We evaluated the effects of gel consistency and bolus volume on ingestion in humans. Eight healthy men were asked to ingest liquids, and sample foods of different gel consistencies and volumes, as usual. Tongue pressure against the hard palate was recorded at five points, and bolus flow was recorded using videoendoscopic images. The number of squeezes increased as gel consistency and volume increased. The integrated magnitude of tongue pressure during squeezing increased with increasing gel consistency. Bolus propulsion into the pharynx was affected by bolus characteristics, and location of the bolus head at the onset of pharyngeal swallowing was not related to squeezing behavior. The trigger point at which pharyngeal swallowing began was subject-dependent. During swallowing, the magnitude of tongue pressure moderately increased with increasing gel consistency, as compared with squeezing. Tongue pressure was not related to bolus volume. The current results suggest that patterns of tongue pressure during squeezing and swallowing are differentially affected by bolus conditions. However, healthy subjects differed in the techniques used for squeezing and swallowing. (J Oral Sci 55, 191-198, 2013)
We conducted a retrospective study of 36 cases of ameloblastoma from the files of Mittaphap Hospital in Vientiane Capital, Laos. Clinical findings showed an average patient age of 31.0 ± 3.8 years, with a slight male preponderance. Radiographically, all of the lesions showed multicystic radiotranslucency. Twenty-four patients underwent tumor resection and 12 underwent tumor enucleation. Of those patients, four underwent additional surgery because of tumor recurrence. This is the first report in the English literature of ameloblastoma cases from Laos. (J Oral Sci 55, 199-201, 2013)
Anomalies in amelogenesis may be due to developmental defects or abnormalities in different components of developing teeth and can affect dental development. We compared dental development in a group of children with molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) with that in age- and sex-matched controls. Dental age was determined using panoramic radiographs of 105 children (59 girls, 46 boys) aged 7-11 years with severe MIH, and the findings were compared with those from 105 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Although accelerated dental development was noted in the MIH group, the difference between the MIH and control groups was not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, no relationship was found between number of affected teeth and the difference between dental and chronological age. In conclusion, children with severe MIH had slightly accelerated dental development as compared with controls. (J Oral Sci 55, 203-207, 2013)
Runt homeodomain protein 2 (Runx2), distalless 5 (Dlx5) and Smad1 are transcription factors that play critical roles in controlling the differentiation of osteoblasts and mineralization of bone. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase, Src, is an enzyme encoded by the Src gene. The normal cellular gene is called cellular-Src (c-Src). Bone sialoprotein (BSP), a protein implicated in the initial mineralization of newly formed bone, is an early phenotypic marker of differentiated osteoblasts. In this study, we used overexpression plasmids with Runx2, Dlx5, Smad1 or c-Src inserts to search for the effects of these transcription factors and proto-oncogene on BSP gene expression using rat osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8. When we used Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src overexpression plasmids for the transfection, BSP and Runx2 mRNA levels were increased in ROS 17/2.8 cells. However, overexpression of Smad1 did not induce BSP and Runx2 mRNA. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the rat BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Transfection of ROS 17/2.8 cells with Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src overexpression plasmid increased the luciferase activities of the constructs, pLUC3 (-116 to +60), pLUC4 (-425 to +60) and pLUC5 (-801 to +60). However, Smad1 overexpression had no effect on the luciferase activities. These results demonstrate that overexpression of Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src stimulates BSP transcription, and suggest that Runx2, Dlx5 and c-Src might be crucial transcriptional regulators of mineralization and bone formation. (J Oral Sci 55, 209-215, 2013)
We evaluated electromyograms of masticatory muscles after denture relining with soft and hard liners. In total, 44 patients with complete dentures were studied: 22 underwent chairside relining of mandibular dentures with a soft, silicone-based liner (Mucopren Soft); the other 22 underwent relining with a hard, acrylic resin-based liner (Kooliner). Electromyograms of the masseter and temporal muscles were obtained before (T0) and 90 days after (T90) relining. Participants performed a maximum voluntary contraction (static test), on which percentage-overlapping coefficient (%), mandibular displacement (%), and standardized electromyographic activity, i.e., impact, (µV ⁄ µVs %) were analyzed. Participants were also asked to chew a wafer, cereal bar, and peanuts (dynamic test) to determine symmetrical mastication index (SMI%), frequency (Hz), and impact. The data were analyzed using a generalized linear model (α= 0.05). On the static test, mandibular displacement was lower and impact was higher at T90, as compared with baseline. On the dynamic test, SMI and impact were higher after relining for all foods. Frequency at T90 was higher only during cereal and peanut mastication. There were no differences between groups except for greatest impact during wafer chewing in patients with hard liners. Relining with hard and soft materials increased electromyographic activity and improved masticatory function. There was little difference between groups. (J Oral Sci 55, 217-224, 2013)
Bone regeneration is an important objective in clinical dental practice and has been used for different applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bioactive glass (BG) for bone healing of surgical calvarial defects in rabbits. Two 8-mm defects were prepared in the parietal bones of ten animals, and the animals were randomly assigned to two groups. In each group, two subgroups were created with five defects each: BC - blood clot, BG, PRP and PRP + BG. Thus, four treatments were performed with five specimens each. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks and the specimens were analyzed radiographically, histologically and histomorphometrically. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05). Outcomes demonstrated that the PRP group had higher bone density (%) values than the groups not treated with PRP (P < 0.05). Histometrically, both groups treated with PRP (PRP: 25.6 ± 9.9; PRP+BG: 25.8 ± 12.4) demonstrated higher percentages of new bone formation than the groups not treated with PRP (BG: 6.1 ± 4.3; BC: 7.8 ± 5.6) (P < 0.05). The results suggested that PRP improved bone repair and that bioactive glass alone, or in association with PRP, did not improve bone healing. (J Oral Sci 55, 225-232, 2013)
