After proposing a common-sense definition of bruxism, this partial review distills its various symptoms and consequences from the literature. That literature suggests that the splint-the most popular treatment modality-falls short in some respects. The research literature is even less sanguine about the efficacy of such other traditional therapies as sound alarms and stress reduction. Given the limited success of traditional approaches, and given, moreover, the high incidence of bruxism and its harmful consequences, clinicians may occasionally be interested in experimenting with non-intrusive, safe, less widely known, treatment modalities. To meet this need, this review-unlike all other reviews of the subject-focuses on such comparatively unpopular or recent approaches. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 73-83, 2001)
A histopathological and analytical study of a permanent tooth from a patient with cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD) was performed. The patient was a 47-year-old woman, who had 10 erupted permanent teeth and 2 partially erupted and 19 completely impacted teeth, including supernumerary teeth. The erupted right upper premolar was extracted and observed using a light microscope and an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA). Findings showed enamel hypoplasia, predominantly irregular globular dentin and Tomes' granular layer, and a complete lack of cellular cementum in the ground section. The incremental von Ebner and counter Owen lines were obscure. Comparative quantitative analysis using the EPMA showed that the quantities of calcium and phosphate were lower in the enamel and dentin than those of the control sample. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 85-89, 2001)
The aly/aly mouse has a severe immunodeficiency, because it lacks peripheral lymph nodes as well as IgA and IgG immunoglobulin synthesis. In the present study, we performed histopathological and immunohistological examinations to clarify histological disorders of various immune organs in these mice. Carbon CH40 injections into the apex of the tongue confirmed the absence of submandibular lymph nodes in aly/aly mice. The thymus had a poorly constructed cortex and medulla, and the number of lymphoid follicles was clearly decreased in the spleen. No IgG-or IgA- producing cells were found in any immune organs, including the mucosal immune sites, though several IgM-producing cells were identified. Other characteristic findings included perivascular lymphocytes accumulation in the salivary glands, lungs, liver and pancreas, which caused tissues damage. These results demonstrated that the various lymphoid tissues disorders and organ-specific lymphocyte infiltration cause immuno-deficiency in the aly/aly mouse. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 91-96, 2001)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a 59-year-old Japanese woman is reported, including details of clinical, histopathological and radiological findings. The patient had been diagnosed as having RA of the right knee joint 41 years previously, and suffered from arthralgia of the right TMJ. Radiological examination showed a radiopaque lesion of the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in the right TMJ and ankylosis of the right TMJ was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical and radiological findings. Condylectomy was performed. Pathological examination of material from the joint region revealed a marked increase of collagen fibers associated with slight capillary dilatation and hemorrhage. The final diagnosis was ankylosis of the right TMJ due to RA. The literature on TMJ ankylosis secondary to RA is reviewed and discussed. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 97-101, 2001)
Midline fractures appear to be the most common problem in maxillary complete dentures, and they can be prevented by reinforcement of the base material. In this clinical trial, complete upper dentures made, for patients having a history of midline fractures, that were reinforced with ultra-high modulus polyethylene fiber in woven form. This fiber was treated with a silane-coupling agent and sandwiched between acrylic dough. Laboratory procedures were conducted easily and conventionally, without any special equipment. At the end of 18 months, all of the dentures were well accepted and did not show any signs of fracture. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 103-107, 2001)
The embryonic epicardium is formed by the spreading of cells derived from the extracardiac proepicardial organ over the myocardial surface after transfer to the dorsal side of the myocardium via a bridge of villous projections. Using whole-heart immunostaining for keratin, we found that the chronology and pattern of epicardial formation in the chick was basically identical to that reported previously in the quail. However, discrete epicardial islands were observed on the ventrolateral surface of the atrioventricular canal as well as in two previously reported areas. Closer examination by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of isolated, sparsely distributed epicardial cell clusters on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the myocardium. These cells showed a surface morphology similar to that of the epicardial cells at the advancing edge of the spreading epicardial sheet and possessed numerous well-developed filopodia, suggesting active motility. These clusters are probably seeded onto the myocardium by vesicular transport from proepicardial villi, and our findings suggest that the resulting small, localised patches of epicardial cells might accelerate, supplement and tune the epicardial formation mediated by radial spreading of the epicardial sheet in the chick embryonic heart. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 109-116, 2001)
Postoperative infections in the oral region are usually caused by anaerobic bacteria. While some authors claim that routine antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary after third molar surgery, others do not recommend this practice. The major subject of controversy is what constitutes postoperative infection. Previous studies that have examined the benefit of routine antibiotic prophylaxis have used several clinical symptoms (pain, swelling, and trismus) as indicators of infection; however, these clinical symptoms may be vague and unreliable, and cannot be evaluated scientifically. As a result, their use has only sparked more debate in this area of research. The present study assessed the value of routine antibiotic prophylaxis in impacted mandibular third molar surgery using acute-phase protein levels as potential indicators of early and late postoperative infection. Specifically, serum levels of C-reactive protein and alpha-1 antitrypsin were measured preoperatively and postoperatively in patients who received either prophylactic antibiotics or placebos. The results revealed no statistically significant difference between treated and control patients in terms of incidence of postoperative infection. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 117-122, 2001)
