Evidence has been emerging that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) - a pluripotential regenerative cytokine - is a key factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease, mostly through its over-stimulation of gingival epithelial cell growth and impairment of the regeneration of collagenous structures. We measured the levels of immunoreactive HGF in unstimulated whole mixed saliva from 26 patients referred for treatment of periodontal disease, and from 20 healthy subjects. HGF was detected in all saliva samples from the patients, the concentration ranging from 0.06 to 5.38 ng/ml, with a mean concentration of 1.87 ± 1.32 ng/ml. In healthy individuals, the median salivary HGF level was 0.68 ng/ml (range: 0 - 7.33 ng/ml), being almost 3-fold lower (P < 0.0001) than that in the patients. Periodontal parameters in the patients were: gingival index (GI) 2.0 (0 - 2.8), papillary bleeding index (PBI) 2.2 (0 - 3.2), plaque index (PI) 2.0 (0 - 3.0), probing depth (PD) 3.0 (1.8 - 5.9) mm, and loss of clinical attachment level (CAL) 4.7 (1.1 - 10.6) mm. We found that the salivary HGF level was positively correlated with GI (P = 0.004), PBI (P = 0.046) and PI (P = 0.001), but not with PD (P = 0.351), CAL loss (P = 0.172), number of teeth (P = 0.279) or patient age (P = 0.362). Our findings suggest that salivary HGF concentration may be a novel marker of symptomatic periodontal disease, and that it warrants further validation. (J. Oral Sci. 48, 47-50, 2006)
The Brazilian community in Japan is the third largest of the ethnic groups within the Japanese population. However, the oral health condition of Brazilian schoolchildren resident in Japan has not been documented previously. This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren resident in Japan. The study population comprised 296 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years, attending Brazilian schools in Japan. Clinical examinations were performed by a single qualified examiner. The prevalence of dental caries found in this population was 64.9% (95% IC = 59.39 - 70.34%), the percentage of caries-free children being relatively high at 35.1% (95% IC = 29.7% - 40.6%). The mean decayed (D), missing (M), and filled (F) teeth (T) index at age 12 was 1.75 (95% IC = 1.03 - 2.47), and the mean dmft at age 6 was 3.50 (95% IC = 2.43 - 4.57). The proportion of treated teeth was higher than that of decayed teeth in both dentitions. With regard to the distribution of dental caries experience, only 8.4% of all schoolchildren had a DMFT > 3, suggesting a polarization phenomenon of dental caries in this population. Although the prevalence of dental caries among Brazilian school-children resident in Japan is lower than that of their Japanese counterparts, oral health programs are necessary for those children in whom the disease is prevalent and have higher treatment needs. (J. Oral Sci. 48, 51-57, 2006)
The aim of this study was to analyze the files of 695 consecutive patients operated on under general anesthesia for odontogenic cysts in an adult French teaching hospital for comparison with findings in world surveys. A retrospective survey of cysts of the jaws was undertaken at the Maxillofacial department, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital, Paris, France. Data were retrieved from case notes, imaging, histopathology records and follow-up reports from January 1995 to January 2005. The mean age of patients was 41.8 ± 15.8 years. There was an overall male to female ratio of 1.86:1. Mandible to maxilla ratio was 3:1. Regarding the mandible, the angle was involved in 36% of the cases, horizontal branch in 32%, parasymphysis in 18%, ramus in 11.6%, coronoïd process in 1.5% and condyle in 0.9% (total = 100%). Regarding the maxilla, the canine to canine region was involved in 40% of the cases, premolar and molar region in 45%, and wisdom tooth region in 15% (total = 100%). The three most frequently diagnosed odontogenic cysts were radicular cysts (53.5%), dentigerous cysts (22.3%) and odontogenic keratocysts (19.1%). Together, these three entities represented 94.9% of all odontogenic cysts. The mean number of operation per patient was 1.16 (SD: 0.6, range: 1-10). The mean cumulated duration of hospitalization for one patient was 2.46 days (SD: 1.9, range: 1-28). The mean length of follow-up was 8.4 months (SD: 15.2, range: 0-120). Sixty five percent had a follow-up inferior to 6 months and 18% had no follow-up at all. The two most important findings of this case series are 1) the important number of radicular cysts that could be avoided because most of these cysts develop as a consequence of advanced carious lesions and 2) regarding other types of cysts, the dramatic rate of patients lost to follow-up. (J. Oral Sci. 48, 59-62, 2006)
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of thermal cycling on dentin bond strengths of single-step self-etch adhesives. Five commercially available single-step self-etch systems were used. The adhesives were applied to the dentin surfaces of bovine incisors, and then light-irradiated. Resin composites were condensed into a mold and light-irradiated. Bonded specimens were divided into two groups and stored in water at 37°C for 24 h without thermal cycling, or in water at 37°C for 24 h followed by 10,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 60°C. Ten samples per group were tested for shear strength at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The data were analyzed by Student's t test and Tukey HSD test at a probability level of 0.05. After 24 h of storage in water, the mean dentin bond strengths ranged from 9.3 MPa to 14.0 MPa. After 10,000 thermal cycles, the mean bond strengths remained unchanged. Failure after the test was commonly due to adhesive breakdown associated with partial cohesive failure of the resin. The present results suggest that the benefit of using single-step self-etch systems, in terms of simplifying the clinical procedure, might be acceptable even after thermal stresses. (J. Oral Sci. 48, 63-69, 2006)
