TLNG increased from of 20°C to 190°C and decreased from 190°C to 600°C.
    The relationship between a maximum weight-increased sample (Y) (mg·cm-2) and film thickness of TLNG (X) (μm) at a heating rate of 1 °C/min was found to be expressed by the following equations.
    Film thickness of TLNG Equations Atomospheres
    <30μm Y=14.4X under air
    30218μm Y=4.4X+290 under air
    <30μm Y=15.0X under oxygen
    3085μm Y=9.0X+180 under oxygen
    The relationship between the thickness of a layer degradated by thermal oxidation (Y') (μ m) and film thickness of TLNG (X') (μm) could be obtained from the following equations.
    Film thickness of TLNG Equations Atomospheres
    <30μm Y'=0.50X' under air
    30168μm Y'=0.25X'+7 under air
    <30μm Y'=0.83X' under oxygen
    30168μm Y'=0.14X'+21 under oxygen
  • 堀内 照夫, 田嶋 和夫
    1992 年 41 巻 12 号 p. 1191-1196
    発行日: 1992/12/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Vesicle formation of poly (oxyethylene) hydrogenated castor oil derivatives was studied by polarized microscopy, freeze-fractured electron microscopy, particle size analysis, ESR spin labelling, and small angle X-ray diffraction.
    It comes to conclusions that poly (oxyethylene) (10) hydrogenated castor oil (HCO-10), in to which 10 moles of oxyethylene moieties of are incorporated, has liquid crystals at 560 wt % of concentration below 40°C. A multilamellar vesicle with ca. 400 nm of an average diameter of was formed at a HCO-10 concentration below 20 wt%. The properties of the HCO-10 vesicle membrane are discussed in terms of anistropy in the ESR spectra and long spacing observed by X-ray diffraction.
  • 堀内 照夫, 田嶋 和夫
    1992 年 41 巻 12 号 p. 1197-1202
    発行日: 1992/12/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The temperature dependence of particle size and properties on HCO-10 vesicle dispersion were studied by particle size analysis, ESR spin labelling, 1H-NMR and NIR spectra.
    The dehydration of oxyethylene groups in HCO-10 was found to occur with increase in temperature (above 40°C), with consequent reduction in the hydrophilicity of HCO-10. HCO-10 membranes in MLV vesicles easily coalesced each other between partiallly dehydrated polar head, finally giving rise to a large and unstable droplets by thermal agitation.
  • 倉田 直次, 越田 和男, 土野 昌利
    1992 年 41 巻 12 号 p. 1203-1209
    発行日: 1992/12/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study indicated the liquid phase air oxidation of technical n-paraffins (C12C14), as a raw material, using dehydrated boric acids catalyst with an effective co-catalyst to give secondary alcohols with high selectivity.
    This catalyst system consists of dehydrated boric acids with a highly degree of dispersion property, and ammoniac base co-catalyst.
    This system prevents the inhibitory effect of aromatic compounds in n-paraffins on oxidation.
    Present boroxine (metaboric acid ester of alcohol) retards the auto-oxidation of n-paraffins, but the ammoniac base co-catalysts lessen this effect. Thus, we have been able to employ adequate dehydrated boric acids.
    The authors have thus devised a highly selective oxidation method of n-paraffins to secondary alcohols.
    Clarification of the ammoniac base co-catalyst should be further studied for catalysis mechanisms.
  • 野村 正人, 藤原 義人, 大坪 英二, 井上 俊夫
    1992 年 41 巻 12 号 p. 1210-1214
    発行日: 1992/12/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Hydration of longicyclene (1), longipinene (2), and ledene (3) with water or formic acid in the presence of several synthetic zeolites was investigated.
    The hydration of (1) with water-formic acid (pH=1) in the presence of 2020 AH zeolite gave longicamphene hydrate (6) and longiborneol (8) as the main products.
    The hydration of (2) with weter in the presence of HSZ-600 HOA zeolite and alkari ion [Al(OH)3 or Cu(OH)3] afforded predominantly longiverbenone (9).
    The hydration of (3) with Ni(OH)2 in the presence of several synthetic zeolites gave 3-iso-propyl-6, 10-dimethyl bicyclo [5.3.0] deca-6-en-5-one (12) with high selectivity.
  • 横川 洋子
    1992 年 41 巻 12 号 p. 1215-1219
    発行日: 1992/12/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    スイス産きのこ 10 科3 9 種の脂肪酸組成とステロール組成について測定した。脂肪酸組成は GLC, ステロール組成は HPLC を用いて分析した。また, 脂肪酸組成は同種 (同名) の日本産きのこのそれと比較検討した。
    主脂肪酸は, いずれのきのこにおいても 16 : 0 酸, 18 : 1 酸, 18 : 2 酸であり, 全体の 60% を占めていた。
    P. cyathiformis は 20 : 0 酸, 22 : 0 酸の炭素数の多いものが含まれていた。同種 (同名) の日本産きのこの脂肪酸との比較では, 16 : 0 酸の含量にはほとんど差が無かったが, 18 : 1 酸, 18 : 2 酸の含量にはかなりの差があった。主ステロールは, いずれのきのこにおいてもエルゴステロールであった。
  • 後藤 景子, 中田 由美子, 黒目 智子, 小野 登希恵, 田川 美恵子
    1992 年 41 巻 12 号 p. 1220-1224
    発行日: 1992/12/20
    公開日: 2009/10/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Soil deposition on fibers was investigated from the standpoint of the waste water treatment. Polyethylene, poly (vinylidene chloride), poly (vinylidene fluoride), polyethylene terephthalate and nylon 6 fibers were used as soil collectors. Following immersion of the fibers in water from Sarusawa pond, water turbidity was measured. Turbidity decreased due to the deposition of soil onto the fiber surfaces. Poly (vinylidene chloride) fibers were more effective as a soil collector than any other fibers.
    Particle deposition from an aqueous solution was investigated using a model system consisting of spherical polyethylene or nylon particles and a polymeric plate. The plate was perpendicularly immersed in an aqueous suspension. The number of particles deposited on the plate appeared related to the polar components of surface free energies of the particle and plate. The results of particle deposition in the model system were in good agreement with those in systems using water from a pond.
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