This paper reviews contemporary literature concerning the possible influence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on osseointegration. In vitro studies concerning the effect of NSAIDs on growth factors and bone-generating cells are the primary source of data pertaining to this issue because relatively few in vivo studies have been conducted. It is concluded that prescribing NSAIDs during the early postoperative period is likely not without negative effect, although any negative influence appears to be temporary and does not affect the final outcome of osseointegration. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 239-246, 2008)
In the skeleton, prostaglandins, mainly PGE2 produced by osteoblasts under COX-2 stimulation, play either a stimulatory or an inhibitory role in bone metabolism, depending on the physiological or pathological conditions. The anabolic effect occurs largely in response to mechanical forces and in bone fracture healing, whereas PGE2-mediated resorption contributes significantly to bone loss in inflammatory diseases and in response to prolonged immobilization. Many reports have shown that conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may delay fracture healing and negatively interfere with spinal fusion in both humans and other animals, whereas the alleged inhibitory effects of COX-2-selective NSAIDs still lacks experimental and clinical evidence. Pertaining to clinical dentistry, recent studies have suggested a potential adjuvant role for NSAIDs in periodontal therapy. There are few experimental reports addressing the deleterious effects of conventional NSAIDs on alveolar bone healing; clinical reports, relating mostly to short-term administration of NSAIDs for management of post-extraction edema and pain, are just as rare and have noted no clinically perceptible delay in bone healing. Additional studies are necessary in order to elucidate whether patients who require reparational bone formation can safely receive prolonged treatment with NSAIDs, and which drug types are less harmful. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 247-252, 2008)
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how short-term wearing of an oral appliance (OA) with equal bite-raising distance but with varying protrusions affects occlusal force, contact area and load center. Twelve young healthy volunteers participated. With the appliance, the mandible was protruded 0%, 45%, 60% and 75% of maximum protrusion capacity, with 10 mm bite-raising between the first molars. The occlusal force, contact area and load center at maximum voluntary clenching were measured before wearing the OA, at 1 h, 3 h and 6 h during wearing, and 1 h after removal. When compared to the values before wearing the OA, occlusal force was significantly lower at 1 h, 3 h and 6 h during wearing in the case of no mandibular protrusion, and at 3 h and 6 h after for 45%, 60% and 75% of maximum mandibular protrusion (P < 0.05). Occlusal contact area was significantly smaller at 1 h and 6 h during wearing in the case of no protrusion, and at 6 h during wearing in the case of 45% of maximum protrusion (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for anterior shift in the location of the occlusal load center at 3 h and 6 h during wearing of the OA with any level of maximum protrusion. No significant change in these three measurements was found at 1 h after removal of the OA. The present study demonstrated that wearing an OA had only a marginal and transient influence on oral functions when their changes were compared before and after wearing the OA. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 253-258, 2008)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P.intermedia, E. corrodens and F. nucleatum in 30 subjects with chronic periodontitis treated by scaling and root planing (SRP) plus minocycline (test group) during 12 months with regular trimester maintenance care. Additionally, we evaluated whether the beneficial effects of the therapy on the microbial flora persisted for 24 months. The test group (n = 15) and the control group [SRP plus placebo (n = 15)] were randomly assigned. After SRP, subjects received minocycline or placebo at the baseline, and at 3, 6, and 9 months at all sites with a periodontal pocket depth (PD) of ≥ 6 mm. Moreover, two homologous teeth, initially PD ≥ 6 mm, were clinically and microbially monitored by PCR at the baseline, and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months. Differences in mean PD values between groups were analyzed by Student's t-test (P < 0.05). The results for bacterial frequencies showed no significant differences between groups (Fisher's Exact test, P < 0.05) or between time-points (Friedman test, P < 0.05). We failed to detect any differences between groups related to the presence of target pathogens for 12 months. The effects of both therapies on the microbial flora did not persist for 24 months. The group without supportive periodontal therapy showed an improvement in the pattern of pathogens with either of the therapies. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 259-265, 2008)
