In this study, parameters such as the flow rate, buffer capacity, sialic acid, protein and electrolyte concentrations, and amylase and peroxidase activities were analyzed in stimulated whole saliva from adolescents with dental fluorosis. From 135 adolescents (13 and 14 years-old) attending a primary and secondary school in the coastal city of VitoriaBrazil, 72 were selected to participate in this study. The degree of fluorosis was graded using the TSIF, and was carried out by a calibrated and trained dentist. No variation in the flow rate, pH and buffer capacity, protein concentration or amylase activity was observed between the groups with dental fluorosis and the control group (fluorosis score 0). The peroxidase activity and sialic acid concentration showed some differences compared to the control. Sialic acid concentrations were reduced in the groups with dental fluorosis scores above 2. The concentration of Na was lower in adolescents with dental fluorosis, while Mg concentrations were higher in two fluorosis groups, Ca concentration was reduced in two groups with fluorosis. We conclude, that 13 and 14 year-old adolescents attending a school in the coastal city of Vitoria-Brazil showed no variations relative to some parameters and some variations in relation to others of the salivary parameters studied. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 225-231, 2001)
This study compared the smear layer removing capability and cytotoxicity of NaOCl, EDTA and Oxidative Potential Water (OPW). Fifteen extracted single-rooted human upper incisors were examined in three groups. The root canals were enlarged to the apical foramen with K files to size #60 and irrigated with : (a) NaOCl followed by OPW, (b) OPW during and after instrumentation and (c) NaOCl followed by EDTA and NaOCl. The effect of these irrigants on the smear layer was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. In vitro cytotoxicity of these irrigants was examined by MTT colorimetric assay. We found that the combination of NaOCl and OPW as well as the application of OPW alone, failed to remove the smear layer from the apical third, whereas the EDTA and NaOCl combination achived complete removal. OPW, when used during and after instrumentation, removed the smear layer in the middle third more effectively than NaOCl followed by OPW. EDTA exerted more cytotoxic effects at all concentrations tested when compared with OPW and NaOC1. In conclusion : (a) OPW was less cytotoxic than other irrigants but did not effectively remove the smear layer, (b) treatment with EDTA followed by NaOC1 efficiently removed of the smear layer, but their cytotoxicity should be considered during endodontic therapy. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 233-238, 2001)
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important pathogen in periodontitis, aggregates with other oral microorganisms such as Streptococcus gordonii. We previously succeeded in gene cloning the 40-kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) from P. gingivalis. Although recombinant (r) 40-kDa OMP itself did not show aggregation activity, the affinity-purified antibody against 40-kDa rOMP inhibited the aggregation activity of P. gingivalis cells toward S. gordonii which is one of the first oral bacteria to colonize on tooth surfaces and can be expected to support subsequent colonization of other bacteria. In this study, in order to clarify the pathological role of 40-kDa OMP, we used a crosslinking reagent to construct a polymeric form of r40- kDa OMP and examined its aggregation activity. The polymeric r40-kDa OMP significantly expressed aggregation activity with S. gordonii cells. Moreover, the antibody against r40-kDa OMP inhibited the aggregation activity of the polymeric r40-kDa OMP. These findings clearly demonstrate that 40-kDa OMP, as a multivalent form, is one of the important aggregation factors on the cell surface of P. gingivalis. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 239-243, 2001)
In this study, the effect of different root canal sealers on 1 %, and 2 % methylene blue (MB) solutions and India ink were analyzed using spectrophotometry. One hundred and twelve specimens were used in this study. One hundred and five plastic tubes were filled with Sealapex, Endomethasone, Sultan, AH Plus or Ketac Endo. Twenty-one plastic tubes were used for each group. Seven plastic tubes were not filled, serving as controls. Seven specimens were taken from each group randomly and immersed in 0.8 ml 1 % MB, 2 % MB or black India ink. The optical density of the solutions after 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of immersion was measured in a spectrophotometer at 416 nm. The optical density (OD) of the solutions was stable for the control group. The OD values for the 1 % MB solutions were increased in the Sealapex and Sultan groups. The OD values for the 2% MB solutions were also increased for Sealapex and AH Plus. OD values were decreased for all India ink groups. The change in OD values relating to each time interval was statistically analyzed for each test material using two-way ANOVA. In the dye leakage studies, India ink, when compared to MB solutions, was a more reliable tracer as no dissolution of the root canal sealers occurred in contact with India ink. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 245-248, 2001)
