The adhesion techniques used in prosthetic dentistry have substantially improved with respect to retention of veneering resin to the metal framework of resin-veneered restorations and the bonding of resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (RBFPDs) to abutment teeth. In the early 1970s, prostheses relied on macromechanical retention for veneering surfaces and the retention holes of retainers. Later, retention was achieved by using small spherical particles. In addition, the use of small pits created by electrochemical corrosion was tested in resin-veneered restorations and RBFPDs. Thus, micromechanical retention gradually supplanted macromechanical retention. First-generation adhesive monomers were introduced at the end of the 1970s and were succeeded in the early 1980s by the marketing of adhesive resin cements, which were effective for use with non-noble alloys when surface oxidation procedures were used. In 1994, a second-generation adhesive primer for noble alloys was introduced, which prompted development of other adhesive primers. These primers were applied mainly to silver-palladium-copper-gold and type IV gold alloys and improved the reliability of RBFPDs. Recent studies have confirmed the effectiveness of such primers when used with high-gold-content metal ceramic alloys. Due to these developments, RBFPDs now have excellent esthetic characteristics. (J Oral Sci 55, 1-7, 2013)
This in vitro study evaluated the color stability, gloss, and surface roughness (Ra) of four indirect composites. Enamel and dentin shades of Radica, Sculpture Plus, Belleglass-NG, and Gradia Indirect were evaluated for color stability. Specimens were stored in a staining solution (coffee) and assessed every 3 days for a period of 21 days, after which color difference (∆E*) was calculated. Only enamel shades were used for measuring gloss and surface roughness at 0, 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 cycles of simulated toothbrushing. The results were statistically analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test. Statistically significant changes in ∆E* during the 21-day period were observed in all indirect composites for enamel and dentin shades, and ∆E* was greater than the clinically acceptable value of 3.3. Belleglass-NG showed the least change in ∆E*, while Sculpture Plus had large changes in ∆E*. In all groups, gloss was 75% lower than baseline values after 10,000 cycles of toothbrushing. After 20,000 cycles, surface roughness was highest in Radica and lowest in Belleglass-NG. Belleglass-NG had higher color stability and gloss retention, and lower surface roughness, as compared with the other composite systems. (J Oral Sci 55, 9-15, 2013)
This study was conducted to assess the psychological characteristics of, and determine the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral (CB) treatment for, patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). The baseline characteristics of 24 female patients (age 69.7 ± 5.9 years) and an identical number of healthy female control subjects (age 69.2 ± 5.5 years) were compared. The patient group had significantly higher anxiety scores (P < 0.05) at baseline. A brief group CB intervention was delivered in a small-group format. Two sessions were planned 6 months apart. A numeric rating scale (NRS) was used to assess pain intensity. Anxiety was evaluated using a state and trait anxiety inventories. Present pain intensity decreased after both the first and second sessions. The session effect was significant (P = 0.02), but no repeat effect was found (P = 0.19). The state anxiety inventory score also decreased after the second session. The session effect was significant (P < 0.01), as was the repeat effect (P < 0.01). The trait anxiety inventory score decreased after the second session, and the session effect was significant (P = 0.013), but the repeat effect was not (P = 0.93). The results suggest that a brief group CB intervention reduces pain intensity and anxiety in patients with BMS. (J Oral Sci 55, 17-22, 2013)
The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI’s survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as “I am bothered by the color of my gums”(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),“I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste” (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), “I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are” (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and “I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well” (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation. (J Oral Sci 55, 23-28, 2013)
The aim of this clinical trial was to assess satisfaction, as well as the frequency and type of prosthetic complications in terms of several variables, in patients with complete dentures that had been supplied at private clinics. The study subjects were 64 patients with a mean age of 63.48 years wearing complete dentures provided at private clinics, and requesting new ones. The degree of patient satisfaction with their dentures was assessed, as well as complications and parameters related to the dentures such as the accuracy of vertical dimensions and centric relation, arrangement and possible malposition of the artificial teeth, and the border length of the denture bases. The most common complication was loss of retention (85.9%), followed by ulceration (44.2%). Mandibular dentures with long vestibular borders showed a significantly higher incidence of epulis fissuratum (P = 0.017), and denture-related sore spots influenced patients’ speech ability (P = 0.023). Routine recalls seem to be important for wearers of complete dentures, as several insidious complications may develop and cause damage to the dentures as well as the patients’ oral tissues. (J Oral Sci 55, 29-37, 2013)
