The efficacy of scaling and root planing using various periodontal rotary instruments was examined. Eighty extracted human teeth with a history of periodontal disease were divided into four groups of 20 and subjected to one of the following procedures: Use of 1) a Root Burnisher, 2) a Perio Planing Bur (both rotating instruments for contra angle handpieces), 3) a Tooth Planing Bur (rotating instrument for use with an air turbine), or 4) a Gracey Scaler. In each case, the time required for cleaning was measured. Twenty healthy extracted human teeth were used as untreated controls. After treatment, the surface roughness of 10 specimens out of each group were measured using a profilometer and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Half of the samples were then incubated in dishes with a suspension of fibroblasts. After counting the number of attached cells, the attachment of fibroblasts was observed by SEM. The root surfaces treated with the rotary instruments appeared smooth and there were no significant differences between groups. From the SEM observations, smooth root surfaces with different surface textures were evident and a tight attachment of fibroblasts was observed. The results of this study suggest that use of rotary instruments is superior for periodontal scaling and root planing. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 1-8, 2004)
Several studies have provided clinical evidence that FimA clonal variation may contribute to the periodontopathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.). We studied the gene expression profiling of the macrophage-like human cell line U937 after infection of two types of P.g. (fimA type I; Pg-I and fimA type II; Pg-II) using microarray. Of 1088 genes examined, 394 genes were detectable. Bioinformatics algorithms were used to analyze the detectable genes. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that gene expression patterns of Pg-II and the control (no infection) were grouped together. K-means clustering grouped 79 genes into Pg-II dominance and 88 genes into Pg-I dominance. A large number of genes related to cell signaling, extracellular communication proteins, cell receptors (by ligands), protein turnover and cell adhesion receptors/proteins were grouped into clusters of Pg-I dominance. Our results indicate that compared with Pg-I, Pg-II induces a low host response as measured by its weak induction of gene expression. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 9-14, 2004)
The aim of this study was to investigate natural head posture (NHP) in different head types. Lateral cephalograms of 99 adults (Mean age, 21.8 years ± SD, 2.2 yrs, range between 19 and 29 yrs) were examined. Head types were determined as Hyper-brachycephal, Brachycephal, Mesocephal or Dolichocephal according to the cephalic index. Analysis of variance and the Duncan's test were performed to assess inter-group differences for the parameters. The findings revealed that, NHP was statistically not different between the head type groups. Thus, it was suggested that environmental factors during growth may alter NHP, as well as craniofacial morphology but in a different manner (i.e. degree and direction) in each head type. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 15-18, 2004)
Gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts play important roles and have a harmonious relationship under normal and disease conditions, but the precise differences between theses cells remain unknown. To study the differences in gene expression between human gingival epithelial cells (HGE) and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), mRNA was recovered from primary cultured cells and analyzed using cDNA microarray technology. The cDNA retrotranscribed from equal quantities of mRNA was labeled with the fluorescent dyes Cy5 and Cy3. The mixed probes were then hybridized with 7276 genes on the DNA microarray, after which fluorescence signals were scanned and further analyzed using GeneSpring software. Of the 7276 genes screened, 469 showed expression levels that were more than 2-fold greater in HGE than in HGF, while 293 showed expression levels that were more than 2-fold greater in HGF than in HGE. To confirm the reliability of the microarray results, keratin K5 and desmocolin, and vimentin and gp130, which showed higher mRNA levels in HGE and HGF, respectively, were selected and their mRNA levels were further analyzed by RT-PCR. The results of RT-PCR correlated well with those of microarray analysis. The present findings using a DNA microarray to detect differences in the gene expression profiles of HGE and HGF may be beneficial for genetic diagnosis of periodontal tissue metabolism and periodontal diseases. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 19-24, 2004)
In this study, the clinical efficacies of systemic doxycycline (SD) and local doxycycline (LD) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis were compared. Forty-five patients were studied in 3 main groups with 5 treatments: SD alone, SD+scaling-root planing (SD+SRP), LD alone, LD+SRP and SRP alone. Antibiotic-treated patients were given doxycycline treatment alone in 1 quadrant of their upper jaws, and doxycycline+SRP was given in the contralateral quadrant. The areas included at least 4 teeth with ≥ 5 mm pockets. Probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level, gingival index, sulcular bleeding index and plaque index values were recorded at baseline and the 7th week. The results were statistically analyzed. All of the clinical parameters were significantly reduced by all treatments (P ≤ 0.05). The SD and LD treatments alone provided significant clinical healings. The significant differences among the groups were only in PD at the 7th week. The LD treatment provided significantly higher PD reduction than the SD treatment (P ≤ 0.05). No significant difference was found between the SD+SRP and the LD+SRP treatments. There was no significant difference between SD+SRP and SRP alone treatment (P > 0.05). The SD group showed lower PD reduction than SRP group (P ≤ 0.05), while no significant difference was found between LD and SRP treatments. The LD alone treatment seemed more effective than SD alone treatment on PD reduction, but no significant difference was found between them when combined with the SRP. LD may be more preferable than SD as an adjunct to mechanical treatment since LD seems more effective than SD on PD reduction and does not have the side effects of SD. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 25-35, 2004)
