Lactobacilli were considered the prime cariogenic microorganisms until phylogenetic related bacteria, mutans streptococci, were associated with caries. Today, lactobacilli are still considered a factor in determining the predisposition to develop cavities. As a first step in colonization, microorganisms adhere to oral tissues. Based on this fact, the purpose of our study was to determine if there was a statistical association or difference related to the state of oral health with the surface characteristics of lactobacilli. Patients were classified as caries-free and caries-active. Interviews were performed to establish the nutritional and oral hygiene habits. The previously reported characteristics of isolated lactobacilli's quantification and association to dental tissues were determined. Although the nutritional habits for caries-free and caries-active patients were similar, the patients' oral hygiene and dental care determined differences in risk indices. The number of lactobacilli was statistically lower in saliva of subjects with good oral health. Certain species of lactobacilli could not be associated to specific areas of the mouth, although some species could be localized. Lactobacilli from caries active (CA) subjects showed a greater ability to adhere to hydrophobic substances, had a greater salt agglutination property, and showed lower production of inhibitory substances. Lactobacilli from caries free (CF) subjects were better able to inhibit oral, potentially pathogenic, microorganisms. These studies prove that preliminary differences between oral lactobacilli in CF and CA patients exist. Non-specific and specific adhesion mechanisms in bacteria should be further demonstrated. (J. Oral Sci. 45, 1-9, 2003)
Prevotella nigrescens ATCC 25261 cells adhere well to protein-blocking hydroxyapatite (HA) which mimics a root surface in the periodontal pocket treated with proteases such as trypsin, proteinase K, chymotrypsin and papain. This study was done to clarify the inhibitory effect of α- and β- serum globulins on the adhesion of P. nigrescens ATCC 25261 cells to trypsin-treated HA. The inhibitory effect was found to be caused by the α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) of α-globulin and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) of P-globulin under experimental conditions. The most effective inhibition of al-AT on P nigrescens ATCC 25261 cell attachment to HA was achieved when α1-AT-treated trypsin was used. The most effective inhibition of LDL occurred when trypsin-treated HA was treated with LDL. Apo-transferrin (TF) and holo-TF, which are β-globulins, did not affect the attachment of P nigrescens ATCC 25261 cells to trypsin-treated HA. (J. Oral Sci. 45, 11-16, 2003)
This pilot study evaluated, by culture testing, the effectiveness of lethal photosensitization for the microbiological treatment of peri-implantitis in dogs. Experimental peri-implantitis was induced by ligature placement for 2 months. Following ligature removal, plaque control was instituted by scrubbing with 0.12 % chlorhexidine daily for 12 months. Subsequently, mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated for scaling the implant surface. Microbial samples were obtained with paper points before and after treatment of implant surfaces by means of 100 μg/ml toluidine blue O (TBO, ) and were exposed, for 80 s, to light with a wavelength of 685 nm from a 50 mW GaAlAs diode laser. The mean initial and final bacterial counts were 7.22 ± 0.20 and 6.84 ± 0.44 CFU/ml, respectively for TVC (P < 0.0001); 6.19 ± 0.45 and 3.14 ± 3.29 CFU/ml for P. intermedia/nigrescens (P = 0.001); 5.98 ± 0.38 and 1.69 ± 2.90 CFU/ml for Fusobacterium spp. (P = 0.001); and 6.07 ± 0.22 to 1.69 ± 2.94 CFU/ml for beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (P = 0.0039). It may be concluded that lethal photosensitization resulted in a reduction of the bacterial count. Complete elimination of bacteria was achieved in some samples. (J. Oral Sci. 45, 17-23, 2003)
It is well established that cholera toxin (CT) produced by Vibrio cholerae acts as a potent mucosal adjuvant; however, the native form of this molecule causes severe diarrhea. Furthermore, both native CT and its B-subunit derivative bind to monosialogangliosides (GM1) in membrane raft micro-domains on neural tissues and are thus unsuitable for use in humans. In this study, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of the CT A-subunit (CT-A) administered with ovalbumin (OVA) by the nasal route. We found that nasal administration of OVA plus CT-A elicited both mucosal and systemic antibody (Ab) responses. Immunization of mice with OVA plus CT-A resulted in the induction of OVA-specific IgA Abs in saliva and nasal secretions. Furthermore, significant OVA-specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA Ab responses were induced. Antibody-forming cell (AFC) analysis confirmed the Ab titer findings by revealing significant numbers of OVA-specific IgA AFCs in submandibular glands. In addition, splenic lymphocytes restimulated with OVA in vitro exhibited significant proliferative responses. Thus, CT-A might be a candidate for an effective adjuvant for inducing antigen (Ag) -specific Ab responses in human systemic and mucosal compartments, such as the oral cavity. (J. Oral Sci. 45, 25-31, 2003)
