Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. Such interactions are associated with the capacity of Candida spp. to invade gingival conjunctive tissue, and may be important in the microbial colonization that contributes to progression of oral alterations caused by diabetes mellitus, some medications, and immunosuppressive diseases such as AIDS. In addition, immune deficiency can result in proliferation of Candida spp. and germination of forms that are more virulent and have a higher capacity to adhere to and penetrate cells in host tissues. The virulence factors of Candida spp. increase host susceptibility to proliferation of these microorganisms and are likely to be important in the study of periodontal disease. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining to the role of Candida spp. in periodontal disease, and consider the main virulence factors, the host immune response to these microorganisms, and the effect of concomitant immunosuppressive conditions. (J Oral Sci 52, 177-185, 2010)
We evaluated the curing efficiency of 4 high-intensity light-emitting diode (LED) devices by assessing percentage of residual C=C (%RDB), surface microhardness (SM), depth of cure (DC), percentage of linear shrinkage-strain (%LS), and percentage of wall-to-wall contraction (%WWC). The light-curing units tested were a QTH light, the Elipar TriLight (3M/ESPE), and 4 LED devices – the Allegro (Denmat), the Bluephase (Ivoclar/Vivadent), the FreeLight2 (3M/ESPE), and The Cure TC-01 (Spring Health Products). The %RDB was measured by microFTIR spectroscopy. Microhardness measurements (Vickers) were performed at the surface (H0) and at depths of 3 mm (H3) and 5 mm (H5) of cylindrical specimens. Depth of cure was expressed as the ratio of microhardness at each depth, relative to the corresponding surface value (H3/H0 and H5/H0). The bonded disc method was used to evaluate %LS. For the %WWC evaluation, cylindrical resin restorations were imaged by high resolution micro-CT and the %WWC was calculated at depths of 0 mm and 2 mm. There were no statistical differences among the LEDs in %RDB or %LS. The Bluephase and Allegro had the highest SM values. As compared with the other LEDs, the Bluephase and The Cure TC-01 had lower values for depth of cure at depths of 3 mm and 5 mm. There were no significant differences in %WWC among the LEDs at either depth, and the QTH had the lowest %WWC at both depths. (J Oral Sci 52, 187-195, 2010)
This study investigated the change in interproximal force (IPF) in mandibular anterior teeth during retention and the relationship between the irregularity index before orthodontic treatment and the IPF. The effect that an erupting third molar had on IPF was also examined. Forty treated patients (40 with extraction of four bicuspids) were followed for 18 months during the retention phase. The irregularity index was determined from initial plaster casts. The total IPF was determined by measuring the interdental frictional forces at the mandibular anterior teeth by withdrawing a metal strip. The total IPF increased during the retention phase until 18 months, and there was a positive correlation between the irregularity index and total IPF 6 to 18 months after active treatment. An erupting third molar did not affect the total IPF. An increase in the total IPF may be an indication of relapse in mandibular anterior crowding. In conclusion, orthodontists should pay special attention to potential relapse in the lower anterior teeth 6 months after active treatment in cases with severe anterior crowding before treatment. (J Oral Sci 52, 197-201, 2010)
Microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT; R_mCT) is a dynamic noninvasive method for measuring bone regeneration. This study evaluated whether R_mCT was equivalent to histomorphometry in assessing bone augmentation. Two plastic caps of graft material with (experiment) or without hydroxyapatite (HA; control) were placed in the exposed calvaria of rats. Images of bone augmentation within the plastic caps were then taken using R_mCT. Histological sections were cut along the same plane as that used for the micro-CT images. Bone regeneration beyond the skeletal envelope occurred at both the experimental and control sites. Bone volume also increased at both sites. In addition, consistent patterns of bone formation were observed in both R_mCT and histological images. R_mCT analysis enables highly quantitative and qualitative measurement of bone augmentation in living animals. (J Oral Sci 52, 203-211, 2010)
In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was used to identify candidate chromosomes and for detecting the regions that include the gene or genes causing gutter-shaped root (GSR) in AKXL recombinant inbred mouse strains. One potential QTL was detected on chromosome 5 within a region of 13.0 cM, where the likelihood ratio statistic (LRS) score was higher than a suggestive level. This indicates that one of the candidate genes causing mouse GSR may be located in this region. (J Oral Sci 52, 213-220, 2010)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) was originally discovered as a vasoconstrictor protein excreted by vascular endothelial cells. Recently, tumor-produced ET-1 has been considered to stimulate osteoblasts to form new bone, and to be an important mediator of osteoblastic bone metastasis. ET-1 has high affinity for two different membrane receptors, ETAR and ETBR, which are expressed by many types of cells including osteoblasts. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a phosphorylated and sulfated glycoprotein associated with mineralized connective tissues. To investigate the effects of ET-1 on BSP transcription, we used rat osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells. Levels of BSP and osteopontin mRNA were increased at 12 h after treatment with ET-1 (10 ng/ml), and ET-1 at the same concentration induced luciferase activity of a -116 to +60 BSP promoter construct at 6 h. Transcriptional activity of -84BSPLUC, which contains the cAMP response element (CRE), was increased by ET-1. Furthermore, at 6 h, ET-1 (10 ng/ml) increased the binding of nuclear protein to CRE, the FGF2 response element (FRE) and the homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX). Antibodies against CREB1, JunD and Fra2 disrupted the formation of CRE-protein complexes, while antibodies against Runx2 and Dlx5 reduced the formation of FRE- and HOX-protein complexes. These findings indicate that ET-1 increases BSP transcription via the CRE, FRE and HOX sites in the rat BSP gene promoter. (J Oral Sci 52, 221-229, 2010)
Butyric acid (sodium butyrate; BA) is an extracellular metabolite secreted from periodontopathic bacteria present in subgingival plaque. BA induces apoptosis of T and B cells, and acts as a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in the initial mineralization of bone, and may be crucial for osteoblast differentiation, bone matrix mineralization and tumor metastasis. In the present study we investigated the regulation of BSP transcription by BA in rat osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells. At 12 h, BA (10-4 M) increased the level of BSP mRNA, and enhanced the luciferase activity of the construct pLUC3, which includes the promoter sequence between nucleotides -116 and +60. Transcriptional stimulation by BA was abrogated in the pLUC3 construct which containing a 2-bp mutation in the fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE). Gel shift analyses showed that BA increased the binding of nuclear protein to FRE. These data suggest that BA increases the transcription of the BSP gene mediated through FRE in the rat BSP gene promoter, and induces osteoblast activity in the early stage of bone formation. (J Oral Sci 52, 231-237, 2010)
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. The mortality rate associated with head and neck cancers remains high, and thus detection techniques are important. In the present study, methyl green-pyronin staining was applied to 5 normal mucosa specimens, 10 cases of dysplastic mucosa, 12 cases of SCC (grade I), 10 cases of SCC (grade II) and 5 cases of SCC (grade III) in the oral cavity. This is the first study in which nuclear and nucleolar cytomorphometric parameters (diameter, area and number) in such oral lesions were evaluated using this method. As methyl green-pyronin selectively stains nucleic acids, it can differentiate between DNA (green) and RNA (red). The results reveal that the proposed method can be used to evaluate changes in the nucleus and nucleolus in premalignant lesions in the oral cavity. (J Oral Sci 52, 239-243, 2010)
In this cross-sectional questionnaire-based study, we surveyed the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and use of rubber dams (RDs) among dentists in southern Nigeria. The questionnaire, which was distributed and collected by one of the authors, requested information on the dentists' background characteristics, attitudes, and knowledge. Data were analyzed with SPSS, and the chi-square was used to assess differences in categorical variables. A total of 100 out of 108 dentists responded (92.6% response rate). The prevalence of RD use was 18%. Dentists in the government sector used RDs more often than did dentists in the private sector. About 77% of dentists had not used RDs or were unaware of how to use them. All specialists had seen RDs, but only 56% had used one in their practice. All dentists believed in the effectiveness of RDs. We conclude that rubber dams are underutilized in this population, and that dentists need to be made aware of the possibility of rubber dam use through an awareness campaign. (J Oral Sci 52, 245-249, 2010)
Extensive research within the past half-century has indicated that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow pigment in curry powder, exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic activities. We investigated whether the anti-pre-cancer activities assigned to curcumin are mediated through an anti-oxidant and DNA-protecting mechanism. Patients with oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis or lichen planus, and healthy individuals (n = 25 for each group) aged 17-50 years were selected. Salivary and serum oxidative markers such as malonaldehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), vitamins C and E were measured just prior to the intake of curcumin, after one week of curcumin intake and following clinical cure of precancerous lesions. Serum and salivary vitamins C and E showed increases, while MDA and 8-OHdG levels showed decreases in patients with oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis and lichen planus after intake of curcumin for all categories of precancerous lesions. The changes in these values were observed to be statistically significant after clinical cure of the disease (P < 0.05). The five-point rating scale for pain, as well as lesion size in oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis and lichen planus, improved significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, in submucous fibrosis, mouth opening (P < 0.05) recovered significantly. In oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis and lichen planus, the levels of serum and salivary vitamins C and E increased significantly, while MDA and 8-OHdG levels decreased after 131(15), 211(17), and 191(18) days, respectively. Values for serum and salivary vitamins C and E showed a significant decrease in oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis and lichen planus, in contrast to healthy individuals, but increased significantly in all groups subsequent to curcumin administration after clinical cure of lesions. Based on these results, we can conclude that curcumin mediates its anti-pre-cancer activities by increasing levels of vitamins C and E, and preventing lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. (J Oral Sci 52, 251-256, 2010)