This study explored differences in dental biofilm solids and fluid fluoride after ingestion of NaF or Na2FPO3 in milk or non-fluoridated milk. Eighteen volunteers ingested 1 mg fluoride in 200 mL of milk or 200 mL of non-fluoridated milk. Biofilm samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60, and 240 min and biofilm solids and fluid were micro-analyzed for fluoride. Analysis of variance was performed and the total delivery, retention, and clearance of fluoride to biofilm solids and fluid were estimated as the area under the curve between 0 and 240 min. No statistically significant differences were found for baseline values. Biofilm fluid fluoride values ranged from 0.11 ± 0.05 to 0.21 ± 0.08 µg F/mL while biofilm solid values ranged from 0.62 ± 0.39 to 1.75 ± 1.16 µg F/g. Biofilm fluid values were significantly lower at 60 min for Na2FPO3 in milk. Clearance profiles for biofilm fluid diverged after the initial 60 min. Na2FPO3 had a smaller area under the curve from 60 to 240 min than NaF. Results of this study indicate that the release and clearance of fluoride in biofilm vary among fluoridation compounds and that the concentrations in biofilm solids and fluid also vary and are not correlated to each other in many cases. (J Oral Sci 55, 233-238, 2013)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of superstructure material and vertical misfits on the stresses created in an implant-supported partial prosthesis. A three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model was prepared based on common clinical data. The posterior part of a severely resorbed jaw with two osseointegrated implants at the second premolar and second molar regions was modeled using specific modeling software (SolidWorks 2010). Finite element models were created by importing the solid model into mechanical simulation software (ANSYS Workbench 11). The models were divided into groups according to the prosthesis framework material (type IV gold alloy, silver-palladium alloy, commercially pure titanium, cobalt-chromium alloy, or zirconia) and vertical misfit level (10 µm, 50 µm, and 100 µm) created at one implant-prosthesis interface. The gap of the vertical misfit was set to be closed and the stress values were measured in the framework, porcelain veneer, retention screw, and bone tissue. Stiffer materials led to higher stress concentration in the framework and increased stress values in the retention screw, while in the same circumstances, the porcelain veneer showed lower stress values, and there was no significant difference in stress in the peri-implant bone tissue. A considerable increase in stress concentration was observed in all the structures evaluated within the misfit amplification. The framework material influenced the stress concentration in the prosthetic structures and retention screw, but not that in bone tissue. All the structures were significantly influenced by the increase in the misfit levels. (J Oral Sci 55, 239-244, 2013)
This cross-sectional study investigated associations of cumulative smoking exposure and duration of smoking cessation with periodontitis and evaluated the effects of biological, behavioral, and social risk variables on these associations. The sample comprised 705 adults of both sexes (age, 35-65 years) who underwent a full-mouth periodontal examination. Subjects were classified according to smoking status as nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers, and univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate associations between periodontitis prevalence and potential risk variables. The rates of periodontitis among nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers were 25.6%, 29.3%, and 45.1% respectively. After adjusting for other periodontal risk variables the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for periodontitis was 3.09 (1.98-4.92) for former smokers and 5.24 (2.61-8.97) for current smokers. A significant dose-response relationship between pack-years of smoking and periodontitis prevalence was observed, as was a significant decrease in the risk of periodontitis as years of smoking cessation increased. Cumulative smoking exposure and duration of smoking cessation were significantly associated with periodontitis. (J Oral Sci 55, 245-253, 2013)
A 36-year-old Thai woman presented with a painful, burning sensation in the gingiva and desquamative gingivitis. Findings from histopathologic and direct immunofluorescence examination of the maxillary gingiva confirmed a diagnosis of pemphigus. Two months later, she developed a round erythematous lesion on her face, and findings from a skin biopsy were consistent with lupus erythematosus. Four years after initial presentation, the patient developed amyotrophic dermatomyositis. Seven years after initial presentation, she developed joint pain and tenositis of the neck, shoulders, knees and ankles, which was diagnosed as asymmetric polyarthritis and multiple enthesopathy. There are no previous reports of pemphigus, discoid lupus erythematosus, and dermatomyositis in a Thai patient.Fluocinolone acetonide 0.1% in Orabase and systemic steroid were effective in treating oral PV in this patient. The gingiva showed complete remission after 10 months of treatment and remission with recession at 8.5 years of follow-up. (J Oral Sci 55, 255-258, 2013)
Segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia (SOD) is a rare developmental disorder of the maxilla, and there is little information on its morphological features. Thus, the present article describes a case of SOD focusing on its histopathological, immunohistochemical and scanning electron microscopic features. Several dental abnormalities were present, including numerous dentin and pulp defects, altered composition of hard tissue, and proliferation of myofibroblasts in the pulp and the soft tissue surrounding affected teeth. This myofibroblastic proliferation was identified for the first time in SOD and may be involved in both bone and tooth resorption mechanisms. (J Oral Sci 55, 259-262, 2013)
This article reports the clinical performance of a resin-bonded fixed partial denture (FPD) made of type IV gold alloy. The retainers were air-abraded with alumina particles and primed with a single-liquid thione priming agent (Metaltite). The FPD was then seated with a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin (Super-Bond). After 15 years, the FPD is still functioning satisfactorily. The present materials and techniques are applicable to minimally invasive fixed prosthodontic treatments. (J Oral Sci, 55, 263-266, 2013)
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