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral health attitudes and behavior of undergraduate dental students in India according to age, sex and level of dental education, and to compare it with those of other countries with different socioeconomic conditions. A self-administered questionnaire based on the Hiroshima University – Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI) was distributed among 372 dental students at Darshan Dental College and Hospital (DDCH). The response rate was 75.8% with 44% males and 56% females. The mean HU-DBI score showed a significant relationship (P < 0.05) with age by one way-analysis of variance (ANOVA). The students were considerably concerned about the appearance of their teeth and gums and halitosis. The total mean score was not markedly higher in the clinical years (years 3 and 4) than in the non-clinical years (years 1 and 2), indicating that the students were almost equally aware. Although there were no statistically significant differences in gender and academic year for the mean score of HU-DBI, the present study showed that dental students in India generally had poorer oral health awareness compared to several other countries. The oral health behavior of Indian dental students has to be improved in order to serve as a positive model for their patients, family, and friends. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 267-272, 2008)
The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage at three different thicknesses of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root-end filling material. Ninety extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were selected and the root canals of the teeth were cleaned, shaped and obturated with gutta percha and AH-plus sealer. Teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups each containing 20 experimental samples, and 5 positive and 5 negative controls. In the first, second and third experimental groups, cavities of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm in depth, respectively, were prepared and filled with MTA. Leakage was determined by the dye penetration method using India ink, and a stereomicroscope at ×16 magnifications and 0.1 mm accuracy. The microleakage in the 3-mm and 2-mm root-end cavities was less than at 1 mm depth, but analysis of variance revealed no significant differences among the three different thicknesses. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 273-277, 2008)
Recent studies indicate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) paste represents a promising class of bone graft substitute. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of nano-HA function have not yet been determined. This study was conducted to investigate the proliferation of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells cultured in the presence of nano-HA paste and to characterize associated changes in intracellular signaling pathways. Cultured PDL cells were stimulated with nano-HA paste and enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in a soluble form. Proliferation of PDL cells was determined by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in the DNA of proliferating cells. In order to understand the signaling mechanisms underlying the increased cell proliferation of PDL cells exposed to nano-HA, the phosphorylation status of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt, of the signal regulated kinases ERK 1/2 and of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was analyzed by Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies. Nano-HA paste showed two-fold less proliferation potential than EMD, but both substrates increased the proliferation rate significantly (P < 0.05) as compared with the negative control. The increased proliferation rate of PDL cells in the presence of nano-HA paste was mechanistically linked to activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream targets ERK1/2 and Akt. In conclusion, our findings suggest that nano-HA paste is a stimulator of cell proliferation, possibly contributing to the main processes of periodontal tissue regeneration. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 279-285, 2008)
We analyzed the frequency and radiological features of mesiodens in a group of children in Turkey. The study was based on a radiographic review of 23,000 pediatric patients (male: 12,667 female; 10,333) who visited the Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology during the period 2003-2005 (3 years). The presence of an unerupted supernumerary tooth, or tooth bud between the 2 central incisors or as unilateral or bilateral teeth in the midline of the maxilla was noted as mesiodens on radiographs. Eighty-five cases of mesiodens in 69 patients were found. Complete documentation, including radiographs, for these 69 patients were studied and analyzed. In addition to gender and age, the following information about the mesiodens was recorded: 1) number; 2) shape; 3) position; 4) complications caused by the mesiodens; 5) treatment. Of the 69 patients, the ratio of boys (47 cases) to girls (22 cases) was 2.1:1. Fifty-three (76.8%) of the children had 1 mesiodens, and 16 (23.1%) had 2 mesiodentes bilaterally to the midline. Of the 85 mesiodentes, 67 (78.8%) were fully impacted, 6 (7%) were partially erupted, and 12 (14.1%) were fully erupted. Most of the mesiodentes (55.2%) were found in the vertical position, followed by inverted position (37.6%), and horizontal position (7%). The main complications were delayed eruption of the permanent incisors (38.8%), maxillary midline diastema (17.6%), axial rotation or inclination of erupted permanent incisors (16.4%), and resorption of the adjacent teeth (4.7%) The prevelance of mesiodens has been estimated to be 0.15% to 2.2% of the population. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 287-291, 2008)
