Prevotella nigrescens ATCC 25261 (P. nigrescens) cells adhere well to hydroxyapatite treated with citrate (CHA), but the attachment is drastically inhibited by lactoferrin (LF). To determine the nature of the iron-free LF responsible for inhibiting P. nigrescens cell attachment, this study tested the duration and frequency of LF treatment of CHA and the effects of divalent and trivalent ferric ions. The inhibitory effect on the attachment of P. nigrescens was somewhat higher with bovine LF than human LF. Apo LF effectively inhibited P. nigrescens cell attachment to CHA, and almost abolished attachment at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml. Fe3+ saturated LF was unable to inhibit attachment, whereas Fe2+ showed a slight effect under the same conditions. The LF adsorbed rapidly to CHA in less than 10 min. With a lower concentration (0.1 mg/ml) of LF, only three treatments of CHA were required for the maximum inhibition of P. nigrescens cell attachment. The quantity of LF adsorbed to the hydroxyapatite (HA) and to P. nigrescens cells was determined by use of [3H] -LF. Approximately 25 μg of LF protein adsorbed to 5 mg of HA at saturation, and approximately 0.25 μg of LF did so to the 6 × 108 cells. (J. Oral Sci. 42, 125-131, 2000)
The aim of this investigation was to histologically compare the effects of new titanium membranes with those of proven expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes on alveolar ridge augmentation. The study was carried out using a canine mandible where the right and left premolar teeth were previously extracted. At the second month of healing following extraction, a total of seven similar defects were created on both sides of the mandible. Three defects received the titanium membrane, one of which was in the right side of the mandible. Two defects, one on each side, received the ePTFE membrane. The remaining two defects, both on the right side, served as control. Fixation and stabilization of the membranes were accomplished by using the Frios Augmentation System. After three months of healing, the animal was sacrificed, block sections were taken and processed for histological examination according to the cutting and grinding technique. The results revealed that the ePTFE and titanium-treated defects, and the controls, showed complete bone fill with the exception that there was a more pronounced and thicker connective tissue formation in titanium-treated sites as compared to the ePTFE treated and control sites. (J. Oral Sci. 42, 133-138, 2000)
The significance of chemical and conservative treatments of cemental tissue proximal to periodontal pockets has been pointed out in recent years. This in vitro scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study aimed to investigate the surface effects of topical applications of 0.1 % cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 2 % sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and polishing on the periodontally involved root surfaces of human teeth. Ten single-rooted teeth from 8 patients with advanced adult periodontitis were included. Following extraction, any calculus was removed with extreme care to preserve as much cementum as possible. Eighty root specimens were prepared. Fresh solutions of CPC and SLS were applied for 1, 3 and 5 minutes each to 10 segments of root cementum. A total of 20 segments formed the polished (P) and control (C) groups, respectively. The results showed that the surfaces treated with CPC or SLS differed considerably from polished and control specimens. Depending on time, the surface coating was partly or wholly removed, leaving a nodular cementum structure, uncovering a fibrillar collagen substrate and the openings of dentinal tubules. Scarce debris was present on both control and polished surfaces, whereas bacteria were observed only on the control specimens. In view of these results, further definitive in vitro and in vivo research must be done to determine the advantages of chemical treatment and its effect on periodontal regeneration. (J. Oral Sci. 42, 139-146, 2000)
We conducted a 3-year follow-up study of 2, 008 individuals for the persistence of antibody levels after vaccination with a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. At 1 month after vaccination had been completed 96.3 % of subjects had acquired protective HB surface (HBs) antibody titers on passive hemagglutination assay (PHA) of 23, and 3 years after completion of the vaccination 63.1 % had acquired similar titers. The titer decreased below this level after 3 years in 34.5 % of subjects who had initially acquired protective antibody titers. The mean acquired HBs antibody titer on PHA was 25.8 at 1 month and 23.1 at 3 years after completion of the vaccination. The regression line for these changes was expressed as logY = 1.800-0.24X by the least squares method. The antibody level was estimated to decrease to 23 at 37 months and to seronegativity at 75 months. On the basis of the relationship between PHA antibody titers and the period of their persistence, the persistence of antibody levels after vaccination with a recombinant vaccine can be estimated from the acquired antibody titer determined 1 month after completion of the vaccination, as with plasma-derived vaccines. (J. Oral Sci. 42, 147-150, 2000)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between gingival health and dental caries in elementary school children in Japan. The subjects were 474 children aged 7 to 12 years who attended dental check-ups at an elementary school. The Oral Rating Index for Children, which consists of five categories (+2, +1, 0, -1, -2), was used to rate the findings of the gingival health examination. The dental examination was performed using the WHO caries diagnostic criteria for DMFT. Children were divided into three groups : a healthier group (H-group) made up of those scoring +2 (excellent) or +1 (good), an equivocal group (E-group) made up of those scoring 0, and a gingival less-healthy group (L-group) made up of those scoring -2 (very poor) or -1 (poor). Overall percentages for the H-group, E-group and L-group were 48.3 %, 21.5 % and 30.2 %, respectively. The number in the L-group increased with increasing age. The mean scores of the DT and DMFT in the H-group were significantly lower than those in the L-group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that oral hygiene instruction should be given to children in order to motivate self-care, not only to avoid dental caries but also to prevent gingivitis. (J. Oral Sci. 42, 151-155, 2000)
