Root resorption is a physiologic event for the primary teeth. It is still unclear whether odontoclasts, the cells which resorb the dental hard tissue, are different from the osteoclasts, the cells that resorb bone. Root resorption seems to be initiated and regulated by the stellate reticulum and the dental follicle of the underlying permanent tooth via the secretion of stimulatory molecules, i.e. cytokines and transcription factors. The primary root resorption process is regulated in a manner similar to bone remodeling, involving the same receptor ligand system known as RANK/RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B/ RANK Ligand). Primary teeth without a permanent successor eventually exfoliate as well, but our current understanding on the underlying mechanism is slim. The literature is also vague on how resorption of the pulp and periodontal ligament of the primary teeth occurs. Knowledge on the mechanisms involved in the physiologic root resorption process may enable us to delay or even inhibit exfoliation of primary teeth in those cases that the permanent successor teeth are not present and thus preservation of the primary teeth is desirable. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 1-12, 2007)
The objective of this study was to determine the reproducibility of a positioning device and a method for measuring the area of alveolar bone loss (ABL) in hemi mandibles of mice. Mucoperiosteal flaps were raised in CF1 Mus domesticus mice (n = 10) on the buccal aspects of the left side of the mandibles. Twenty-one days after surgery, the animals were sacrificed, and the mandibles were resected and stained with 1% toluidine blue. Two positioning devices, one for the buccal and the other for lingual aspect, were fabricated to keep the hemi mandibles in a standard position. The reliabilities of the positioning device and the method for measuring ABL area were analyzed using two series of pictures. The photographs were digitized and ABL measured as the exposed root area. Measurements were performed by two blinded examiners using image analysis software. Intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility of the positioning method ranged from -1.5 to +1.33 mm, while intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility of the measurement technique ranged from -3.37 to 14.70. Our results indicate that, due to the small variation observed in ABL area assessment, the positioning device and method for measuring ABL area represent useful techniques for evaluating ABL in mice. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 13-17, 2007)
A study was conducted to evaluate the top and bottom hardness of two composites cured using polymerizing units equipped with light-emitting diodes [LED] (LEDemetron; Elipar FreeLight, Coltolux LED) and one quartz-tungsten halogen device [QTH] (Optilux 501) under different exposure times (20, 40 and 60 sec). A matrix mold 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth was made to obtain five disc-shaped specimens for each experimental group. The specimens were cured by one of the light-curing units (LCUs) for 20, 40 or 60 sec, and the hardness was measured with a Vickers hardness-measuring instrument (50 g/30 sec). Data were subjected to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). LED LCUs were as effective as the QTH device for curing both composites. A significant increase in the microhardness values were observed for all light LCUs when the exposure time was changed from 20 sec to 40 sec. The Z250 composite showed hardness values that were usually higher than those of the Charisma composite under similar experimental conditions. LED LCUs are as efficient for curing composites as the QTH device as long as an exposure time of 40 sec or higher is employed. An exposure time of 40 sec is required to provide composites with a uniform and high Knoop hardness when LED light-curing units are employed. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 19-24, 2007)
This study determined the hardness and curing depth of a light-activated indirect composite polymerized with three laboratory light-polymerizing units for the purpose of comparing the curing performance of the three units. A light-activated composite material for indirect application (Vita Zeta) was polymerized with three light-polymerizing units equipped with the following light sources: 1) one halogen lamp and two fluorescent lamps (α-Light II); 2) three halogen lamps (Twinkle HLG); and 3) one metal halide lamp (Twinkle LI). Knoop hardness and curing depth were determined for groups of five specimens using standardized testing methods. The results were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffé's S intervals (α = 0.05). The Knoop hardness number (KHN) generated with the halogen-fluorescent unit (12.5 KHN) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those produced by the halogen unit (13.9 KHN) and the metal halide unit (14.2 KHN). Of the three units, the halogen-fluorescent unit exhibited the lowest depth of cure. Both the hardness and curing depth of the composite were influenced by the laboratory polymerizing units employed. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 25-29, 2007)