The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) and headache in children and adolescents. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was carried out involving 93 children and adolescents (6 to 14 years of age) at the outpatient service of a dental school. All participants underwent a clinical examination involving Axis 1 of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, along with a characterization of headache and an anthropometric evaluation. Statistical analysis involved the chi-squared test for quantitative variables and the Student’s t-test, ANOVA and Tukey’s test for quantitative data. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to determine significant associations among gender, age, TMJD and headache. Mild TMJD was identified in 35.8% of the sample and was not associated the presence of headache. Moderate TMJD was found in 25.8% of patients and severe TMJD was found in 11.8%; both forms of TMJD were associated with headache. A significant correlation was found between the intensity of TMJD and the risk of headache. The present findings demonstrate a positive correlation between TMJD and headache in children and adolescents, independently of gender and age. (J Oral Sci 55, 39-43, 2013)
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was originally defined as a nuclear protein. However, later studies showed that HMGB1 was released from damaged cells into the extracellular milieu and functioned as a danger signaling molecule. HMGB1 has also been shown to exert proliferative and chemoattractant effects on many cell types. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effect of human recombinant HMGB1 on the proliferation and migration of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF). For the proliferation assay, HGF and HPDLF were cultured in the presence of 5, 10, and 50 ng/mL HMGB1. After a period of 6 days, cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. The migration assay was performed by culturing the two cell types in Transwells with HMGB1 in the lower chamber as a chemoattractant. Cell migration during 16 h was determined by crystal violet staining of the cells that migrated across the membrane. The results showed that HMGB1, at 50 ng/mL, was able to significantly induce proliferation of HGF by up to 171.4 ± 17.1%. No such proliferation induction was seen for HPDLF. In the migration assay, however, 100 ng/mL HMGB1 induced migration of both cell types. The counts of cells that migrated across the membrane, as compared with the control, were increased to 273 ± 24.1% and 410.3 ± 158% for HGF and HPDLF, respectively. Since proliferation and migration are basic abilities of cells required for proper tissue repair, these data suggest that HMGB1 plays an important role in these functions of periodontal cells. (J Oral Sci 55, 45-50, 2013)
The aim of the present study was to evaluate color change and color stability against aqueous media of three indirect composite materials (Epricord, Estenia, and Twiny) that were polymerized with different systems. Disk-shaped specimens were prepared with their proprietary polymerization systems or with a metal halide light polymerization unit (Twinkle X). The specimens were then immersed in water or tea. Change in color from baseline (24 h) to 4 weeks was determined with a chromameter (ShadeEye NCC) using a white background. The L*, a*, and b* values for both states were determined, and ΔE*ab values were calculated. The Estenia specimens immersed in tea had significantly lower ΔL* (-7.0 to -5.6) and significantly higher ΔE*ab values (6.5 to 8.6) than did the Epricord and Twiny specimens, under all polymerization conditions. The results indicate that after tea immersion the Estenia material was less stable against color change than were the other two materials. The Twinkle X metal halide unit was suitable for polymerization of the three composite materials, using an exposure period of 60 s or longer. (J Oral Sci 55, 51-55, 2013)
The aim of the present study was to clarify whether there is any correlation between the levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and stem cell factor (SCF) in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 40 subjects were divided into 3 groups: 10 periodontally healthy subjects (Group 1), 15 CP patients (Group 2), and 15 type 2 DM patients with CP (Group 3). Levels of hs-CRP and SCF in GCF and serum were quantified using different techniques. The clinical outcomes evaluated were gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL), and the correlations of the two inflammatory mediators with clinical parameters were evaluated. The levels of these inflammatory mediators increased continuously from group 1 to group 2, and to group 3. The serum levels of both hs-CRP and SCF were correlated with PD in patients with CP (P < 0.05). SCF levels were correlated with PD in Group 3 (P < 0.05). The fact that the levels of hs-CRP and SCF were highest in DM patients with CP suggests that the presence of a systemic condition has a profound effect on the levels of inflammatory mediators, both locally at sites of periodontal disease, and elsewhere. (J Oral Sci 55, 57-62, 2013)
