We evaluated clinical findings including those on dentistry and in the oral cavity of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). This study examined twenty-seven OSA children, who were advised by otolaryngologists to be admitted for closer examination and showed an apnea index (AI) of 5 or more on polysomnographs. Their clinical history was obtained from their mothers, and oral findings were also evaluated. The patient consisted of 15 males (56%) and 12 females (44%). The mean body mass index (BMI) was 16.0 ± 3.0. Of the clinical findings related to sleeping and the duration of sleeping, snoring was the most frequently observed finding (100 %). The mean duration of sleep, calculated from the time they went to bed (9.2±0.8 p.m.) and the time they got up (7.1±0.8 a.m.), was 9.9±1.0 hours. Of the clinical findings obtained during the daytime, hyponasal speech was the most frequently observed finding (74%). In terms of dentistry, oral breathing was the most frequently observed finding (89 %). The mean duration of meals was 31.7 ± 13.8 minutes. Results of oral examination revealed that Hellman's dental age was most frequently IIA. According to the standardized grading classification, grade I was observed in 7 %, II in 63 %, and grade III in 30% of subjects. (J. Oral Sci. 41, 99-103, 1999)
Purified splenic T cells from C3H/HeN mice primed with sonic extract (SE) from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were adoptively transferred to syngeneic mice with sheep red blood cell (SRBC). The transfer of splenic T cells from mice, primed with SE for 8 days, resulted in the dose-dependent inhibition of IgM anti-SRBC plaque forming cells (PFC) compared with normal and BSA-primed splenic T cells. Furthermore, the transfer of cells from mice primed with 200 pig of SE for 8 days to syngeneic mice caused the highest inhibition. Immunosuppression did not depend on the B cell population in spleen from donor mice primed with SE. Splenic T cells from SE-treated mice could suppress the T cell-dependent proliferative responses of co-cultured normal spleen cells in vitro. Analysis of T cell subsets of spleen cells from mice treated with immunosuppressive factor (ISF) showed that the suppressor cell is susceptible to treatment with antiCD8 and complement (C). SE-sensitized suppressor T cells also suppressed the secondary IgG anti-SRBC-PFC response after immunization with SRBC in vivo depending on sensitized periods induced by ISF. Treatment of T cells from mice which primed with ISF for 8 days, with goat anti-mouse CD8 antibody and C abrogated their suppressive effects, and secondary IgG response occurred. These results indicate that the adoptive transfer of SE-induced T cells, which increased suppressor function, caused the perfect blocking of the immunoresponse, allowing promotion of secondary infection. (J. Oral Sci. 41, 105-110, 1999)
Lundström et al. proposed a proportional analysis system for the soft tissue facial profile in the natural head position. To use this method for further epidemiological investigation and to interpret the characteristics of this analysis, each measurement (index) was identified in comparison to the other indices using cluster and factor analyses. Facial profiles of 111 (mean age : 22.9 years) Japanese males were measured and 11 indices (8 horizontal, 2 vertical and 1 horizontal/vertical) were calculated. Almost all internal co-relationships between each index were statistically significant (p < 0.05, 0.01). Variable cluster analysis classified indices into four major clusters and clarified the attributes of the 11 indices. The first cluster was index No. 1, 2, 3 and 7. The second cluster was index No.6. The 3rd cluster was index No. 4, 5, 11, 8 and 10. The 4th cluster was index No. 9. These clusters are thought as vertical facial balance, upper and lower jaw relation or horizontal/vertical balance, chin morphology, and horizontal facial balance. From factor analysis, three factor axes that explained the characteristics of 11 indices were found (accumulated contribution rate : 76.5 %). The heaviest loading factor was index No. 1, 2 (0.95) on axis I, 5 (0.83) on axis II and 6 (0.78) on axis III. Therefore, axis I, axis II and axis III are thought to be based on the position of the soft tissue Nasion, SLI and Pogonion, respectively. Common indices which are included in both analyses are thought to be valid as a clue to reduce the number of measurement parameters. (J. Oral Sci. 41, 111-115, 1999)
