This study evaluates the effects of a metal halide light source on the post-polymerization properties of the Sinfony indirect composite material. Two polymerization systems were employed: the Hyper LII system, comprising a metal halide polymerization unit, and the Visio system, comprising two proprietary units designed for polymerizing the Sinfony composite. The composite material was polymerized for 60, 120 or 180 s with the LII system. As a control, the composite was polymerized for 15 min with the Visio system. Knoop hardness, water sorption and solubility were determined. The results were analyzed by Dunnett's T3 multiple comparison test (P < 0.05). Knoop hardness was greater for polymerization with the LII unit than for that with the Visio system. Water sorption was greater for polymerization with the Visio system than that with the LII unit. For polymerization with the LII unit for 180 s, solubility was significantly reduced as compared with the Visio system. Within the limitations of the current experiment, it can be concluded that the metal halide unit exhibited better polymerizing performance for the composite material than the proprietary units. (J. Oral Sci. 47, 165-169, 2005)
This study aimed to determine the influence of metal conditioners on the polymerization behavior of bonding agents. Bonding agents of two-step self-etching primer systems and metal conditioners for adhesion of dental metal alloys were used. Double bond conversion was determined by Fourier transform-ation infrared spectroscopy. The percentage of residual double bonds, including pendant and monomeric double bonds, was calculated by comparing the obtained ratio with that of the uncured bonding agent. The degree of conversion of the bonding agents was obtained by subtracting the remaining double bonds from 100%. ANOVA followed by a Tukey HDS test was performed. Degree of conversion of the bonding agents ranged from 86.0 to 87.8%. When the bonding agents were mixed with metal conditioners or solvents of the metal conditioners, double bond conversion of the bonding agents tended to decrease. Within the limitations of this study, which was far removed from clinical situations, the presence of metal conditioners and remaining solvents had adverse effects on the polymerization reaction of bonding agents. Clinicians should be cognizant of the various factors that can influence bond strength of restorative resins to dentin. (J. Oral Sci. 47, 171-175, 2005)
Since the periodontal ligament (PDL) contains a heterogeneous cell population, it is challenging to identify all cell types within the tissue and to determine whether they function alone to produce tissue components or interact with other cell types. Further, it is difficult to isolate and expand single cell clones from PDL cells, as normal cells have a limited life span and are phenotypically unstable. In the present study, we inserted the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of the telomerase holoenzyme, into normal human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells and successfully obtained single cell clones. Expression of the inserted gene and telomerase activity in each of the clones was confirmed. Unlike the original HPL cells, at the end of the study (day 120), clone populations continued to actively double without phenotypic alteration. Osteogenic characteristics were present in some but not all clones. In conclusion, immortalization of HPL cells was successfully accomplished by transduction with the hTERT gene. This is the first report of immortalization of different cell types derived from PDL. (J. Oral Sci. 47, 177-184, 2005)
Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is known to inhibit the formation of dopamine (DA) in the cytosol of dopaminergic neurons and is therefore used to study the role of the cytosolic DA pools. AMPT is usually administered systemically. In the present study, however, the effects of locally infused AMPT on the efflux of DA from the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum were analyzed, using in vivo brain microdialysis in unanesthetized rats. The administration of AMPT (100 µM, 4 h) into the nucleus accumbens reduced accumbal DA output to 30% of its baseline level. When it was infused into the dorsal striatum, however, it reduced striatal DA output to 60% of its baseline level. At first sight, these data suggest that the amount of DA available from the AMPT-sensitive pool is larger in the nucleus accumbens than in the striatum. However, this cannot be the case, as the decrease in accumbal and striatal DA efflux induced by systemic administration of AMPT (250 mg/kg given intra-peritoneally) was identical. These results show that local infusion of AMPT is a valuable tool for analyzing the role of AMPT-sensitive pools within a particular brain area, but it cannot be used to compare effects across different brain structures because a fixed dose of AMPT differentially affected the nucleus accumbens and the dorsal striatum. (J. Oral Sci. 47, 185-190, 2005)