The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the inclination of the coronoid process of the mandible, and electromyographic activity of the anterior part of the temporal muscle in skeletal Class I and II individuals. Forty-seven volunteers (mean age 24.5 ± 3.9 years) were subdivided into two groups, according to angle ANB: Class I (n = 25) and II (n = 22). Two radiographic examinations were performed; one lateral cephalogram to measure angle ANB, and one frontal cephalogram to measure the inclination of the coronoid process. Electromyographic (EMG) examination of the anterior part of the subjects' temporal muscles was performed. Statistical analysis of the data showed that Class II individuals presented lower electromyographic activity of the anterior part of the temporal muscle. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the skeletal classes analyzed had no influence on the inclination of the coronoid process. The inclination of the coronoid process was not influenced by the electromyographic activity of the anterior part of the temporal muscle in Class I and II individuals; however, the lower electromyographic activity of the anterior part of the temporal muscle could be influenced by the skeletal class in Class II individuals. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 293-299, 2008)
Bio-Oss (BO), composed of anorganic bovine bone, is widely used in several bone regeneration procedures in oral surgery. PerioGlas (PG) is an alloplastic material that has been used for grafting of periodontal osseous defects since the 1990s. However, how these biomaterials alter osteoblast activity to promote bone formation is poorly understood. We attempted to address this question by using microRNA microarray techniques to investigate differences in translational regulation in osteoblasts exposed to BO and PG. By using miRNA microarrays containing 329 probes designed from human miRNA sequences, we investigated miRNAs whose expression was significantly modified in an osteoblast-like cell line (MG-63) cultured with BO vs PG. Three up-regulated miRNAs (mir-337, mir-200b, mir-377) and 4 down-regulated miRNAs (mir-130a, mir-214, mir-27a, mir-93) were identified. Our results indicated that BO and PG act on different miRNAs. Globally, PG causes activation of bone-forming signaling, whereas BO also activates cartilage-related pathways. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 301-307, 2008)
The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activities of a new resin-based SuperBond (SB) Sealer and five other sealers/cements against endodontic pathogens. The antimicrobial activities of SB Sealer, Sealapex, AH plus, Roeko Seal Automix, Canals N, and ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were examined using a double-layered method. The microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sanguinis were used. Live microorganisms were stained using triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and the zones of inhibition of microorganism growth were measured. The antimicrobial activity of SB Sealer was significantly lower than that of the other sealers, except for Pro Root MTA, against S. aureus, C. albicans, S. mutans, and S. sanguinis, but no activity against E. faecalis was detected. On the other hand, AH plus exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity. Pro Root MTA showed no antimicrobial activity against any of the microorganisms tested. SB Sealer offered no antimicrobial advantage over the other sealers tested except for Pro Root MTA. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 309-313, 2008)
This study analyzed the correlation between the degree of conversion (DC) and the plasticization (P) of experimental dimethacrylate-based polymeric matrices. Six polymeric matrices produced with Bis-GMA (G), UDMA (U) and TEGDMA (T) dimethacrylate monomers were studied: G, U, GT55, GT73, GU55, GU73 - (55 = 50/50wt% and 73 = 70/30wt%). Photoactivation was induced by camphoroquinone/ethyl N, N-dimethyl-4-aminobenzoate. The matrices were light-cured using two modes: Standard (S) - 850 mW/cm2 for 20 s, and Gradual (G) - 100 up to 1000 mW/cm2 for 10 s + 1,000 mW/cm2 for 10 s. The degree of conversion (%) was obtained by using a FT-IR spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total reflectance crystal (ATR), and plasticization was estimated by the softening effect of ethanol. No correlation was found between the degree of conversion and plasticization (r = 0.32 / P = 82.35 ± 0.85DC). The means of DC% were: GT55 (66.18 ± 3.29) > U (59.34 ± 5.61) > GT73 (54.97 ± 7.89) > GU55 (50.60 ±6.26) > GU73 (44.02 ± 4.85) > G (38.25 ± 3.35), (P < 0.05). The matrices with TEGDMA showed the highest plasticization. The light-curing mode influenced only G > S plasticization (P < 0.05). (J. Oral Sci. 50, 315-321, 2008)
The aim of this study was to test the antibacterial effects of three experimental quaternary ammonium salt monomers in order to evaluate their potential applications as dental materials. In vitro susceptibility testing of the monomers was performed by the broth dilution method on bacteria associated with oral infections: Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 15987, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393. The time-kill kinetics of the monomer with relatively higher antibacterial activity against S. mutans were also investigated. It was found that all the tested bacteria strains were susceptible to the three monomers, among which methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) exhibited the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations, ranging from 1.2 to 4.8 μg/ml. The time-kill curve showed that DMAE-CB achieved 99.44% killing at 19.2 μg/ml (4 times the minimal bactericidal concentration) against S. mutans after 1 min and 100% killing within 10 min of contact. This result indicates that the quaternary ammonium salt monomer DMAE-CB may be a candidate antibacterial agent for incorporation into dental restorative materials. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 323-327, 2008)
