Five bulk fill composite resins, including SDR, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEC), X-trafil (XTF), Sonic Fill (SF), Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF), were used in this study. Human dental pulp stem cells were cultured in 12-well culture dishes (3 × 104 cells per cm2) and stored in an incubator at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 1 day. On days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of co-culture, viable cells were measured using a WST-1 assay. Lower cell viability was observed with XTF and SDR bulk fill composite resins compared to the control group during the WST-1 assay. Although bulk fill composite resins provide advantages in practical applications, they are limited by their cytotoxic properties. (J Oral Sci 58, 299-305, 2016)
We evaluated the gene expression profiles of human dental pulp cells exposed to iRoot BP using microarray after 24 and 72 h. The results were verified using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. Of the 36,000 transcripts arrayed, 21 were up-regulated and 15 were down-regulated by more than two fold. The largest group of up-regulated genes included those involved in nucleobase-containing compound metabolic processes, cell communication, protein metabolic processes, developmental processes, and biological regulation. The largest groups of down-regulated genes were those involved in cell communication, development, and biological regulation processes. In conclusion, iRoot BP affects the expression of genes involved in different biological processes in human dental pulp cells. (J Oral Sci 58, 307-315, 2016)
Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and induce the innate immune response. Among them, TLR5 recognizes the Gram-negative bacterial component flagellin. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of TLR5 in mouse salivary gland (SG). The SG was excised from 8- to 10-week-old female C57BL/6 mice. Salivary gland epithelial cells (SGECs) were purified and subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Western blotting was performed to detect TLR5 expression at the protein level in several organs. The localization of TLR5 in SG was examined using immunohistochemical staining. The responsiveness of SGECs to flagellin was further examined by evaluating the induction of CXCL1 by real-time PCR and immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. TLR5 expression in SG was confirmed at the gene and protein levels. Immunohistochemical staining detected TLR5 in both acinic and ductal cells of the sublingual gland, but not in serous acinic cells of the submandibular gland. Although TLR5 was detected throughout the cytoplasm in ductal cells, positive staining was observed on the basal side of the mucous acinic cells. The purified SGECs responded to flagellin and induced the production of CXCL1. These findings suggest that TLR5 is functionally expressed in the SG and responds to its cognate ligand flagellin. (J Oral Sci 58, 317-323, 2016)
Extracorporeal irradiation sterilizes resected tumor bone used as autografts in reconstruction surgery. Therapeutic irradiation is a standard technique in head and neck cancer therapy that aims to preserve organ function. Bone irradiation has a complex, mostly inhibitory, effect on remodeling and regeneration, although the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. It remains unclear if extracorporeal irradiation affects the paracrine-like activity of the corresponding autografts. We recently reported that bone-conditioned medium from autogenous bone chips contains a number of factors that might affect cell activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracorporeal irradiation of porcine cortical bone chips on the activity of the corresponding bone-conditioned medium. The effects of bone-conditioned medium on the expressions of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) target genes in oral fibroblasts were assessed. Bone-conditioned medium from bone chips exposed to a total radiation dose up to 120 Gy did not affect expressions of TGF-β target genes, including adrenomedullin, BTB/POZ domain-containing protein 11, proteoglycan 4, NADPH oxidase 4, and interleukin 11, in oral fibroblasts. In conclusion, bone irradiation does not alter the capability of the corresponding bone-conditioned medium to provoke a robust fibroblastic cell response in vitro. (J Oral Sci 58, 325-331, 2016)
This study tested the null hypothesis that the opacity of RealSeal SE (RSSE) sealer makes light-curing inefficient, while the degree of conversion (DC) is similar regardless of curing method. Fourteen uniradicular teeth were sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Root canals were instrumented using the Reciproc file system, bulk-filled with RSSE, and divided randomly into two groups (dual-cure or self-cure). DC was determined by micro-Raman spectroscopy at 24 h, 48 h, and 1 week after filling, at 6, 9, and 12 mm from the coronal end. Contrast ratio (Yb/Yw) was used to determine the opacity of the material. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were used, and significance was defined as a P value of less than 0.05. Opacity was almost total by the first section, at 6 mm. In dual-cure mode, DC values at 24 h were lower in the apical section (63.8%) than in the more coronal sections and were lower than in self-cured specimens (87.4%). Light-curing of the coronal end did not improve DC. These differences remained at 48 h and 1 week. Only a small (2%) but significant increase in DC was observed in evaluations at 24 h and 1 week. (J Oral Sci 58, 333-338, 2016)