The pathogenicity of strains of the Streptococcus sanguis group, isolated from infective endcarditis, was studied by measuring the development of subcutaneous abscesses in mice after infection with S. sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus either singly or as coaggregated pairs. The pathogenicity of the co-aggregates was also examined in various viable combinations of the two bacterial species. More abscesses were formed by A. viscosus than the S. sanguis group including clinical isolates. Abscess formation by co-aggregates of combinations of each isolate and A. viscosus produced a higher percentage of abscess formation than those caused by infection with a pure suspension of A. viscosus or tested streptococci. Co-aggregated cells were more resistant to phagocytosis and killing by neutrophils in vivo. These results indicated that S. sanguis group streptococci isolated from infective endocarditis are able to co-aggregate and resist phagocytosis. The ability of co-aggregation of S. sanguis may serve as a survival mechanism in a host defense system and may be linked with virulence of this bacteria. (J. Oral Sci. 41, 117-122, 1999)
Our aim was to confirm the influence of N2O gas on mandibular-position sensation. The subjects in this study were eight healthy adults. Each subject was asked to hold the reference stick for five seconds between the central tooth in his or her upper and lower jaws. Then, the reference stick was replaced by the test sticks with different thickness, each of which the subjects were again asked to hold at the same position for five seconds. The subjects were instructed to determine, based on judgement of the interincisal distance, whether the thickness of each test stick was larger or smaller than the reference stick. A series of trials was administered to each subject using all eight sizes of test sticks. We compared the ability of the subjects to discriminate mandibular position both before and after the application of a vibrating stimulus to the masticatory muscles, and before and during the administration of N2O gas. Discrimination ability was significantly decreased after the application of the vibrating stimulus. However, during the administration of N2O gas, no significant difference in discrimination ability was observed between before and after the vibrating stimulus. The results of this study indicated that N2O gas had an inhibitory effect on T-motor neuron activity, which is presumed to be mediated to some extent through the higher central nervous system. This is the case because the T-motor neurons are generally activated by vibrating stimuli applied to the muscle causing decreased discrimination ability of mandibular position. Thus, we conclude that mandibularposition sensation was influenced by N2O gas during the administration of N2O gas. (J. Oral Sci. 41, 123-126, 1999)
Electrical burns in the oral cavity account for 2.2 % of all electrical burns and only 0.12 % of all burns; thus, the incidence of electrical burns in the oral cavity is relatively low. As this type of injury occurs in the oral cavity when an individual sucks or chews on a live electrical wire, extension cord, plug, or outlet, most cases occur in toddlers or preschool children, and adult cases are extremely rare. Here we describe a case of an electrical burn in a 56-year-old man who accidentally bit the electric wire of a cleaner while carrying out repairs. Conservative treatment, without surgery, was performed. Two years after the injury, a slight scar and a small tongue deformity remain, but no functional disturbance has been observed. (J. Oral Sci. 41, 127-128, 1999)
This paper reports a case of oral collision carcinoma consisting of salivary duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland origin and microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa in a 65-year-old Japanese man. This is an exceedingly rare example of collision carcinoma in the oral region. (J. Oral Sci. 41, 129-131, 1999)
When patients seeking treatment for malocclusion also suffer from temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, it is hard to predict the result of simultaneous treatment of both conditions, or to plan for its different goals, because of unpredictable changes in the relationship between the disk, the fossa and the condylar head. Prediction is harder in cases of presurgical TMJ hypomobility, especially those with adhesion in the upper TMJ compartment. Authors differ widely on the likely effect of orthognathic surgery on TMJ disorders. This paper reports three cases in which TMJ disorders worsened after treatment of malocclusion by sagittal split osteotomy. It examines how presurgical diagnosis of TMJ disorders could assist treatment planning in such cases. The results suggest that microbleeding in the upper TMJ compartment during orthognathic surgery, as well as long-term postoperative intermaxillary fixation, carries a risk of creating worse adhesion that adversely affects the outcome for patients. Therefore, preoperative diagnosis of disk position and pathological conditions in the upper TMJ compartment, as well as careful choice of method and term of postoperative fixation, are essential in planning the treatment of malocclusion with sagittal split osteotomy (J. Oral Sci. 41, 133-139, 1999)
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