Clearfil DC Bond (DC) is a new single-step, dual-cure bonding agent. In this study, the shear bond strengths of a core build-up composite to dentin used with four bonding systems [DC, Unifil Core Self-Etching Bond (UC), Clearfil SE Bond (SE) and Cleafil tri-S Bond (TS)] were measured. The bonding ability after 7 days of storage and in vitro durability following 20,000 thermocycles were also evaluated. The bond strength of DC did not differ significantly from those of other bonding systems after 24 hours of storage. Another dual-cure bonding system, UC, showed a significant reduction of bond strength after 7 days of storage. On the other hand, the bond strength of TS, a light-cured bonding system with a similar composition to DC, was reduced significantly following 20,000 thermocycles. SE, a two-step light-cure bonding system in the same series as DC, provided superior bond strength under all conditions. Although DC showed a slightly lower bond strength than SE, there was no significant difference between DC and SE under all conditions. Consequently, DC may be a useful and effective bonding system for multiple composite resin restorations. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 329-333, 2008)
Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease that causes chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Although diabetes can cause considerable cellular changes, this field has attracted little research. We therefore decided to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes in oral epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method. In 30 control individuals and 30 patients with type II diabetes, smears were obtained from two distinct oral sites: the buccal mucosa and tongue dorsum. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou solution. Quantitative and qualitative changes were evaluated in each slide. For this purpose, 50 clearly defined cells in each slide were microscopically evaluated, and photographs were subjected to computerized morphometric analysis. Cytoplasmic and nuclear areas in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. The cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio was lower in the control group. At both smear sites, the proportion of cells with nuclear changes was higher in the diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus can cause alterations in the oral epithelium that are detectable with this exfoliative cytology method. The method may be viable in evaluating this disease. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 335-340, 2008)
This paper provides information about Peru's dental history and dental school system, including the curriculum and dental licensure. With the increase in the number of dental schools in Peru, the number of dentists is also increasing. Until 1965, Peru had only three dental schools; currently, there are 14. Four of these dental schools are public, and ten are private. A five- or six-year dental program leads to the B.D.S. degree. After successful completion of a thesis defense or competency examination, the D.D.S. degree is awarded. The D.D.S. is mandatory for practicing dentistry in Peru. Currently, there are approximately 14,000 active dentists, with a dentist-patient ratio of approximately 1:2,000. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 341-344, 2008)
Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of the jaw. Involvement of the maxillary sinus is an unusual presentation. We present the case of a 23-year-old man with extensive KCOT and impacted third molar in the right maxillary sinus. The clinical, radiological, and histological features of this tumor and its surgical management are discussed. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 345-349, 2008)
Breakage of needles is one of the most frustrating and distressing complications of local anesthesia. It is also one of the easiest to prevent. This article describes the use of the C-arm digital fluoroscope for retrival of a broken dental needle from the pterygomandibular space. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 351-353, 2008)
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has shown potential as a root-end filling material. This clinical case describes the successful treatment of a premolar with an open apex using MTA and the warm gutta-percha technique. The results suggested that MTA may be used as an apical filling material in permanent teeth with multiple canals. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 355-358, 2008)
Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease that initially manifests in the form of intraoral lesions, which spread to other mucous membranes and the skin. The etiology of pemphigus vulgaris is still unknown, although the disease has attracted considerable interest. The pemphigus group of diseases is characterized by the production of autoantibodies against intercellular substances and is thus classified as autoimmune diseases. Most patients are initially misdiagnosed and improperly treated for many months or even years. Dental professionals must be sufficiently familiar with the clinical manifestations of pemphigus vulgaris to ensure early diagnosis and treatment, since this in turn determines the prognosis and course of the disease. Here, we report a case of pemphigus vulgaris that was misdiagnosed in its earliest stage. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 359-362, 2008)
Mandibular second premolars with three canals (Type V, Vertucci) and separate foramina are very rare. The anatomy of the pulp chamber floor in these premolars usually reveals one lingual and two buccal orifices at the same level. This case report describes a second premolar with three canals and an unusual pulpal floor anatomy with one distobuccal and one distolingual orifice at the same level and an orifice on the mesiolingual wall. Very careful examination of the pulpal space, preferably with an optical device, is recommended to locate any unusual orifices. (J. Oral Sci. 50, 363-366, 2008)
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