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of different post morphologies and placement lengths on the fracture resistance of teeth with oval canal morphology that had been restored with crowns. Extracted mandibular premolars with similar dimensions were decoronated. After the root canal treatment, the teeth were mounted on acrylic blocks. Samples were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 each). In groups C-10 and C-5, 10-mm- and 5-mm-long circular post spaces were created. In groups O-10 and O-5, 10-mm- and 5-mm-long oval post spaces were ultrasonically created. After post cementation, all specimens were restored with composite cores and prepared at height of 6 mm. Thereafter, all teeth were restored with crowns. After thermocycling, all specimens underwent fracture resistance testing. Oval posts and placement at 10-mm depth showed higher fracture resistance than circular posts and placement at 5-mm depth (P < 0.001). Increased post length and use of oval posts enhanced the fracture strength of teeth with oval canal morphology. Based on the results of this study, although the fracture resistance of teeth restored with crowns was enhanced by deep fiber post placement, the use of oval fiber post is recommended in cases where deep placement is impossible. (J Oral Sci 58, 339-345, 2016)
This study compared the effectiveness of clinical observation, clinical microscopic observation, and tooth-clearing technique in determining the number of canals in mandibular incisors. Root canal ramifications were also analyzed. Using clinical and microscopic analyses, we determined the number of canal entrances in 277 mandibular incisors. In addition, tooth-clearing technique was used to determine the number of canals and frequency of ramifications in the samples. The kappa coefficient was used to compare the different methods with regard to frequency of canals. Most teeth had one canal entrance. The proportion of teeth with two canals was 23.5% by tooth-clearing analysis, 5.8% by clinical microscopy, and 1.1% by clinical analysis. A large number of samples had some type of ramification (40.1%), and most ramifications were present in teeth with two canals. The most frequent ramification was lateral canals (8.3%). Clinical microscopy improved identification of a second canal in mandibular incisors. However, it did not identify second canals in all teeth with two canals. (J Oral Sci 58, 347-351, 2016)
The formation of new and functional structural components of several organs, such as parotid glands, can be influenced by the glycocode. This study analyzed the glycobiology of parotid salivary gland tissue during fetal development using specific biochemical probes (lectins and antibodies). Eleven parotid gland samples from human fetuses were obtained from spontaneous abortions at 14-28 weeks of gestation, and tissue sections were analyzed for lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. From the 18th to 26th week, Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin, wheat germ agglutinin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I, peanut agglutinin, Sambucus nigra agglutinin, and Vicia villosa agglutinin lectin staining were predominantly observed in the apical and/or basement membranes of the ducts and tubulo-acinar units. Moreover, the presence of galectin-1 was found in the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of both structures. Conversely, Gal-3 and mucin-1 were restricted to the glandular ducts. The lectin staining pattern changed during the weeks evaluated. Nevertheless, the carbohydrate subcellular localization represented a key factor in the investigation of structural distribution profiles and possible roles of these glycans in initial parotid gland development. These findings are defined by their high biological value and provide an important base for the development of subsequent studies. (J Oral Sci 58, 353-360, 2016)
This study compared bite force in adults older than 60 years with that of young adults. The participants were 20 healthy adults (9 men) older than 60 years (median age, 66 years) and 44 healthy young adults (22 men; age range, 18-25 years; median age, 22 years) at the International Medical University, Malaysia. All participants had at least 20 teeth, and bite force was measured and evaluated using the Dental Prescale system. Average (SD) bite force was 420.5 (242.0) N for the older adults and 541.4 (296.3) N for the young adults. Although mean bite force was higher for the young adults, the difference was not significant. These findings suggest that bite force is unaffected by age in adults with adequate dentition. (J Oral Sci 58, 361-363, 2016)
Although medicinal herbs with fungicidal effects have been ubiquitously employed in traditional medicine, such effects of culinary herbs and spices still have to be elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized as naturally-derived antifungals. Fourteen essential oils extracted from Thai culinary herbs and spices were tested for their antifungal activity against C. albicans using the agar disk diffusion method followed by broth micro-dilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration. The oils with potent antifungal effects against planktonic fungi were then assessed for their effect against sessile fungus (adherent organisms and established biofilm culture). MIC of the oils against sessile C. albicans was evaluated by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay. All selected culinary herbs and spices, except galangal, garlic, and turmeric, exhibited inhibitory effects on planktonic yeast cells. Cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf essential oils exhibited potent fungicidal effect on planktonic and sessile fungus. Sessile MICs were 8-16 times higher than planktonic MICs. Consequently, both cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf herbal oils seem to be highly effective anti-Candida choices. (J Oral Sci 58, 365-371, 2016)
Ultrasonic irrigation and syringe irrigation were compared for their efficacy at cleaning root canal in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo study used 60 anterior teeth or premolars from 60 patients with periapical periodontitis who were randomly assigned to a syringe irrigation group (group S) or an ultrasonic irrigation group (group U). After instrumentation with a K-file using the step-back technique, the two groups received ultrasonic or syringe irrigation using 40 mL of 2.5% NaOCl respectively, followed by conventional lateral compaction. The in vitro study used 60 extracted single-canal premolars, which were also divided into U and S groups, and underwent the same irrigation and compaction. Forty of them were evaluated histologically by light microscopy, and the remaining 20 by scanning electron microscopy. No difference in main root canal filling was observed between the U and S groups. Notably, group U had a larger number of obturated lateral canals than group S. Moreover, a smaller amount of organic debris and more open dentinal tubules were observed in the root canal in group U than in group S. Our findings suggest that ultrasonic irrigation has a greater capacity to clean instrumented root canals than syringe irrigation. (J Oral Sci 58, 373-378, 2016)