The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term satisfaction rate among skeletal class III patients following orthodontic treatment. Questionnaires were sent to 315 post-retention (between 5 to 22.5 years) patients who had received orthodontic treatment without any type of surgery for the correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. The questionnaire contained 28 questions: 10 regarding orthodontic treatment, 13 regarding satisfaction with orthodontic treatment outcomes, and five regarding psychosocial benefits of orthodontic treatment. The frequency of each variable was calculated and chi-squared test was used to determine gender correlations. The survey response rate was 15.8% (n = 40). Most patients were satisfied with their facial appearance (92.5%) and final esthetic profile (95%). Of the 5% who were dissatisfied with their final profiles, prognathic mandible was given as the reason. Most patients (90%) were satisfied with the overall treatment results. Moreover, patient perceptions of psychosocial benefits of treatment were mainly positive, with the majority (72.5%) stating their social communication had improved following orthodontic treatment. Chi-squared test indicated almost no variations in response by gender. In conclusion, the majority of skeletal class III patients in the long-term post-retention period who had received orthodontic treatment were satisfied with the overall treatment outcome. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 31-39, 2007)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different root-end filling materials – Sealer 26, Sealapex with zinc oxide, zinc oxide and eugenol, white and gray Portland cement, white and gray MTA-Angelus, and gray Pro Root MTA – against six different microorganism strains. The agar diffusion method was used. A base layer was made using Müller-Hinton agar (MH) and wells were formed by removing the agar. The materials were placed in the wells immediately after manipulation. The microorganisms used were: Micrococcus luteus (ATCC9341), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC10538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 10541). The plates were kept at room temperature for 2 h for prediffusion and then incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride 0.05% gel was added for optimization, and the zones of inhibition were measured. Data were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests at a 5% significance level. The results showed that all materials had antimicrobial activity against all the tested strains. Analysis of the efficacy of the materials against the microbial strains showed that Sealapex with zinc oxide, zinc oxide and eugenol and Sealer 26 created larger inhibition halos than the MTA-based and Portland cements (P < 0.05). On the basis of the methodology used, it may be concluded that all endodontic sealers, MTA-based and Portland cements evaluated in this study possess antimicrobial activity, particularly the endodontic sealers. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 41-45, 2007)
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of NiTi flex K-file instruments and rotary FlexMaster and Race instruments (short for reamers with Alternating Cutting Edges) in root canal preparation. A total of 75 single rooted teeth with minimum curvature (< 5°) were selected and divided into three groups, each containing 25 teeth. Canals were prepared with NiTi flex K-file, FlexMaster and Race instruments using crown down preparation technique, up to size #40. After each instrument, the root canals were flushed with 5 ml of 0.5% NaOCl solution. The amount of debris and smear layer was quantified on the basis of Hulsmann method using a scanning electron microscope. Completely cleaned root canals were not found after instrumentation with any of the three instruments. In general, FlexMaster instruments left significantly less debris and smear layer than Race and NiTi flex K-file instruments (P < 0.05). NiTi flex K-files resulted in significantly more smear layer (P < 0.05) compared to Race and FlexMaster instruments only in the apical third of the canal. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 47-52, 2007)
A study was conducted to examine the acceptability and effectiveness of a new type of health literacy program for children. The program was organized in the form of a workshop by a dentist. Sixty-three students aged 11-12 years were divided into 14 groups. The discussion topic was the effectiveness of toothbrushing for preventing periodontal disease. To investigate this issue, each group was asked to choose the most appropriate study design for obtaining a reliable answer. After the group discussion, the participants received a lecture on appraising the quality of health information. Pre- and post-program questionnaire surveys were administered to assess the program. Sixteen percent of the students had searched for health information via the Internet; however, 56% claimed to be interested in searching for health information via the Internet. The most approved design was a cohort study (seven groups) as the most valid type of research for showing the effectiveness of toothbrushing. The post-program questionnaire survey revealed that 89% of participants easily understood the content of the program, and 76% found the program to be useful. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using health literacy programs for schoolchildren. Health literacy programs for children will need to be developed and administered through collaboration between education and health professionals. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 53-59, 2007)
