Lichen planus, a chronic autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease affects the oral mucosa (oral lichen planus or OLP) besides the skin, genital mucosa, scalp and nails. An immune mediated pathogenesis is recognized in lichen planus although the exact etiology is unknown. The disease most commonly affects middle-aged females. Oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) which are considered variants of OLP, may be regarded as a disease by itself or as an exacerbation of an existing OLP, by the presence of medication (lichenoid drug reactions) or dental materials (contact hypersensitivity). OLP usually presents as white striations (Wickham's striae), white papules, white plaque, erythema, erosions or blisters. Diagnosis of OLP is established either by clinical examination only or by clinical examination with histopathologic confirmation. Direct immunofluorescence examination is only used as an adjunct to the above method of diagnosis and to rule out specific autoimmune diseases such as pemphigus and pemphigoid. Histopathologic features of OLP and OLR are similar with suggestions of certain discriminatory features by some authors. Topical corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for OLP although several other medications have been studied including retinoids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and photodynamic therapy. Certain OLP undergo malignant transformation and the exact incidence and mechanisms are still controversial. In this paper, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and malignant transformation of OLP and OLR have been reviewed. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 89-106, 2007)
Fibrillin is a primary component of elastin-associated microfibrils. Since microfibrils are distributed rather ubiquitously in embryonic tissues, attention has focused on the types of cells responsible for producing fibrillin. To clarify this issue, we employed monensin-induced perturbation of secretory activity in embryonic primary cultures, as this would allow examination of both the secreted protein and the formation of extracellular fibrils in the same culture. Micromasses of avian limb bud mesoderm, its ectodermal covering and several explants from other sources were cultured in the presence and absence of monensin, and evaluated immunohistochemically using antibodies against fibrillin and cell lineage markers. The results indicated that monensin perturbation induced intracellular accumulation of fibrillin and prevented the formation of microfibrils. It was shown specifically that not only mesodermally derived fibrogenic cells and myogenic cells of skeletal and smooth muscle cell lineage, but also epithelial-type cells such as endothelial and ectodermal cells, are producers of fibrillin. This dual cellular origin of fibrillin at the ectomesenchymal interface is considered significant for understanding the formation and remodeling of microfibrils originating from the basal lamina. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 107-114, 2007)
Milk and milk products, such as cheese, have been shown to exhibit anticariogenic properties in human and animal models. CPP-ACP shows an anti-caries effect by suppressing demineralization, enhancing remineralization, or possibly a combination of both. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP paste on demineralization by observing the treated tooth surface using an FE-SEM. The specimens were prepared by cutting enamel and dentin of bovine teeth into blocks. A few specimens were stored in 0.1 M lactic acid buffer solution for 10 min and then in artificial saliva (negative control). The remaining specimens were stored in a 10 times-diluted solution of CPP-ACP paste or a placebo paste containing no CPP-ACP for 10 min, followed by 10 min immersion in a demineralizing solution (pH = 4.75, Ca) twice a day before storage in artificial saliva. After treatment of the specimens for 3, 7, 21 and 28 days, they were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer solution, dehydrated in ascending grades of tert-butyl alcohol, and then transferred to a critical-point dryer. The surfaces were coated with a thin film of Au in a vacuum evaporator, and were observed under field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The SEM observations revealed different morphological features brought about by the various storage conditions. Demineralization of the enamel and dentin surfaces was more pronounced with the longer test period in the control and negative control specimens. On the other hand, enamel and dentin specimens treated with CPP-ACP paste revealed slight changes in their morphological features. From the morphological observations of the enamel and dentin surfaces, it could be considered that the CPP-ACP paste might prevent demineralization of the tooth structure. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 115-120, 2007)