There are numerous materials used to provide temporary coverage for teeth while permanent restorations are being fabricated. The biocompatibility of these materials is important for the protection of teeth and gingiva, but there is little information on this subject. This study aimed to examine possible time-dependent toxic effects of provisional crown and bridge restoration materials, manipulated intraorally or extraorally, on epithelia cells. A total of 20 discs, 4 sample discs from each product having dimensions of 4mm diameter and 2 mm thickness, were prepared. After sterilization, toxicity of these discs was evaluated in the Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line. Morphological cell changes were observed microscopically at the 3rd, 6th, 12th, and 24th hours by the filter diffusion test method. After the 3rd hour, Artglass and Structur produced cytotoxic symptoms. Temdent had the least toxic effects at the end of the 12th hour. However, after the 24th hour, the toxic values were similar for all materials. The results of this study show that although the toxicity response of chemically and light curing materials had changed in different time periods, all of them had the same toxic effects at the end of the 24th hour. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 123-128, 2001)
We report a reliable 5-min on-line monitoring of dopamine released from the dorsal striatum and the nucleus accumbens of rats using in vivo brain microdialysis. The detection limit for dopamine was approximately 20 fg in a 10-μd injection sample using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection set-up. Basal levels of dopamine in the dorsal striatum and the nucleus accumbens 4 h after probe insertion were 2.65±0.30 pg/5 min and 1.57±0.31pg/5 min, respectively, whereas those of 20 h after probe insertion were lower : 0.97±0.21 pg/5 min and 0.51±0.09 pg/5 min, respectively. Infusion of the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin (TTX; 2, uM), essentially suppressed levels of dopamine in both brain areas. At 4 h after probe insertion, TTX perfused for 4 h via dialysis probe reduced levels of dopamine to 0.47±0.08 pg/5 min (80% reduction) in the dorsal striatum and to 0.56±0.19 pg/5 min (65 % reduction) in the nucleus accumbens. At 20 h after probe insertion, a similar TTX perfusion more rapidly reduced levels of dopamine to 0.05±0.01 pg/5 min (95% reduction) in the dorsal striatum and to 0.08±0.01 pg/5 min (85% reduction) in the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that relatively fast changes in extracellular dopamine levels in these two brain areas can reliably be followed by this in vivo microdialysis technique. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 129-134, 2001)
This report describes an illustrative case of adenomatoid hyperplasia (AH) of the minor salivary glands on the palate of a 31-year-old man. The clinical features of the present lesion corresponded with those of pleomorphic adenoma, but histologically large lobules of normal-appearing mucous acini were found. The cell proliferative activity demonstrated in histological sections, by an immunohistochemical staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67, showed no statistically significant differences among AH and a matched control group of normal palatal salivary glands. This case suggests that AH apparently exhibits an idiopathic, focal hypertrophic lesion of intraoral mucous glands with limited growth potential. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 135-138, 2001)
In patients with extensive bone resorption, implant placement posterior to the mental foramen is a problematic surgical procedure. This paper reports the results in 6 patients (aged 20-61) with edentulous areas in the posterior part of the mandible, in whom 26 Nobelpharma implants were placed, including 17 with transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve allowing the use of implant fixtures of at least 10 mm in length. Subsequent neurosensory function, based on British Medical Research Council definitions, and implant survival rate were examined. In all cases, postoperative numbness occurred in the lower lip and mental area. Three years after surgery, while one patient had completely recovered neurosensory function, five patients still experienced partial numbness, although this was not perceived as a problem by those patients. The implant survival rate was 100% approximately three years after surgery. The results suggest that a higher implant survival rate is likely when longer fixtures are used, but this is also more likely to lead to slight long-term neurosensory dysfunction. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 139-144, 2001)
We analysed the concentration of radioactive cesium in dried Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) produced in Japan, and evaluated its use as an indicator of radioactive contamination. We collected Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) mushrooms grown on wood in 38 prefectures from north to south, and measured 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K concentrations with high purity Gedetectors. The concentration ranges were as follows : 137Cs<0.003-61.1 Bq/kg, 40K 378.7-667.3 Bq/kg; 134Cs was undetectable. There was a positive correlation between 137Cs concentrations in Shiitake and those in rain and dry fallout (P < 0.05). They were also correlated inversely with atmospheric temperature (P < 0.01). The multiple correlation coefficient comparing 137Cs concentration with atmospheric temperatures, 40K concentrations and fallout levels was 0.56 which was statistically significant (P < 0.01). A variance analysis based on the 137Cs concentration classified by geographical area (Hokkaido-Tohoku, Kanto, Chubu, Kinki, Chugoku, Shikoku and Kyushu) showed that the variance between the groups was significantly greater than that within each group which, together with the above-mentioned information, suggests that the 137Cs levels are affected primarily by these environmental factors. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 145-149, 2001)
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