The objective of this study was to determine whether temporary splinting of periodontitisaffected mobile teeth, prior to non-surgical mechanical therapy, affects treatment outcome by eliminating scaling and root planing-induced trauma to the teeth. Mandibular anterior teeth of 29 patients (15 females; 14 males; age range 30 to 48 years) with adult periodontitis were evaluated. Clinical measurements were performed at 4 sites per tooth including mesial, distal, buccal and lingual aspects at baseline, 3 and 6 months after treatment. The following clinical parameters were analyzed : plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket depth (PD), probing attachment level (PAL), gingival margin level (GML) and tooth mobility (TM). Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups : i) group 1 (n = 8) received scaling and root planing (SRP) only, ii) group 2 (n = 10) received scaling and root planing before splinting and iii) group 3 (n = 11) received scaling and root planing after splinting. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences among the groups for either bleeding on probing or probing attachment level values at any of the time intervals. At the end of the study, the greatest decrease in pocket depth was noted in group 2 (1.24 ± 0.10 mm) which was thought to be the result of gingival recession (0.73 ± 0.07 mm). Group 1 was the only group that showed reduction in tooth mobility at 3 months compared to baseline (1.67±0.55 PTV units). Group 3 displayed the least reductionin tooth mobility during the entire study period (0.26±0.44 PTV units). In conclusion, splinting of mobileteeth before SRP, and thereby elimination of potential SRP-induced trauma to the mobile teeth, did not show any adjunctive effect on healing when compared to splinting after SRP. Thorough debridement of root surfaces, even performed in the presence of increased mobility, resulted in improvements in clinical parameters, i.e. mechanical manipulation of mobile teeth during periodontal treatment did not affect clinical outcome negatively. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 249-254, 2001)
Folic acid (FA), that is required for the integrity of gingival tissues, was found to decrease in patients using phenytoin (PHT). Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) was reported to enhance the extracellular matrix synthesis in fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of FA supplementation on PHT-induced overgrowth by investigating its effect on IL-1β production of human gingival fibroblasts induced by tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNFα) in cell culture. PHT (20 μg/ml), FA (20 or 40 ng/ml) + PHT, PHT + TNF (10 ng/ml), FA (20 or 40 ng/ml) + PHT + TNF, or only culture medium (control) was added to 24-well plates containing fibroblasts. After an incubation period of 72 h, culture medium and cells were harvested separately. Then, IL-1β levels in cell lysate were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cellular IL-1β level in the PHT group was 1 pg/ml. In PHT + 20 or 40 ng/ml FA-added cultures, the results obtained respectively were 0.8 and 0.7 pg/ml, whereas the control group value was 0.7 pg/ml. IL-1β level was 4 pg/ml in the cultures that PHT and TNFα were applied simultaneously (P < 0.05). When PHT and either 20 or 40 ng/ml FA were simultaneously added into TNFα-induced cultures, the IL-1β levels were 1.8 and 1.3 pg/ml, respectively. IL-1β level in gingival tissues might play a role in PHT-induced overgrowth by increasing in the gingival tissues, and FA applicationmight play a role in decreasing gingival tissues. However, further studies are needed for a more complete understanding of PHT-induced gingival overgrowth at the cellular level. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 255-260, 2001)
Our previous study indicated that fibroblasts derived from patients reactive to nifedipine might be susceptible to the other calcium-channel blockers (nicardipine, verapamil and diltiazem) in terms of cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and collagen synthesis. Thus, the present investigation was designed to clarify the cross-reactivity among dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (nifedipine, nicardipine, and nisoldipine). Human gingival fibroblasts derived from seven, two, and one patients who developed gingival overgrowth as a result of nifedipine, nicardipine, and nisoldipine medications, respectively, were examined in terms of the effect of calcium-channel blockers (nifedipine, diltiazem, verapamil, and nicardipine) on cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, collagen synthesis, and the number of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Phenytoin was used as a positive control. With most of the calcium-channel blockers and phenytoin, fibroblasts from patients reactive to nifedipine and nicardipine medications gave a better cell proliferation rate, DNA synthesis, and an increased number of EGF receptors, compared to non-drug-treated control. However, this was not the case for calcium-channel blockers tested in fibroblasts from patients reactive to nisoldipine medication. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 261-268, 2001)