The aim of this study was to investigate apical microleakage after use of the Resilon system in comparison with gutta-percha. The materials used were 54 mesial roots of mandibular molars with an apical curvature of 20-40°. The root canals were instrumented with the Prosystem GTR and obturated with: Group I: Gutta-percha + Sealer by lateral condensation (n = 25); Group II: Gutta-percha + Sealer, complemented by System B and Obtura II (n = 25); Group III: Resilon + System B and Obtura II (n = 25); Group IV: Resilon by lateral condensation (n = 25). After immersion in India ink, the specimens were demineralized and rendered transparent. Apical dye leakage was analyzed with a stereomicroscope and a digital camera connected to a computerized system. All groups showed different degrees of apical dye microleakage. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that the largest leakage occurred in Group I (P < 0.05), whereas the other groups presented a similar pattern of microleakage (P > 0.05). Thermoplastification negatively influenced the apical sealing ability of Resilon. Gutta-percha points and conventional sealer yielded the highest values of apical leakage, especially when the lateral condensation technique was used. Regardless of the obturation technique employed, the Resilon system provided the lowest mean values of apical leakage, but did not provide hermetic sealing of the root canal system. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 121-128, 2007)
This study was conducted to clarify the degree to which a master cast needs to be carved to obtain a posterior palatal seal according to Swenson, based on a comparison among four dental practitioners. Sections of the casts with the seal scraped were made, and an optical microscope was used to measure the sagittal and vertical dimensions. It was found that the sagittal dimension may show a smaller difference in carving of the master cast in the posterior palatal seal area. The present results also suggest that the clinical experience of the prosthodontist in applying this method seems to have an effect on the carved shape and depth of the posterior palatal seal. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 129-132, 2007)
Despite the pivotal role of stem cells in homeostasis of oral epithelia the location of this cell population within the tissue is uncertain. How disease influences these cells in vivo also remains to be elucidated. In this study we have used six molecular markers to identify stem cells in normal and diseased buccal mucosa. Samples of normal oral mucosa (NOM), hyperkeratosis (OHK) and oral lichen planus (OLP) were immunostained for α6 and β1 integrins, keratin 15 (K15), melanoma-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (MCSP), NG2 the rat homologue of human MCSP and notch 1. K15, NG2 and β1 staining was continuous in the basal layer of NOM whilst α6 and MCSP were limited to basal cells at the tips of connective tissue papillae. K15 was downregulated in OLP whereas α6, β1 and MCSP were upregulated in both OLP and OHK. NG2 remained unchanged and notch 1 was absent in all samples. Therefore, the stem cell phenotype in OLP and OHK maybe altered in response to pathological signaling. Classification of these changes is essential to understand the role of adult stem cells in the pathogenesis of oral diseases characterised by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 133-139, 2007)
In the present study, we evaluated the ability of lectin from Talisia esculenta (TEL) and a protein from Labramia bojeri seeds (Labramin) to inhibit adherence of microorganisms and exert antimicrobial effects. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of these proteins were determined using 5 species of bacteria: Streptococcus mutans UA159, Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC10556, Streptococcus mitis ATCC903 and Streptococcus oralis PB182. In addition, an adherence assay was performed using these 5 bacterial species and sterile polystyrene microtiter plates coated with human saliva. Filtered protein solutions (6.25 to 100 μg/ml) were added to saliva-coated plates, and the plates were then incubated for 1 h at 37°C. After incubation, the plates were washed, and a bacterial suspension (106 CFU/ml) was then transferred to each plate, followed by incubation at 37°C for 1 h (10% CO2). Adherence of bacteria to the acquired pellicle was visualized by staining with crystal violet, and absorbance was measured using a plate reader at 575 nm. Neither Labramin nor TEL, at any of the concentrations used, inhibited growth of any of the microorganisms. However, Labramin inhibited adherence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. The present results indicate that Labramin is potentially useful as a biofilm-inhibiting drug. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 141-145, 2007)
Since the anticaries effect of a dentifrice with low fluoride concentration and low pH is unknown, the aim of the present study was to evaluate in situ the enamel remineralizing ability of this type of formulation. A double-blind crossover design employing 3 phases of 45 days was conducted. Six adult volunteers wore palatal devices containing 6 previously demineralized human dental enamel slabs, which were subjected 3 times a day to one of the following treatments: non-fluoridated dentifrice (negative control); dentifrice containing 1, 100 μg F/g, pH 7.0 (positive control); dentifrice containing 550 μg F/g, pH 5.5 (experimental). At the end of each phase, enamel remineralization was assessed in terms of cross-sectional microhardness, and loosely as well as firmly bound fluoride formation was determined on the enamel surface. Fluoridated dentifrices were more effective than the negative control in forming loosely and firmly bound fluoride on enamel (P < 0.05). However, the positive control formed more loosely bound fluoride than the other treatments (P < 0.05). Microhardness analysis showed that the fluoridated dentifrices were more effective than the negative control (P < 0.05) in remineralizing dental enamel, although no statistically significant difference was observed between them. Thus, the experimental dentifrice was shown to be effective in remineralizing dental enamel, and this may be attributable to its ability to form firmly bound fluoride on enamel. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 147-154, 2007)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of silanization and light-irradiation on bonding between a fiber post and different resin-based luting agents. Sixty silicium fiber posts (Easy Post) were divided into 10 groups according to the type of resin-based luting agent employed, whether the post surface was silanized, whether the adhesive was light-irradiated, and whether Calibra luting agent was used. The micro-tensile bond strength and bonded interface of specimens in each group were evaluated. Specimens luted with Calibra or FluoroCore 2 resin-based luting agent systems were superior to those treated with Multilink or Variolink II, in terms of both bond strength and interfacial integrity. Application of silane, light-irradiation of the adhesive, or light-irradiation of the Calibra resin-based luting agent did not significantly increase the bond strength further. It can be concluded that Calibra or FluoroCore 2 resin-based luting agent systems are more suitable for luting prefabricated Easy Post in a clinical situation, while pre-silanization of the post surface and light-irradiation of XP Bond/SCA adhesive or resin-based luting agent may not be as important as hitherto considered. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 155-160, 2007)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of six groups of antibiotics and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in a membrane filter model. Two-day-old E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) biofilm was exposed to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythr omycin, oxytetracycline, vancomycin, vancomycin followed by gentamicin, Ca(OH)2, and phosphate-buffered saline (control). After 1 h of exposure, the antimicrobial activity was neutralized by washing each disc five times in PBS, and then the colony-forming units of the remaining viable bacteria on each disc were counted. The results revealed that only erythromycin, oxytetracycline and Ca(OH)2 showed 100% biofilm kill. An ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test (P < 0.05) detected significant differences among the test agents, except in the ampicillin group versus the co-trimoxazole group. It is concluded that erythromycin, oxytetracycline and Ca(OH)2 are 100% effective in eliminating E. faecalis biofilm, whereas ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, vancomycin, and vancomycin followed by gentamicin are ineffective. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 161-166, 2007)
First described by James Ewing in 1921, Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or Ewing's tumor is one of the most aggressive bone tumors known. ES is an uncommon intra-osseous malignant tumor of questionable pathogenesis that occurs in children and young adults. Reports indicate that only 2 to 7% of cases involve the maxillofacial region, usually the mandible ramus, and few reported cases have involved the maxilla. In the present report of a case of ES of the mandible, we describe the results of imaging and evaluation after therapeutic treatment. This report provides a rare opportunity to observe radiologic features of ES in the mandible. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 167-171, 2007)
Here, we report the case of a male child with achondroplasia who was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea and underwent adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy. By analyzing lateral cephalograms, we evaluated the craniofacial and pharyngeal airway morphology immediately before surgery (age, 5 years 6 months) and 1 year 2 months after surgery (age, 6 years 8 months). Adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy dilated the pharynx and improved the craniofacial and pharyngeal morphologies, apparently thus improving the sleep apnea. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 173-177, 2007)
The root canal space prepared for a foundation restoration is often elliptic or too large, and an unintentionally prepared undercut is sometimes detected. This article presents a dental laboratory technique to reconstruct an endodontically treated tooth using a pre-impregnated fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) system instead of a conventional fiber post. Particular attention was paid to increase the volume of the fiber in the root canal, and care was taken to achieve adequate primary laboratory polymerization of the matrix monomer. This simple technique is useful in the fabrication of an FRC dowel core with increased fiber content. (J. Oral Sci. 49, 179-182, 2007)
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