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), a member of the FGF family, positively regulates bone formation and osteoblast differentiation. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is highly expressed during early bone formation and may play a role in primary mineralization of bone. In the present study, FGF2 (10 ng/mL) was found to increase the levels of Runx2 and BSP mRNA at 3 and 12 h in human osteoblast-like Saos2 cells. Transient transfection assays were performed using chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter ligated with a luciferase reporter gene. FGF2 (10 ng/mL, 12 h) induced the luciferase activities of the -84LUC and -927LUC constructs in Saos2 cells. The results of gel shift assays showed that FGF2 (10 ng/mL) increased the binding of nuclear protein to the FGF2 response element (FRE) and the activator protein 1 (AP1) binding site. Antibodies against Dlx5, Msx2, Runx2 and Smad1 blocked FRE-protein complex formation, and antibodies against CREB1, c-Jun and Fra2 interrupted AP1-protein complex formation. These results indicate that FGF2 increases BSP transcription by targeting the FRE and AP1 elements in the proximal promoter of the human BSP gene. Moreover, the transcription factors Dlx5, Msx2, Runx2, Smad1, CREB1, c-Jun and Fra2 could be key regulators of the effects of FGF2 on human BSP transcription. (J Oral Sci 55, 63-70, 2013)
Dental development and physical growth are of particular interest in pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. This study evaluated these variables in patients with thalassemia major (TM). Physical growth was assessed in 54 patients (31 males and 23 females) aged 5.5 to 18.3 years and dental development was analyzed using panoramic radiographs from 39 of the 54 patients. The Demirjian system was used to characterize dental development of the seven left mandibular permanent teeth. Chronologic age (CA) and dental age (DA) were compared using the paired t-test, and the correlation between CA and extent of delay in dental development (DA minus CA) was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Growth retardation (< 10th percentile for height and weight) was present in 75.9% of TM patients. Height less than the third percentile was noted in 41.9% (13/31) of males and 34.8% (8/23) of females. Mean (SD) body mass index was 16.5 ± 2.2 kg/m2. The extent of growth retardation increased with advancing age. Patient radiographs revealed a delay in dental development in 31 of 39 (79.5%) of participants (mean delay, 1.12 years in males and 0.81 years in females; range, 0.1 to 2.7 years). The mean difference between CA and DA was 0.97 years (P < 0.001). CA was significant correlated with extent of dental developmental delay (r = 0.64, P < 0.01). The results show that, among children and adolescents with TM, the proportions of those who had short stature, were underweight, and had a low growth rate increased with age. In addition, participants had significant delays in dental development. (J Oral Sci 55, 71-77, 2013)
To evaluate residual dentin thickness (RDT) after different tooth preparations, 90 sound maxillary anterior teeth were selected and divided into 3 groups according to tooth type (n = 30), namely, maxillary central incisors, maxillary lateral incisors, and maxillary canines. In each group, specimens were randomly divided and prepared for single-crown coverage with shoulder (SHO, n = 10, control), slight chamfer (CHA, n = 10), and knife-edge (KNE, n = 10) finish lines. After tooth preparation, specimens were sectioned and divided into 4 subgroups (buccal, distal, palatal, and mesial) according to measurement area. RDT values were compared by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test (P = 0.05). Significant differences were found between SHO and the other two groups (P < 0.05) but not between CHA and KNE (P > 0.05). SHO was significantly more aggressive than CHA and KNE, which were comparable. Interproximal areas became critical due to thin RDT, which could potentially compromise the structural and biological integrity of teeth. The choice of finish line should be guided by careful clinical evaluation. (J Oral Sci 55, 79-84, 2013)
Oral angiolipomas are exceedingly rare and little is known about their morphological and etiological features. Here, we report two cases of oral angiolipoma and discuss their clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features, focusing on endothelial markers. Both lesions presented mature adipocytes interspersed by small blood vessels containing fibrin thrombi. Immunohistochemical analysis showed numerous mast cells and expression of CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interferon-γ and interleukin 6 in most endothelial and stromal cells. Mast cell-endothelial cell interaction may be responsible for the reactive or neoplastic origin of the vascular proliferation of these entities. (J Oral Sci 55, 85-88, 2013)
Peripheral odontoma is rare, and only two cases of congenital peripheral odontoma have been reported. Congenital oral fibroma is also rare. We describe a unique case of congenital peripheral developing odontoma accompanied by congenital teratomatous fibroma in an infant. Both tumors were difficult to detect on radiography. Two small masses were seen in the median anterior portion of the palatal mucosa of a 9-month-old boy. The masses had been present since birth and were surgically removed at age 28 months, when one of the masses had grown to a diameter of 8 mm. Histopathologic examination showed a fibrous lesion and a tooth germ-like rounded lesion composed of dental papilla, enamel organ, dentin, and cementum. Although congenital odontoma is rare, it should be considered when selecting appropriate treatment, as early radiographic detection is difficult. (J Oral Sci 55, 89-91, 2013)
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