To compare the effectiveness of full- and partial-mouth disinfection for halitosis control, patients were assigned to treatment with full-mouth therapy (complete scaling and root planing in one stage within 24 h) or conventional therapy in quadrants (scaling and root planing performed by quadrant over a period of 4 weeks) (n = 90 for each group). Both groups were then subdivided: half the patients scraped their tongue daily and half did not. The patients were then evaluated by halimeter, organoleptic testing, and tongue coating index. Halimeter evaluation showed greater reduction of sulfide gases after full-mouth therapy than after conventional therapy (P < 0.001). However, organoleptic testing and the tongue coating index showed no difference among the four treatment groups. There was also no difference in relation to tongue scraping. In conclusion, halimeter evaluation showed that the reduction in volatile sulfur compounds was significantly greater after full-mouth therapy than after conventional therapy. However, this difference was not observed in organoleptic evaluation. (J Oral Sci 57, 1-6, 2015)
The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLF)-loaded gelatin microspheres (GM) used in combination with anorganic bovine bone on bone regeneration in surgically created bone defects around tooth implants. Twenty-four uniform bone defects were created in the frontal bone via an extraoral approach in 12 domestic pigs. Twenty-four implants were placed at the center of the defects. In eight animals one of these defects was filled with 0.3 mL anorganic bovine bone while the other was left empty. In four animals, all defects were filled with 3 mg/defect bLF-loaded GM and anorganic bovine bone. All the defects were covered with collagen membranes. All animals were sacrificed after 10 weeks of healing, and the implants with the surrounding bone defects were removed en bloc. Undecalcified sections were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The mean total area of hard tissue was 26.9 ± 6.0% in the empty defect group, 31.8 ± 8.4% in the graft group, and 47.6 ± 5.0% in the lactoferrin group (P < 0.001). The mean area of newly formed bone was 26.9 ± 6.0% in the empty defect group, 22.4 ± 8.2% in the graft group, and 46.1 ± 5.1% in the lactoferrin group (P < 0.001). The mean residual graft area was 9.4 ± 3.2% in the graft group and 1.5 ± 0.6% in the lactoferrin group (P < 0.001). The mean proportion of bone-implant contact in the defect region was 21.9 ± 8.4% in the empty defect group, 26.9 ± 10.1% in the graft group and 29.9 ± 10.3% in the lactoferrin group (P = 0.143). These data indicate that a combination of 3 mg bLF-loaded GM and bovine-derived HA promotes bone regeneration in defects around implants. (J Oral Sci 57, 7-15, 2015)
The purpose of the present study is evaluation of bonding durability of tri-n-butylborane (TBB) initiated resin without 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META) joined to human enamel. Ground human enamel was bonded with TBB resin under six surface conditions: 1) as ground, 2) primed with Teeth Primer, 3) sodium sulfite solution, 4) 4-META solution, 5) acetone-water, and 6) phosphoric acid etching. Pre- and post-thermocycling bond strengths and change in strength after thermocycling were compared. Etching enamel with 35-45% phosphoric acid enhanced bonding durability between enamel and TBB-initiated resin. Priming with Teeth Primer or 4-META solution improved bond strength between enamel and TBB-initiated resin. Sodium sulfite had little effect on enamel bonding in the present bonding systems. (J Oral Sci 57, 17-24, 2015)
We compared the effects of treatment with fluorapatite-forming calcium phosphate cement (FA-forming CPC) containing tricalcium silicate (TCS) and those of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), the gold standard endodontic cement, on cultured osteoblast-like cells (ROS 17/2.8 cells; ROS cells). The FA-forming CPC powder consisted of 61.29% CaHPO4, 32.26% CaCO3, and 6.45% NaF. One part TCS was combined with nine parts FA-forming CPC powder to make FA-forming CPC with TCS. A 1.5-M phosphate solution was mixed as a cement liquid with a powder/liquid ratio of 2.22. Cell culture was carried out using cell culture inserts, whereby each test material was put on a porous membrane insert in the cell culture plate. Proliferation, morphologic changes, and alkaline phosphatase activity in ROS cells were measured in the presence of FA-forming CPC with TCS and MTA and compared. The logarithmic growth phase and cellular morphologic changes in ROS cells were identical in all experimental groups. Additionally, no significant difference in alkaline phosphatase activity was noted in ROS cells exposed to FA-forming CPC with TCS and those exposed to MTA. In conclusion, FA-forming CPC with TCS has characteristics identical to those of MTA under the present experimental conditions and may thus be useful for endodontic applications. (J Oral Sci 57, 25-30, 2015)
Streptococcusmutans is important in dental caries. Although the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of dental caries is not clear, components of S. mutans were found to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined the associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 with dental caries. Unstimulated whole saliva and blood samples were obtained from 108 children aged 6-12 years with high caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth [dmft/DMFT] index >4, n = 37), moderate caries (dmft/DMFT = 1-4, n = 37), or caries-free (dmft/DMFT = 0, n = 34). S. mutans level was classified as low (<105 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) or high (≥105 CFU/mL). Saliva and serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-10 were determined by ELISA. IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-10 gene polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, one-way ANOVA, posthoc, Fisher’s exact, and t tests were used in statistical analysis. Dental caries was not correlated with salivary or serum concentrations of the studied cytokines. S. mutans level positively correlated with saliva IL-1β concentration and inversely correlated with saliva IL-1ra concentration. There was no correlation of IL-1β, IL-1ra, or IL-10 gene polymorphisms with dental caries. S. mutans is important in stimulating saliva IL-1β and inhibiting IL-1ra. Future studies of associations between cytokines and dental caries should investigate additional cytokines and enroll a larger number of participants. (J Oral Sci 57, 31-36, 2015)