Hemin is an important nutrient for Porphyromonas gingivalis growth and pathogenicity. We examined the gene expression profile of P. gingivalis, including genes involved in its pathogenicity, at various growth stages under hemin-standard and limited conditions by using a custom-made microarray. The transcription of many genes decreased after late-log and mid-log phases under hemin-standard and limited conditions, respectively. We focused on two groups of genes while comparing gene expression profiles under hemin-standard and limited conditions by gene tree analysis. Genes belonging to group A maintained high transcriptional levels, whereas genes in group B were expressed at low levels under standard hemin condi-tions. However, group B genes increased remarkably under hemin-limited conditions. Groups A and B contained genes involved in regulatory functions and protein fate, respectively. Genes related to energy metabolism, transport, and protein binding were present in both groups. Our results suggest that P. gingivalis experienced severe stress under hemin-limited conditions, and growth phase-dependent changes in transcription levels were observed for many genes. Moreover, increased expression of genes involved in energy metabolism suggests that hemin is related not only to pathogenicity, but also energy metabolism. (J. Oral Sci. 47, 191-197, 2005)
Runx2 is essential for osteoblast differentiation and gene expression of bone matrix proteins, however, little is known about the mechanism regulating its activity. In this study, the role of Runx2 on gene expression of transcription factors, AJ18, Msx2, and Dlx5, was examined in vitro. It is known that AJ18 and Msx2 act as repressors to inhibit activity of Runx2, whereas Dlx5 promotes its activity. An expression vector inserted Runx2 cDNA was transiently overexpressed in a rat multipotential mesenchymal cell line, ROB-C26 (C26). Real time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that, in exogenous Runx2-overexpressing C26 cells (C26-Rx), AJ18 expression increased 1.8-fold, Msx2 expression increased 3.0-fold, and Dlx5 expression increased 2.7-fold compared to the cells transfected with vector alone (C26-Co). Luciferase assay also showed that, in C26-Rx, AJ18 promoter activity increased 2.1-fold compared to C26-Co. Furthermore, gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone matrix proteins including type I collagen (Col1), osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OPN), and matrix Gla protein (MGP) was examined. In C26-Rx, MGP expression increased 1.8-fold, and OPN expression increased 1.4-fold compared to C26-Co. However, no significant difference in Col1, ALP, and OC expressions was detected between C26-Rx and C26-Co. These results suggest that the existence of autoregulatory feed back loops, which inhibit Runx2 activity through the interaction of AJ18, Dlx5, and Msx2 cooperating with that of MGP and OPN, interferes with the differentiation of C26 cells toward mature osteoblasts. (J. Oral Sci. 47, 199-207, 2005)
In vitro studies suggest that enamel matrix derivative (EMD) affects the early stages of osteogenic maturation by stimulating bone cell proliferation. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EMD and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on bone augmentation within a titanium cap in rabbit calvaria, using 14 adult male Japanese white rabbits. The calvarium was exposed, a circular groove prepared, the marrow penetrated, and a standard hemispherical titanium cap placed in the groove. The cap was filled with a mixture of β-TCP and EMD at the experimental site, and was filled with β-TCP alone at the control site. At 1 and 3 months after cap implantation, animals were euthanized, and histological sections prepared. The sections were stained with basic fuchsin and methylene blue, and were examined using light microscopy. At 1 month, EMD tended to increase the amount of bone, but there was no significant difference in the amount of new tissue and mineralized bone between the experimental and control sites. The present findings indicate that the present mixture of EMD and β-TCP does not accelerate bone formation, compared with β-TCP alone. (J. Oral Sci. 47, 209-217, 2005)
A 54-year-old male presented with the complaint of a painful sore on the left side of his tongue. Our examination found an ulcer 15 × 20 mm in size on the left edge of the tongue, with peripheral indurations. The lesion was diagnosed histopathologically as squamous cell carcinoma (T2N0M0). Consequently, the lesion was surgical removed and radical neck dissection was performed. Four months after the operation, two unusual cyst-like lesions were identified in the parapharyngeal space by CT and MRI. A biopsy specimen revealed recurrent carcinoma with a cyst-like structure. The route of the tumor metastasis into the parapharyngeal space was obscured, but it was speculated that the excessive lymph accumulation was due to a lymphatic occlusion caused by the surgical procedure, proliferation of the metastatic carcinoma, or stagnation and accumulation of tissue fluid caused by parapharyngeal invasion by the recurrent lesion. (J. Oral Sci. 47, 219-222, 2005)
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