This study evaluated the Vickers hardness (VHN) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of the composite Z100 (3M ESPE) cured with: Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen light curing unit (QTH) (700mW/cm2- 40 s) and Argon laser (1,000mW/cm2- 10 s). Specimens of 2 mm depth and 8 mm diameter were immersed for 30 days at 37°C in different storage means: water, alcohol, acetic acid, propionic acid and dry (control). The DTS (n = 8) was determined with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The VHN (n = 8) test was carried out using a 50 g load for 60 s. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The relationship between VHN and DTS was observed by Pearson correlation. The light source was not significant in both tests (VHN: P < 0.18; DTS: P < 0.92), but the factor storage showed significance (P < .001). Mechanical properties of the control group were statistically superior to those of the other storage groups (VHN = 102.2; DTS = 42.3 MPa). The alcohol group showed the lowest VHN (93.3) and DTS (33.8 MPa) values, which were similar to values for propionic (VHN = 97.5; DTS = 35.9 MPa) and acetic acids (VHN = 97.8; DTS = 36.1 MPa), but different from that of water (VHN = 102.2; DTS = 42.3 MPa). The relationship between VHN and DTS values presented a positive correlation (r2 = 0.90; P < 0.01). (J. Oral Sci. 49, 61-66, 2007)
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a fluoride and xylitol containing toothpaste on the remineralization of human enamel using Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF). Human extracted teeth were cut longitudinally into three or four parts, and artificial subsurface lesion windows (2 mm × 3 mm) were created by immersion in demineralizing solution. Each enamel sample (n = 7) was treated for 3 min at 25°C twice a day for consecutive 14 days with the slurry of a silica-based toothpaste 1) without F- and xylitol (blank), 2) with 500 ppm F- and 3) with 500 ppm F- and 5% xylitol toothpaste. In addition, we measured the remineralization ability of a commercially available toothpaste 4) with 500 ppm F-. The average fluorescence loss F (%) and lesion size (mm2) were determined with QLF. Another variable, delta Q, which was defined as the fluorescence loss integrated over the lesion size (%, mm2), was calculated. The results showed that the combination of 500 ppm F- and 5% xylitol toothpaste significantly (P < 0.05) recovered both the size and delta Q compared to the other groups. These findings suggested that inclusion of xylitol in fluoride toothpaste might be useful to enhance the remineralization in vivo. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 67-73, 2007)
Forced eruption can be performed in teeth with caries, fracture, resorption or perforation in the cervical third of the root or isolated teeth with one- or two-walled vertical periodontal defects. The purpose of this case report is to introduce an innovative orthodontic appliance which enables forced eruption. This appliance is easy to fabricate, cost-effective and very effective in forced eruption of non-restorable teeth. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 75-78, 2007)
Among a variety of biomaterials that have been reported to be ideal for dental repair, calcium hydroxide has been shown to have excellent long-term biocompatibility in the pulp and periapical areas. Here we report an alternative method employing calcium hydroxide for periapical surgery in a patient who developed internal apical resorption after traumatic injury, which negatively affected the quality of the cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canal. Obturation of the root canal as far as the middle third was followed by apicoectomy and ultrasonic retropreparation, and then retrograde root filling with resin cement sealer (Sealer 26) and zinc oxide powder. Calcium hydroxide paste was applied over the exposed dentinal surface, forming a barrier over the root apex. Radiographic follow-up after 24 months showed absence of apical resorption and complete periapical bone repair associated with a continuous apical lamina dura. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 79-83, 2007)
Oral myiasis is a rare disease in humans associated with poor oral hygiene, suppurative oral lesions, alcoholism and senility, among other conditions. A case of oral myiasis in a 34-year-old white male with advanced periodontal disease and neurologic deficit is reported. Treatment consisted of manual removal of the larvae, one by one, with the help of clinical forceps and subsequent management of the periodontal disease. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 85-88, 2007)
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