We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for development of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in children attending special needs schools in India. The participants were 395 children aged 12-15 years with disabilities in learning, communication, physical function, and/or development. A questionnaire was designed in order to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, and risk factors for NCCLs. The chi-square test, bivariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Presence of NCCLs was associated with use of toothpowder or other materials for teeth cleaning, use of harder toothbrushes, use of a horizontal scrub technique for toothbrushing, consumption of a vegetarian diet, and greater consumption of lemon. The overall prevalence of NCCLs was 22.7%. Most lesions involved minimal loss of contour or defects <1 mm in depth. The prevalence of non-carious cervical lesions was slightly higher than the global average. Effective policies should be developed for oral health care among children attending special needs schools. (J Oral Sci 57, 37-43, 2015)
Capillary hemangioma (capillary lobular hemangioma) and cavernous hemangioma (venous malformation) are relatively common oral tumors/malformations and are characterized by increased numbers of normal and abnormal blood vessels. However, the causes of these lesions are not well understood. CD105 (endoglin) is predominantly expressed in proliferating blood endothelial cells (ECs). We analyzed expressions of CD105, CD34, von Willebrand factor, Ki-67, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in 31 capillary hemangiomas and 34 cavernous hemangiomas. Staining scores were calculated as the product of the proportion score and intensity score. Morphologically normal oral mucosa specimens (n = 10) were simultaneously evaluated as normal controls. As compared with cavernous hemangiomas and normal controls, capillary hemangiomas had higher staining scores for CD105, VEGF-A, and COX-2. The Ki-67 labeling index was significantly higher in capillary hemangiomas than in cavernous hemangiomas and normal controls (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that the biological characteristics of capillary and cavernous hemangiomas are quite different. The ECs of capillary hemangiomas actively proliferated and were generally regulated by VEGF-A. In contrast, the ECs of cavernous hemangiomas lacked proliferative activity. These results suggest that angiogenesis and vasodilatation of pre-existing blood vessels are important in the development of capillary hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma, respectively. (J Oral Sci 57, 45-53, 2015)
The purpose of this feasibility study was to investigate the correlation of a salivary occult blood test (SOBT) with traditional periodontal measures to assess the feasibility of the SOBT as a measure of periodontal inflammation in a population of women during pregnancy. Considering the limitations of the previous SOBT studies, this study evaluated correlation of the Perioscreen Sunstar SOBT with traditional measures from a full mouth periodontal examination. Data were collected 3 times during pregnancy (12-14, 24-28, and 36 weeks) from women participating in an ongoing study of pregnancy and inflammation. Descriptive statistics and correlations were generated for SOBT scores with periodontal measures. Preliminary data were analyzed from 7 women with 3 visits, 7 with 2, and 9 with 1 visit. For these 44 visits’ data, the mean percent of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP) for SOBT scores = 0, 2, and 5 was 58% ± 18%, 68% ± 14%, and 72% ± 19%, respectively. Correlations for percent of sites with BOP and continuous SOBT score was 0.301, P-value = 0.0469 and dichotomous SOBT was 0.32, P-value = 0.0339. Results for feasibility, measured as recruitment of participants, acceptance of protocols, distribution of periodontal inflammation and preliminary correlations, support SOBT as a correlated marker of periodontal inflammation in this population of pregnant women. (J Oral Sci 57, 55-58, 2015)
A 58-year-old patient who smoked and had uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus was referred to our clinic. The patient had a suspicious asymptomatic lesion that was diagnosed as B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Immunohistochemistry revealed intense and diffuse expression of CD20, CD10, BCL-6, and Ki-67. A positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan showed focal pathological uptake of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose only in the subcutaneous tissue anterior to the left maxillary sinus. After lesion excision and five courses of chemotherapy, PET/CT scans demonstrated complete resolution of the lesion. Smoking, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, and periodontal disease might be predisposing factors for oral NHL. (J Oral Sci 57, 59-62, 2015)
Angioleiomyoma is a form of subcutane ous vascular leiomyoma that usually occurs in the extremities. Leiomyoma of the oral cavity represents only 0.4% of soft tissue neoplasms and 0.06% of leiomyomas. Isolated cases of angioleiomyoma have been reported in the knee and lower thigh, gastrointestinal tract, genital and renal tract, and brain. Histopathologic examination by biopsy is necessary to establish a diagnosis, and immunohistochemical staining, along with conventional hematoxylin-eosin staining, is important. The differential diagnosis includes hemangioma and angiosarcoma. At present, surgical resection is the standard therapy for leiomyoma, and recurrence is extremely rare. We report a rare case of angioleiomyoma of the cheek in a 45-year-old man. The postoperative course was uneventful, without complications. (J Oral Sci 57, 63-66, 2015)
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