It has previously been demonstrated that gingival fibroblasts derived from nifedipine-reactive patients (nifedipine responders) show a greater cell proliferation rate than those from nifedipine non-reactive patients (nifedipine non-responders) in the presence of 1 μM nifedipine. The aim of the present study was to characterize cell cycle differences between nifedipine responder and non-responder fibroblast cells and determine the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on cell cycle progression. Further, the effect of bFGF on cyclins A, B1, D1, E, and CDKs 1, 2, 4, 6 mRNA expression in responder and non-responder cells was investigated. A population of nifedipine responder cells underwent progression to S and G2/M phases from G0/G1 phase in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum or 10 ng/ml bFGF was greater than nifedipine non-responder cells. mRNA expression of cyclins A, B1, D1, E and CDKs 1, 2, 4, 6 in the presence of 10 ng/ml bFGF was generally greater in nifedipine responder cells than non-responder cells. These results indicate that nifedipine responder cells may be more susceptible to growth factors such as bFGF with a resultant increase in expression of cyclins and CDKs in responder compared with non-responder cells. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 37-44, 2004)
The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro caries inhibition of various resin-based materials. Class V cavities were prepared in twenty-five freshly extracted human premolar teeth which were then restored with glass-ionomer cement (Chemfill II), compomer (Compoglass F, Dyract AP) and composite resin (Tetric Ceram and Z 100). The teeth were submerged in an acid gel for 6 weeks. Each specimen was sectioned. These sections were left in water for 24 hours, and then examined using polarized light microscopy. The lesion consisted of two parts, the outer surface lesion and the cavity wall lesion. There was no significant difference in the body depth of the outer lesion and in the depth of the wall lesion among teeth restored with Compoglass F, Dyract AP and Chemfill II (P > 0.05). There was a significant difference between those restored with Z 100 and Tetric Ceram (P < 0.05). The length of the wall lesion for the teeth restored with Chemfill II was significantly smaller than that in the remaining groups (P < 0.05). The length of the wall lesion for teeth restored with Tetric Ceram and Z 100 was significantly higher than in the remaining groups (P < 0.05). These results suggest that composite materials and compomer provide less caries inhibition than glass-ionomer cements. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 45-50, 2004)
Osteoma is a benign tumour consisting of mature bone tissue. It is an uncommon lesion that occurs mainly in the bones of the craniofacial complex. Only a few cases involving the condylar process have been reported. An osteoma of the left condyle causing limited mouth-opening in a 32-year-old Malaysian Chinese female is reported here to alert the practitioner to consider this lesion as a diagnostic possibility in instances of trismus or limited-mouth opening. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 51-53, 2004)
Osteosarcomas are highly malignant neoplasms of bone that are challenging to diagnose. These neoplasms often show atypical behavior. In the initial phase they may present as nondescript bony swellings with an indolent growth rate, only to become overtly aggressive and malignant towards the later phase of the disease. Similarly, the histological growth pattern of this neoplasm can be quite diverse, presenting with areas that mimic benign myofibroblastic tumors, giant cell granulomatous conditions and partial encapsulation. The final diagnosis of an osteosarcoma is often reached after thorough sampling and examination of multiple biopsy specimens. All these clinical features and histological diagnostic difficulties were encountered in a case of osteosarcoma affecting the right mandible of a 62-year-old Chinese woman described here. The diagnostic lessons accrued from this case are discussed. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 55-59, 2004)
Ossifying fibroma is a benign fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw containing varying amounts of calcified deposits such as bone, cementum or both. This type of lesion is referred to as dysplastic or neoplastic in nature. In 2000, a 52-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic complaining of a giant swelling in the mandibular premolar-molar region. A histopathological diagnosis of ossifying fibroma was made. Three months later, his daughter was admitted with a swelling on her mandible. Following biopsy, this patient was also diagnosed as having ossifying fibroma. The present report describes these two cases of familial and multiple ossifying fibromas. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 61-64, 2004)
This study reviews reconstruction of complex three-dimensional oral and maxillofacial defects using the single free radial forearm flap or the single free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. Between 1996 and 2003, 124 patients underwent oral and maxillofacial reconstruction in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine. Outcomes for 22 patients who underwent three-dimensional reconstruction of multiple surfaces were evaluated. Reconstruction was performed after resection of malignant tumors in all 22 patients. Single FAFs were utilized for 11 patients and single RAMs for the remaining 11. Flap survival rate was 100%. No major donor morbidity was observed, and all surviving patients (20/22) were able to perform normal daily living activities. Single FAF and RAM are useful materials for one-stage reconstruction of complex three-dimensional oral and maxillofacial defects requiring replacement of skin, mucosa, and intervening soft tissues. Good to excellent aesthetic results can be attained in most patients. (J. Oral Sci. 46, 65-70, 2004)
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