Histological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characteristics of the microvasculature of muscle fibers in the anterior third of the adult rat tongue are described. For light microscopy, the specimens were embedded in paraffin and frontal sections were stained with Picro-Sirius. Thick sections were obtained from Spurr embedded samples and stained with toluidine blue solution. For SEM, specimens were obtained by the corrosion cast method and fractured specimens in dimethyl sulfoxide were observed with high-resolution SEM (HRSEM). The blood vessels, enveloped with a thin layer of connective tissue, had fibers running parallel to the muscular fibers. Capillary arterioles were noted following the endomysium, but their lateral branches often ran at right angles to the fibers. The capillary beds were clearly revealed in transverse sections where the individual capillaries appeared ring-like or elliptical in shape. The nuclei of endothelial cell cores could be seen on the vessel surfaces. Collagen fibers type I and III were noted in the connective tissue and in the fibrous layer of vessels. (J. Oral Sci, 43, 269-275, 2001)
Studies of the gross morphology and microstructure of teeth have provided a great deal of information about the function and evolution of mammals. Among the structural features studied, the dentinoenamel junction has received relatively little attention. In the present work, we used ground sections to perform a comparative analysis of the structure of the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) among diverse mammalian species. Among the species studied, only two (human and Miguelsoria parayirunhor) presented a scalloped DEJ. In the other 14 species analyzed, the DEJ surface was formed by tiny spikes and depressions, corresponding to the impression of enamel prisms. Our results show that the topography of the DEJ in the analyzed taxa apparently does not relate to dietary, functional or structural features. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 277-281, 2001)
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumors are uncommon odontogenic lesions characterized by ductlike structures that form from the epithelial component of the lesion. Most of these masses develop in the second or third decade of life, and there is a strong female bias in occurrence. Typically, these lesions arise in the lateral incisor/canine region of the maxilla, where they produce a swelling. Only in very rare cases is the lesion found distal to the premolar area. Nearly all of these growths are associated with an embedded anterior maxillary tooth (usually a canine), and most resemble a 1-3 cm diameter dentigerous cyst. Radiopacity is reported in two-thirds of cases. This article describes the case of a 9-year-old Caucasian male who presented with a painless swelling in the left premolar-molar region of his maxilla. This case is of particular interest because the features (patient age, gender, lesion location, size, and radiographic findings) were not typical of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 283-286, 2001)
This study investigated the clincopathologic features of primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) related to the third molar of the mandible. Six cases (5 from the literature and 1 new case; mean patient age 73 years) of PIOC associated with completely impacted lower third molar were analyzed. For comparison, 8 cases of PIOC presenting after extraction of the lower third molar were also evaluated, with a significantly lower mean patient age of 56 years. Most lesions were deceptively similar to those related to the lateral type of dentigerous cyst, and half of the impacted cases revealed an asymptomatic fracture of the mandible. In all patients except for the present case, metastasis had not been recorded. Surprisingly, no patients are known to have died of PIOC. In our experience the prognosis of PIOC associated with a completely impacted third molar is much better than commonly believed, although the number of cases involved is too small to make a general conclusion. However, delay in establishing the correct diagnosis followed by extraction without awareness of the carcinoma is know to adversely affect the prognosis. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 287-292, 2001)
Osteochondroma is rarely found in the oral and maxillofacial regions. A rare case of osteochondroma affecting the mandibular condyle of a 46-year-old Japanese woman is reported. Clinical examination revealed facial asymmetry, malocclusion, and a palpable hard mass in the right temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Radiologically, the lesion was visualized as a radiopaque mass in the same region, but no destructive features were evident. Three-dimensional computed tomography was employed for estimating the stereographic extension of the lesion, which seemed to develop from the anterior portion of the condylar neck, and extend to the condylar head. The patient underwent tumor excision and condyloplasty under a clinical diagnosis of benign TMJ tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle, and the lesion consisted of proliferative bony and hyalinized cartilage-like tissues. Moreover, a cartilage cap, a characteristic feature of osteo-chondroma, was also observed. Thirty-eight cases of osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle described in the English literature, including the present case, were reviewed. The mean patient age was 39.7 years with a peak in the fourth decade, which was older than patients with tumors in the axial skeleton. There was no sexual predominance for tumors in either the mandibular condyle or axial skeleton. The histopathogenesis of this tumor developing in the mandibular condyle was also discussed. (J. Oral Sci. 43, 293-297, 2001)
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