The objective of this study was to assess the association between the levels of enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) with the BANA hydrolysis microbiological test (PerioscanTM) and clinical periodontal diagnostic measurements, such as bleeding on probing, plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and attachment level in patients with chronic periodontitis using an enzymatic test (PocketWatchTM). One hundred and forty-seven sites were evaluated in 22 patients with a probing depth of ≥ 5 mm at selected sites. AST and BANA enzymatic tests were carried out, and clinical parameters recorded. Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. There was no statistical correlation between AST levels and any of the analyzed parameters. The lack of any association between the factors studied does not indicate, however, that the latter cannot be used in diagnosing the actual periodontal condition of patients and/or sites. However, more research should be carried out to evaluate the true relationship between AST and periodontal disease. (J. Oral Sci. 45, 33-38, 2003)
Actinomycosis is an infectious disease that frequently has chronic granulomatous and suppurative lesions caused by saprophytic Actinomyces species. Although cervicofacial actinomycosis is known to be the most common type, intraorally and periodontally types occur rarely in a localized fashion. The present case reports on an adult periodontitis patient with a diffuse and atypic actinomycotic lesion which was limited to the gingiva and had an abscess formation, a large desquamation and subsequent exposure of the alveolar bone in the involved region. Diagnosis was based on histopathological examination, the history of the case and clinical nature of the lesion. The patient responded to daily administration of 100 g doxcycycline (first day-bid) for 3 weeks and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate irrigation (following tooth brushing) performed with oral hygiene reinforcement and periodontal debridement procedures. Complete improvement of the lesion was observed after 5 weeks. Due to the opportunistic characteristics of the actinomycotic infection, early and adequate differential diagnosis of actinomycosis prior to therapeutic attempts, as well as management steps, are of great importance in the oral cavity to prevent the spread of the disease.
We describe the fabrication of a meatus obturator prosthesis made with visible light-cured (VLC) resin. The fabrication technique is relatively easy and saves time by eliminating some laboratory procedures for both the patient and the practitioner. The meatus obturator results in a more stable maxillary prosthesis and permits acceptable speech for patients using it.
A patient with multiple anomalies of the maxillary teeth, including shovel-shaped incisors, talon cusp, bilateral dens invaginatus and bilateral pegshaped supernumerary incisors is reported. The patient also exhibited Carabelli's cusp on both maxillary first molars. No developmental syndrome was identified. This very unusual combination of anomalies has not been reported previously.
The population of elderly people in hospitals for long-term geriatric care presents many risk factors for nosocomial infection by Candida species. The aim of this work was to reduce the risk of C. albicans nosocomial infections starting from colonization of the oral cavity. The population of concern was the patients in long-stay geriatrics units; a sample of 110 people was selected by drawing lots. The clinical and biological parameters of each patient included in the study were recorded. The oral cavity was colonized by Candida spp in 67 % of cases. The distribution of the strains showed that C. albicans was the most frequently identified strain, followed by C. glabrata; of the 73 patients with at least one strain of Candida spp., 47 had a clinically diagnosed candidiasis (64.4%). The wearing of dentures was not statistically linked with the development of oral candidiasis. Detecting which patients have been colonized, identifying the risk factors and applying preventive measures should reduce the probability of elderly people falling into the vicious circle of infectionmalnutrition-immune-depression.
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