The effects of the Japanese Kampo (herbal) medicine, Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, on spontaneous locomotor activity were studied in mice. Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to (60 mg, 150 mg and 300 mg/kg/day) was administered for 14 consecutive days in the drinking water and spontaneous locomotor activity was measured for 60 min by a photocell ambulometer. Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to (60 mg/kg/day) significantly increased the total activity count on the 11th day after the start of administration when compared to vehicle control, whereas failed to significantly affect the activity on the 2nd, 5th, 8th and 14th days. A similar significant increase was also found with a higher dose (150 mg/kg/day) on the 8th day after the start of administration. However, the highest dose (300 mg/kg/day) did not significantly affect locomotor activity throughout the experimental period. We have previously reported that Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, at a dose of 60 mg/kg/day, enhances escape attempts assessed by water-wheel rotations in a mouse model of despair, particularly on the 8th, 11th and 14th days after the start of chronic treatment. However, at higher doses (150 and 300 mg/kg/day), Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to decreases the escaped attempts on the 5th and 8th days after the treatment. It is therefore concluded that the previously reported changes in escape attempts of mice are not associated with the changes in their spontaneous locomotor activity. (J. Oral Sci. 42, 157-161, 2000)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by histometric analysis, re-osseointegration following treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs. Five dogs were used in this study. Their mandibular premolars (P2, P3 and P4) were first removed. After 3 additional months of healing, two titanium implants were placed on each side of the mandible. After 3 months, the abutment connection was performed and experimental peri-implantitis was induced by placing cotton ligatures in a submarginal position. Ligatures and abutments were removed after one month and the peri-implant bone defects were randomly assigned to one of the treatments : debridement, debridement plus guided-bone regeneration, debridement plus mineralized-bone graft, and debridement plus guided-bone regeneration associated with mineralized-bone graft. Five months post-treatment, the degree of bone contact with the implant surface and the bone area within the threads were measured in 12 threads, the 6 most coronal at each side of each implant. One-way analysis of variance did not reveal statistically significant differences between the treatment modalities (p > 0.05). Within the limits of the present study, it can be concluded that there is a limited possibility of reosseointegration around implant surfaces previously exposed by ligature-induced peri-implantitis. (J. Oral Sci. 42, 163-168, 2000)
In the developing chick heart, endothelial cells in the atrioventricular canal (AV) undergo a series of morphological changes and transform into cushion mesenchymal cells. In the present scanning electron microscopic study, we examined the abluminal surface features of the AV endothelium through an artificial window in the myocardial wall. The AV endothelial cell at stages 12 or earlier had a smooth, flattened basal surface with only a few blebs. In the successive stages, the abluminal surface exhibited remarkable changes; 1) the number of blebs increased, 2) elongated microvillous projections emerged, and 3) a thick filopodium, or a migratory appendage developed. It appeared, however, that these changes do not occur synchronously within the entire AV endothelium but were initially observed mostly in the proximity of the endothelial “crease” which was a limited invagination of the endothelial sheet towards the underlying acellular matrix. In addition, even in the proximity of the crease, endothelial cells with flattened basal surfaces were also observed next to endothelial cells that showed apparent morphological indications of transition into mesenchymal cells. These findings suggest that AV endothelial cells are possibly heterogeneous in the competency of transformation into mesenchymal cells and such heterogeneity would be important for maintaining the continuity of the AV endothelium. (J. Oral Sci. 42, 169-175, 2000)
This report describes an adult case of cellular hemangioma arising in the lower lip. A 39-year-old healthy woman presented with a polypoid mass of 4 months duration. The tumor imparted little color to the overlying mucosa and was misdiagnosed as a mucous granuloma preoperatively. The lobular proliferation of plump endothelial cells with inconspicuous vascular spaces was a cardinal morphologic feature of the present tumor. (J. Oral Sci. 42, 177-180, 2000)
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