Enamel pearls are anatomical structures that can bring about clinical implications if associated with the retention of plaque, in turn resulting in periodontal disease. In an attempt to avoid periodontal disease, the removal and treatment of these enamel pearls, may be a necessity in some circumstances. A total of 45,785 extracted teeth from a human teeth bank were analyzed for the presence of enamel pearls. The most prevalent anatomical location of enamel pearls was the permanent maxillary first and second molar region. An association between the prevalence of enamel pearls and dental class (P < 0.001) was observed, most frequently in the maxillary molars. In the maxillary molars, the most prevalent anatomical location of enamel pearls in the first and second molars was the furcation between the distobuccal and palatal roots. Enamel pearls are a common observation in molars in general, but are most commonly found in maxillary molars. (J Oral Sci 52, 257-260, 2010)
Adequate softness and surface integrity are the two most important clinical features of a tissue conditioner. This study was designed to examine the effect of coating on the surface integrity and softness of a tissue conditioner at various time intervals. A total of 72 specimens were prepared and divided into two equal groups. Group I (control group) specimens were lined with tissue conditioner and left uncoated. Group II (test group) specimens were lined with tissue conditioner and coated with a surface conditioning agent. The specimens were then examined for softness with a durometer and for surface integrity with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at the baseline, and after 1, 2 and 3 weeks. At 3 weeks, softness on the American Standards for Testing Materials (ASTM) scale showed a significant (P < 0.001) difference between the control and test groups. Qualitatively, SEM analysis indicated that surface integrity in the control group had deteriorated by the end of the first week, whereas that in the test group remained intact until the end of the third week. Within the limitations of this study, our data suggest that application of a coating can significantly reduce the loss of softness and surface integrity of a tissue conditioner. (J Oral Sci, 261-265, 2010)
The present study aimed to detect possible differences in the data of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) cases diagnosed in a Dental School in São Paulo city over the last 40 years. The records of patients diagnosed as having OSCC between the years 1960 and 2008 were retrieved. The whole period was divided into four time periods. A total of 1,564 cases were reviewed. The variables analyzed were: sex, age, race, anatomical site, lesion duration, and lesion size. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Overall, males were more affected than females (3:1), but when comparing the first and last time periods, the ratio decreased significantly (5.8:1 to 2.8:1). A significant increase in the rate of OSCC in patients over 80 years was observed in the last time periods. The gingiva was the most affected site, but the frequency of lower lip involvement increased in the last time period. Regarding lesion size and duration of symptoms at the time of diagnosis, there was a significant difference between the first and last time periods. Smaller lesions were found and the time of lesion development was shorter in the last few years of the study. These findings support the optimistic view that, in recent years, earlier diagnosis has resulted from early oral cancer detection in São Paulo city. (J Oral Sci 52, 267-273, 2010)
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a malignant glandular epithelial neoplasm having an unpredictable behavior and a tendency to recur. Numerous parameters have been assessed to predict the outcome of this lesion, but have been deemed inadequate, with the exception of tumor stage and grade. In the present study, we attempted to correlate the proliferative activity of MEC with its histopathological grade, using argyrophillic nuclear organizer region (AgNOR) count. Thirty cases of MEC were included in the study. All the slides were stained using hematoxylin and eosin and silver nitrate techniques. Counting was performed at a magnification of ×1,000 with an oil-immersion lens. Positive correlations were seen between AgNOR count and MEC grade (P < 0.05), with AgNOR count increasing in proportion with tumor grade. The AgNOR count in various grades of MEC indicates a relative progression in the proliferative activity of this tumor. This index is positively correlated with tumor grade, although there are some exceptions. The utility of AgNOR count in predicting the prognosis of MEC can be considered of importance; however, further assessment, such as survival studies, is necessary. (J Oral Sci 52, 275-279, 2010)