The adhesion of early settlers of dental plaque to the tooth surface has a role in the initiation of the development of dental plaque. The hydrophobic surface properties of the bacteria cell wall are indirectly responsible for the adhesion of the bacteria cell to the acquired pellicle on the tooth surfaces. In this study, the effect of aqueous extract of two plants (Psidium guajava and Piper betle) on the cell-surface hydro-phobicity of early settlers of dental plaque was determined in vitro. Hexadecane, a hydrocarbon was used to represent the hydrophobic surface of the teeth in the oral cavity. It was found that treatment of the early plaque settlers with 1 mg/ml extract of Psidium guajava reduced the cell-surface hydrophobicity of Strep. sanguinis, Strep. mitis and Actinomyces sp. by 54.1%, 49.9% and 40.6%, respectively. Treatment of these bacteria with the same concentration of Piper betle however, showed a comparatively lesser effect (< 10%). It was also observed that the anti-adhesive effect of the two extracts on the binding of the early plaque settlers to hexadecane is concentration dependent. (J. Oral Sci. 48, 71-75, 2006)
This study was conducted to identify factors associated with periodontal disease in a Jordanian population using principal component and factor analysis techniques. Subjects were 603 dentate patients aged 15-65 years attending dental teaching clinics at the Jordan University of Science and Technology. Their oral hygiene and periodontal status were assessed using plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession, and number of missing teeth. Factor and principal component analysis and binary logistic regression were conducted to identify factors related to periodontal disease. Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession, and number of missing teeth were sorted as the same factor and could be combined in one scale to measure the severity of periodontal disease. On the other hand, plaque index and gingival index were sorted as another factor and could be combined in another scale to correlate between oral hygiene and gingival status. The results dem-onstrated that increased age, low level of education, increased plaque index score, not brushing teeth, smoking more than 15 pack-years, and having diabetes were significantly associated with increased severity of periodontal disease. In conclusion, it was possible to form a standard scale, based on linear combinations of periodontal indices and parameters, to measure the severity of periodontal disease and determine its risk indicators. (J. Oral Sci. 48, 77-84, 2006)
Canal preparation is one of the most important stages of endodontic therapy, and various techniques have been applied for it. The present study was conducted to compare the quantity of debris extruded from the apical foramen during canal preparation during the manual technique and with the use of three rotary systems (Profile, Race, FlexMaster). One hundred single-rooted premolars were divided into four groups of 25 teeth each. For collection of debris, vials containing distilled water and weighed before canal preparation were used. Groups H, P, R and F were prepared by the manual step-back technique, and with the use of the Profile system, Race system and FlexMaster system, respectively. After canal preparation, the vials were dried thoroughly and reweighed. The difference between the weights of the vials at the two stages was taken as the debris weight. The mean debris weights were compared by one-way ANOVA. Group H had the highest mean debris weight, which was significantly different from those of the rotary groups (P < 0.001). The lowest mean debris weight was related to group R, which was significantly different from that of group F but not significantly different from that of group P. It was concluded that the Race system induces less extruded debris than the manual technique and the FlexMaster system. (J. Oral Sci. 48, 85-88, 2006)
We report a case of oral malodor associated with internal resorption. A 39-year-old male attended our hospital complaining of oral malodor. Utilizing organoleptic measurement, the halimeter test and gas chromatography, it was diagnosed as a strong halitosis caused by oral origin. The pocket probing depth of tooth 21 was 10 mm, and X-ray examination revealed a vertical bone loss around this tooth. The patient had received periodontal treatment at two dental offices previously, but the periodontal conditions and oral malodor persisted. We performed an initial periodontal preparation, however a deep pocket remained. We therefore performed a surgical inspection including flap reflection, and found that the tooth had a large perforating defect in the distal surface. The extracted tooth had multiple perforating defects covered with granulation tissues on all root surfaces including the root apex. Taking into consideration the anamnesis and X-ray examination of the extracted tooth, internal absorption was considered to have been the cause of the multiple perforating defects. After extraction of the causative tooth, oral malodor dramatically decreased. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral malodor associated with internal resorption. (J. Oral Sci. 48, 89-92, 2006)
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