The aims of the present study were to determine the levels of vaspin and omentin-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to evaluate GCF vaspin and omentin-1 levels after non-surgical periodontal therapy. The study included 60 subjects: 15 systemically and periodontally healthy individuals, 15 periodontally healthy patients with T2DM, 15 systemically healthy patients with CP, and 15 patients with both CP and T2DM. GCF and clinical periodontal parameters were examined at the baseline and 6 weeks after periodontal therapy. Levels of vaspin, omentin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured by ELISA, and their relative ratios were calculated. GCF vaspin and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the CP groups than in the periodontally healthy groups (P < 0.008) and decreased after therapy in the former (P < 0.025). GCF omentin-1 levels were significantly lower in the CP groups than in the periodontally healthy groups (P < 0.008) and increased after therapy in the former (P < 0.05). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the total amount of vaspin and TNF-α, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), clinical attachment level and gingival index, whereas the level of omentin-1 was negatively correlated with these parameters in all groups (P < 0.05). We found that non-surgical periodontal therapy influenced the GCF levels of both vaspin and omentin-1 in the CP groups. Our results suggest that the levels of vaspin and omentin-1 in GCF could have potential application as inflammatory markers of diabetes, periodontal disease and treatment outcome. (J Oral Sci 58, 379-389, 2016)
This study aimed to investigate masticatory function and taste and their possible relationship with salivary flow in young adults with good oral health. The study also examined whether anthropometric measurements and gender could influence the variables studied. A total of 171 subjects were selected (125 females, 46 males). Masticatory performance was evaluated with the sieve method, and perceived masticatory ability was measured using the visual analogue scale. Taste was evaluated using the drop test with four different flavors in three different concentrations, and unstimulated and stimulated saliva flows were measured. The anthropometric variables measured included body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The independent variables studied could not predict masticatory performance. The independent variables, BMI, WC, and gender, predicted 14% of perceived masticatory ability, and BMI predicted 5% of taste. Masticatory performance was not related to salivary flow or anthropometric parameters in young healthy adults. Perceived masticatory ability was related to BMI, WC, and gender, whereas taste was only weakly related to BMI. The flow rate did not exhibit a statistically significant difference between males and females for the anthropometric groups. (J Oral Sci 58, 391-399, 2016)
This study aimed to evaluate superficial defects and the composition of Reciproc R25 and ProTaper Retreatment file systems (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) used for retreatment. A total of 100 maxillary incisor teeth were randomly divided into the following two groups: Reciproc R25 (n = 25) and ProTaper Retreatment instrument (n = 75) groups. The nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) compositions of the files before and after use were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDX). Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze the data. ProTaper Retreatment instrument group showed a significantly higher number of defects than the Reciproc group (P < 0.05). No instrument fracture was detected. The presence of debris was observed in both groups before use, although the level was significantly higher in the ProTaper Retreatment group, which consisted of metals (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between new and used instruments with regard to Ni-Ti composition (P < 0.05). EDX analysis showed that both the Reciproc and ProTaper Retreatment instruments had a Ni-Ti composition that was within the standards specified by the American Society of Testing and Materials. This study confirmed the use of both the Reciproc R25 file and ProTaper Retreatment file system for root canal filling removal in straight root canals as a safe procedure. (J Oral Sci 58, 401-406, 2016)
The Wilms’ tumor 1 gene (WT1) was originally isolated and described as the gene responsible for Wilms’ tumor. Although there is growing evidence linking the overexpression of WT1 to tumorigenesis, no reports on ameloblastoma are available at present. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of WT1 in various histological subtypes of ameloblastoma tissue specimens and in human ameloblastoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on a total of 168 cases of ameloblastoma, one case of ameloblastic carcinoma, and five cases of tooth germs (control). Three immortalized human dental epithelial cell lines (HAM1, HAM2, and HAM3) derived from the same ameloblastoma patient were used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assays. The tooth germs did not express WT1 (0%), and more than half of the ameloblastoma cases showed WT1 overexpression (54.7%). Immunoreactivity of solid-type ameloblastoma (76.1%) was more evident than that of unicystic-type ameloblastoma (40.9%). The expression level of WT1 mRNA in HAM2 was higher than that in HAM1 (moderate) and HAM3 (weak), showing the heterogeneity of tumor cells. The WT1 protein was strongly detected in HAM2 and minimally detected in HAM1 and HAM3. Our results suggest that WT1 expression influences the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma by varying its expression level in different histological types. (J Oral Sci 58, 407-413, 2016)