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the sealing ability of the lateral condensation technique and the BeeFill system after canal preparation by the Mtwo rotary system. Forty extracted single-rooted teeth were prepared by using the Mtwo rotary system. The teeth were then divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 15 each) and 2 control groups (n = 5 each). The specimens in groups 1 and 2 were obturated using the lateral condensation technique and the BeeFill system, respectively. The teeth in the negative control group were also obturated with the lateral condensation technique, and the specimens in the positive control group were not root-filled. The specimens were then immersed in an aqueous solution of 2% China ink for 1 week, after which the roots were cleared and the linear extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope by 2 endodontists. The data collected were then analyzed by using the 1-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and independent t test, with a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Although the mean (± standard deviation) dye leakage in the BeeFill thermoplasticized injection group was less than that in the lateral condensation group (1.497 ± 0.7 vs. 2.521 ± 1.733), there was no significant difference between the experimental groups on the parametric independent t-test (P = 0.209). (J Oral Sci 52, 281-285, 2010)
Electric pulp testing is one of the pulp vitality tests which aid dentists in diagnosis of the pulp status. This test is technique sensitive and hence may elicit false responses. There are some concerns regarding the optimal placement of the probe tip. The threshold value (the lowest electric current at which sensation is perceived) is reached when an adequate number of nerve fibers are stimulated, so the sensation would be greatest where the density of neural distribution is the highest. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimum site for electrode placement in anterior teeth of adults, the threshold values of these teeth using an electric pulp test, and to determine the influence of sex, age, and arch on the outcome. The optimum electrode placement sites and threshold values varied with type of tooth and arch. The maxillary teeth, canines, male gender and increasing age required higher electric current to evoke a sensation, while incisal edges required lower current to evoke a sensation. (J Oral Sci 52, 287-292, 2010)
The objective of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the concentrations of blood and salivary glucose as well as salivary flow and xerostomia in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The mean salivary glucose level in diabetic patients was 14.03 ±16.76 mg/dl and 6.35 ± 6.02 mg/dl (P = 0.036) in the control group. The mean capillary blood glucose level in diabetic patients was 213 ± 88 mg/dl, while that in non-diabetic patients was 99 ± 14 mg/dl (P = 0.000). The mean value for resting salivary flow was 0.21 ± 0.16 ml/min in diabetic patients and 0.33 ± 0.20 ml/min in the control group (P = 0.002). The stimulated salivary flow was lower in the group of diabetic patients, with a mean of 0.63 ± 0.43 ml/min, whereas the control group showed a mean of 1.20 ± 0.70 ml/min (P = 0.000). Of the diabetic patients, 45% exhibited hyposalivation, in contrast to 2.5% of the non-diabetic patients (P = 0.000). Xerostomia was reported in 12.5% of diabetic patients and 5% of non-diabetic patients (P = 0.23). We can conclude that salivary glucose concentration was significantly higher in the experimental group and that there was no correlation between salivary and blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. The total salivary flow was significantly reduced in diabetic patients and there was no significant difference as to the presence of xerostomia in both groups. (J Oral Sci 52, 293-298, 2010)
The aim of the present study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Blood samples and gingival crevicular fluid were collected from fourteen 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 350-500 g. A 25-g closed orthodontic coil spring was inserted between each upper right first molar and the upper incisors. After 21 days of loading, both upper first molars (treated and control) were extracted and studied under microcomputed tomography scanning. Statistical analysis demonstrated a positive linear correlation between the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and the degree of root resorption. The ratio of the initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin to RANKL in blood serum proved to be an independent prognostic factor of the degree of root resorption. The initial concentration of RANKL in gingival crevicular fluid showed a negative correlation to the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and for a finite range of initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin in gingival crevicular fluid, the dental root seemed protected against extreme external root resorption. Finally, the concentration of osteoprotegerin in blood serum decreased significantly in cases of severe root resorption. (J Oral Sci 52, 299-311, 2010)
The authors report a case of natal primary molar in a healthy 14-day-old child. The diagnosis of the case and the treatment plan are discussed, as well as histological analyses of the natal tooth. The tooth presented an immature appearance, with high mobility and insertion only in soft tissue, and therefore the clinical option adopted was dental extraction. Histological analyses revealed enamel hypoplasia and dentin showing a typical tubular pattern without alterations. The soft tissue had young and richly vascularized pulp with areas of chronic inflammatory infiltration. (J Oral Sci 52, 313-317, 2010)
Hemifacial microsomia is a congenital malformation in which there is deficiency in the amount of hard and soft tissues on one side of the face. It is primarily a syndrome of first and second branchial arches involving underdevelopment of the temporomandibular joint, mandibular ramus, masticatory muscles, ears and occasionally defects in facial nerve and muscles. Here, we report three cases of hemifacial microsomia diagnosed based on clinical and radiographic findings. All three cases had variable presentations ranging from the mildest form that included facial asymmetry and ear deformity to the most severe and unusual form with facial nerve paralysis and spine deformity. (J Oral Sci 52, 319-324, 2010)
External root resorption may occur as a consequence of trauma, orthodontic treatment, bacterial infection or incomplete sealing of the root canal system (bacterial re-infection), and lead to crater formation on the resorbed apex. This would deform the root apex surface, and cause loss of apical constriction. Depending on the extent of the resorptive process, different treatment regimens have been proposed. A 34-year-old male patient presented with an intra-radicular retainer and an inadequate filling on tooth #21, as well as a radiographic image suggesting periapical bone rarefaction. After root canal retreatment, the defect was accessed coronally. The resorption area was chemo-mechanically debrided and since the apical end was very wide, a calcium sulphate matrix was made. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was used to fill the resorptive defect, and the coronal access was temporarily sealed. After 24 h, the quality of the apical seal was evaluated with the aid of an operating microscope, and then the root canal system was filled. A 12-month follow-up radiograph showed adequate repair of the resorption. Clinically, the tooth was asymptomatic. We concluded that MTA can be successfully used to avoid overextension of the filling material when treating a tooth with external resorption. (J Oral Sci 52, 325-328, 2010)
Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is an uncommon fibro-osseous lesion occurring in the facial bones. It has been recognised as a separate histopathological entity among the fibro-osseous group of lesions. Fibro-osseous lesions of the craniofacial bones are difficult to classify and treat however a common factor to all is the conversion of the bone to benign fibrous tissue with a varying degree of mineralised tissue. This case describes a 15 year old patient with a juvenile aggressive ossifying fibroma (JAOF) and an estimate of the rate of growth of such a rare lesion. (J Oral Sci 52, 329-332, 2010)
Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome is a form of skeletal and chondroectodermal dysplasia, occurring with and without systemic involvement. Taurodontism of permanent and primary molars and upper posterior supernumerary teeth are rarely associated with this syndrome. A 5-year-old girl presented with early childhood caries and hypodontia. She had labiogingival adhesion, labiogingival frenulum hypertrophy, accessory labiogingival frenula, and a serrated appearance of the gingiva. She was also short in stature. All major features of chondroectodermal dysplasia were present. EVC syndrome requires multidisciplinary therapeutic planning, and the dentist plays a fundamental role in management of the oral and dental manifestations. (J Oral Sci 52, 333-336, 2010)
Oculodentodigital dysplasia is an extremely rare autosomal dominant pleiotropic disorder. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal facial features, central nervous system involvement, syndactyly and clinodactyly of fourth and fifth fingers, dry and lusterless hair, generalized enamel hypoplasia and odontodysplasia. Combination of odontodysplasia, poor oral hygiene, and parental neglect can lead to extensive destruction of tooth structure and the treatment options become limited. Early diagnosis with a proper treatment plan and meticulous oral hygiene program helps eliminate the necessity of multiple tooth extractions. This case report describes the comprehensive dental treatment aimed at rehabilitation of function and aesthetics of the dentition in an 8-year-old boy with oculodentodigital dysplasia. (J Oral Sci 52, 337-342, 2010)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly prescribed in dental practice after minor oral surgical procedures such as tooth extraction. Diclofenac sodium is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs widely used for pain relief in dentistry. Although adverse reactions to these drugs are rare, at times they can cause a life-threatening phenomenon. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is one such potentially lethal adverse drug reaction. Most reported cases of analgesic-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome were due to oxicams or propionic acid derivatives. There are very few detailed reports of Stevens-Johnson syndrome due to use of diclofenac. We report here a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome which occurred due to use of diclofenac sodium. The clinical features of this condition and multidisciplinary management of the patient are described in brief. (J Oral Sci 52, 343-346, 2010)
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