This study examined the effects of a bite-jumping appliance combined with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation on the mandibular condyle of growing rats using micro CT (mCT) and histological examinations. Twelve Wistar rats were divided into three groups of four individuals each: Group 1 was an untreated control group, Group 2 received bite-jumping appliances, and Group 3 received bite-jumping appliances and LIPUS stimulation (15 min/day, 2 weeks) to the temporomandibular region. We measured the length and three-dimensional bone volume of each rat’s mandibular condyle using mCT. The condylar cartilage was observed after the rats had been sacrificed. There was no significant difference in condylar sagittal width among the groups. The bite-jumping appliance combined with LIPUS stimulation increased the condylar major axis, mandibular sagittal length and condylar bone volume to a greater degree than use of the bite-jumping appliance alone. Histological examination demonstrated hypertrophy of the condylar cartilage layers, the fibrous layer and hypertrophic cell layer of the rats treated with bite-jumping appliances combined with LIPUS stimulation in comparison to rats treated with bite-jumping appliances alone. (J Oral Sci 58, 415-422, 2016)
Periodontal treatment may improve the metabolic control of dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese and non-obese patients undergoing periodontal therapy. Patients with generalized chronic periodontitis were divided into obese (n = 28) and non-obese groups (n = 26). The periodontal parameters (visible plaque index, gingival bleeding index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing), anthropometric measurements (body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat), and serum analyses (triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and hs-CRP) were measured at baseline and 90 days after periodontal treatment. The results showed that the obese subjects presented alterations in triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and hs-CRP at baseline when compared with non-obese patients (P < 0.05). Periodontal treatment could improve the periodontal parameters in both groups similarly (P > 0.05). Obese subjects showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and hs-CRP post-therapy (P < 0.05), while non-obese patients showed improvement only in hs-CRP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, periodontal treatment could improve the periodontal parameters and circulating hs-CRP in obese and non-obese subjects. Lipid profile was modified only in obese patients post-therapy. (J Oral Sci 58, 423-430, 2016)
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of some disinfectants, including ethanol extract of propolis (EEP), on the adhesion of Candida albicans to denture base resins. Seventy-two acrylic resin samples were prepared, half of which was polished and the other half was roughened. C. albicans strain ATCC 10231 was incubated on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) at 37°C for 48 h. The adhesion period was completed by keeping the cells in this suspension for 90 min at 37°C. Specimens were then immersed in the following solutions: 1%, 2%, and 5% sodium hypochlorite; 4% chlorhexidine gluconate; and 10% EEP. Quantification of the antifungal activity of the chemical solutions was performed using the colorimetric MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay test. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical agents. Polished and roughened surfaces were compared using independent sample t-test. The mean surface roughness value was 0.35 (±0.04) µm for the polished group and 1.2 (±0.2) µm for the roughened group. The contact angles of both surfaces showed statistically significant difference, and 10% EEP solution exhibited significantly less removal of adherent viable C. albicans cells in both groups. All forms of sodium hypochlorite solutions yielded higher efficiency than 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and EEP solutions (P < 0.05). (J Oral Sci 58, 431-437, 2016)
Previous studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure affects fetal bone development, including bone quality. This study evaluated the chemical composition of mandibles from newborn rats after maternal 20% alcohol consumption before and throughout gestation. Nine rats were initially distributed into three groups: an Alcohol group, Pair-fed group, and Control group. The groups were fed prespecified diets for 8 weeks before and the 3 weeks during pregnancy. At age 5 days, eight newborns from each group were euthanized (total, n = 24). Using energy dispersive spectrometry, we evaluated samples of mandibles from newborns to identify changes in bone mineralization, specifically Ca and P concentrations. Ca and P concentrations were lower in the Alcohol group than in the Control and Pair-fed groups (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). In summary, alcohol exposure before and throughout gestation reduces mandibular Ca and P concentrations in newborn rats. (J Oral Sci 58, 439-444, 2016)
The World Health Organization has defined oral leukoplakia (OL) as “a white patch or plaque of the oral mucosa that cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other disease”. A 21-year-old male with OL presented with a bilateral burning sensation in the buccal mucosa. The patient had amalgam restorations, and an epicutaneous patch test indicated a positive response to amalgam. The amalgam restorations were therefore removed and the cavities were refilled with a composite resin restorative material. During 5 years of follow-up, there was no recurrence of the oral lesions. This case illustrates that amalgam fillings may cause OL lesions. (J Oral Sci 58, 445-448, 2016)
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